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Lethbridge Herald, The (Newspaper) - April 26, 1971, Lethbridge, Alberta PAGE TEN THE LETHBRIDGE HERALD FRIDAY, APRIL 26. 1946 Grain Growing, Irrigation, Gardening "THE 'S PAGE" Stock Raising, Poultry, Marketing CULTIVATION Cultivation after the crop has soirn solved to Cxtaoi the problem of growing: out and destroying annual weeds Without delavins seeding of the crop. H. J. Mather, Alberta supervisor soil conservation and weed control, advises that .in osaig this method the crop most be seeded at least three inches deep, and then weeded or wire wdeded when the first sprout on the kernel is one inch is on the kernel, not above the ground. This method has proved Tery effective on such plants as stink weed and mustard, and may be nsed for the control of most annnal weeds- It has not proved quite so effective for the control of wild oats, for which special methods are required. Kecommendations for wild oat control are outlined in detaa in Circular Xo. 71. a copy of which may be obtained from the field Crops branch of the Alberta Depart- ment of Agriculture. Servant of Agriculture Lethbridge Experimental Station During the war years and many problems emphasrziEg the] need" for new types of machines and methods were trough; ip the fore by j shortases of labor ace equipment. To help solve these problem the Bominion Experimental Station at Leihbricge established an Agricul- tural Engineering Department. Keeping in mind the varied needs of the area it serves, this depart- ment has carried out studies on new tvues cf equipment- for proper cul- tural methods to control soil drift- ing; improved hay Earvesang equip- ment and methods, and is planning a detailed study of the new trends j in sugar beet mechanization. j On Station two new machines have been introduced for bay har- vesting. Both, machines are tracer push rraes and nave been very suc- cessful" In speeding up haying oper- ations and reducing labor require- ments. The first is a forward cump- ing combination sweep and hay- stacker, the second a tractor hay- swees. More work is needed to bring this "combination to the highest level of elficlencr bus it promises to be a big step forward in efficient ijaymsking. Arnong other labor savers Intro- duced is a tractor mounted manure loader. This unit is capable of fill- ine a standard manure spreader box in" about; five minutes. Specially adapted for a tricycle type tractor it has received widespread attention. Jjas; fall a new sugar beet har- vester was introduced into south- em Alberta, This machine, at pre- sent iuss emerging from the experi- mental stage, if nsed ia. conjunction bees loader reduces the labor requiremeni, of beet harvesting close j inimum- A great deal of work WITH THE GARDENERS Notes Snpplied fry TOO MUCH SOIL MOVING VARIETAL, ADAPTATION', THE FOCXDATIOX OF AMLEE1CAX jaOSmCCL'lX'B (A cisc'jssioa by W. H. Alder- man before a meeting o: the Western Canadian Society 01 Horticulture verober 10th, 1944'. A little reflection will rnake clear to each of you tost the i have chosen for this c-seussion is We know it has been a mild, windy winter and spring, and that there's some excuse for soil drifting which has been worse than usual. But excuses do not prevent a farm from being ruined and ruining the farmer along: with it. So we had better do some- thing: about it. i "Going through to Medicine Hat the other day we passed a couple of fields near Chin where one I couldn't see 50 feet ahead. All around were fields which were anchored safely with not- a sign of soil drifting. The drifting fields were a sign of bad that is, when the anchoring of the -atle! soil is the main consideration as it must always be country. Fields which had a good trash cover i and hadn't been worked more than enough to keep i i adaption in horticultural re- i search program. Some varieties are verv cosmopolitan and will siicceec uncer a wide variety of environ- mental conditions, while others are i I method of black summerfallow were an eyesore and a nuisance to the whole countryside. It is a stigma on irrigation farmers that the worst i On the beet land which was badly powdered during grown a few locations. The Scout anc others o: the new hardv apricots do well in southern Manitoba and i the eastern Dakocas. but when grown under what, are generally considered more favorable conditions in the St. Paul-: apolis area, the fruis buds are lost by winter injury great regu- jgrirv These somewhat extreme draw attention to the im- D. T. AXDEKSOX Machinery Specialist in this field. Az present the Agricultural portance of a variety testing pro- j added to the powdering of the soil, with that we have seen five-foot lateral ditches filled to the top this spring. It's going to cost a lot of to clean them out. Beet and potato growers will have to find some way to anchor the soif after their late harvesting. Otherwise the gains from the crops won't make up for the loss of the topsoil. Here's a job f or the farmers and the The jgram on a localized bass. Ir-isulis 01- a. varietv tes: th? Minnesota Frui: Breeding Station I cannot be used -with satety as s. Sn- guide to planting recommendations Seed Treatment the University of Saskatchewan ia 3S43 -where he specialized in .r-arm Mechanics under the Department of Agricultural Engineering. Previous to joining the Army in 1343 he was employed at the Experimental Sta- tion in Irrigation, Machinery and Cultural work. He feels that; some- io a where within the Dominion Sxpen- bas been done and is being planned mental "arms Agricultural Engin- eering Service lies the answer to moss farm uroblems concerning ma- chinerv, ecuipaient and farm utili- ties. Is 5s toped that farmers -will to make use of this HUtLESS OATS FOB TOT3SG FIGS .5. v (Experimental Farms News) On many farms oats are safied for vaung'pigs, but with, the ma- chinery so far available this is too often too much work where a large number of young pSgs are being fed, says C. IL Anderson, Dominion Ex- perimental Station, Beaverlodge, Alberta. Also, the cost of produc- tion is increased according M the extra Isbor involved in sirring the oats, ansi consequently there is a tendency to feed unsifted oats. This practice often leads to an un- thrifty condition ia weanling pigs, es their digestive system becomes overloaded with bulky material. Observatioiis made at the Station indicate tha5 such intestinal dis- orders as "Xecrotic Enteritis" have a greater opportunity of developing in young pigs feed a high percent- age of unsifted oat chop. The sharp splinters cf hull irritate the delicate walls of the intestinal tract, following which the Disease germs set UD infection. Erea in sifted oat chop many slim, sharp hull splinters may be found. For various reasons, hulless oats may be fed 10 advantage. AS soon as the little pigs begin to take sohd food, usually at about two to three weeks of age, they should be fed a mixture of one pan, coarsely ground wheat, and two parts hullness oats in a creep. A protein-mineral sup- plement should be added to the grains. IE should not be necessary to feed hnlless oats much bevond the weariUng stage, but where in- testinal disorders are susoected it may be well to f Ped this" mixture until the pigs are three months old. Continued feeding of hnlless oats beyond this age will tend to pro- duce a fat or overfinished carcass. not hesitate service. ly to the vounger anc highlv trained t es are on the increase. In 1946, group of" workers who interested! therefore, the treatment of seed themselves in more technical and j grain should be regarded as a cheap scientific studies thas would serve 1 form, of crop insurance, as a faasa for profound reports upon which they could their professions! repu: ia have" officially recommended that, in all seed of wheat, oats and barley should be treated for the control of the surface-borne smuts unless field observations or exami- WELDING FOR PORTABLE or SHOP WELDING Phone 3893 Richards Welding 323-3rd St. S- tethbridge LEARNING ABOUT FLAX Particularly ttmelv because of the recent increase in the price of flax to S3.25 a. bushel, an interesting lit- tle booklet has corns to our atten- tion. Entitled -The Truth About Flax" and published by The _Na- tional Barley and Unseed nax Committee, the publication, is one which might; well be" studied by every farmer, whether he is grow- ing "flax now or not. Publication of the bookie; came just prior to the announcement of the increase in the flax price by Trade Minister J. A- MacKinnon at Ottawa. Mr. HacSinnon said the increase vras a step to encour- age the production of oil seeds, and added that "the government wish- es to ertrahasize the importance of flax durine: the uresens crop year and to urge producers to seed a larger acreage in 1945." All of makes "The Truth About Flax" timely and interesting. The booklet asks a. -variety of questions about uax such as are likely to ccme into irund of the larmer, and supplies the answers. Chief points it makes might be summarized as follows: Flax is a much misunderstood crop, but those farmers who have grown it consistently state that it is mostly profitable over a long term of years provided good cul- tural practices are combined -with careful planning. The booklet quotes successful flax growers to back up its contention. While 'weeds are inclined to be a problem wherever fiax is grown, many farmers have made weeds a minor consideration by obtaining clean seed, using a planned rota- tion and following sound, cultural methods. Flax, properly handled, is not hard on the soil. The popular be- lief to the contrary sprang from the days when flax was being in- troduced to the praines; a time when it was grown only on spring prairie breaking. While a good I the There was a time when varietv' moss practica and effective means testing was a verv important par; i available for preventing the enor- of a horticulture's job in esperi- mous losses caused by tne_ smut Owing to the gravity of the smut sld establish! problem, oiani pathologists from The jjanitcba, Saskatchewan and Alber- growers of fruits and other horti- cultural crops, however, are just as much interested today as they nave ever been in snowing what are the bess varieties to plant and whether or net the many new varieties that are coming oat are adapted to conditions of their "area, unfcr- nation of the seed fra? failed to re- veal the uresence of these smuts. In other words, farmers are strong- tunately variety testing is a slow jy advised to -treat all seed grain and laborious process and ii does unless it has been, examined by lane not lead to numerous publications Elevators Fsrm Service, or some other seed-treating organization, and found to be free cf smut. For flgf is js strongly recommendec that all seed be treated with a mer- cury dusi before ic is sown. in technical journals. In spite of this, many experiment" stations are j recognizing that is function and are re-establishing practical variety study programs which will be maintained as a more j organic mercttrv dusts (Cere- CC routine, pubhc service for the of.meir constituency, i ef seed disinfectants The rapic development 01 plant f sead slid Por breeding programs in our espen- oats and barley the rate meat stabons is making the prob- i of is V- ounce per lean all the more acute because of i gushel ofseed; for flax, isTounces per bushel. After treatment, the the large number of new varieties that are being introduced. In the seed should stand for at least 24 a thousand new varieties of fruits have been introduced inro Ameri- can horticulture. Doubtless an even greater number of new vegetable varieties have appeared in this same period. And then think of the number of new varieties in or- namental plants! I cannot even estimate the number of new vane- ties in iris, gladiolus, peonies, lilacs, roses and other similar plants one or two in advance of sowing. Formalin should not be used for seed wheat or hulless varieties of I oats and barley because it invari- a'nlv injures seed germination. Per- sons treating seed with a mercury dast should strictly, observe the di- rections and precautions given on last quarter censury. Obviously the total would be several thousand. How can these volumes of varieties be adequately tested? What is the responsibility of agricultural ex- periment stations and technical workers? Can variety testing be mace scientifically attractive, or must it always remain merelv a service to be grudgingly rendered? What is the value of the so-called standardized tests, such as those conducted by the United States Department of Agriculnire with vegetable crops? How important and of what" value are the American tests" being currently sponsored by some of the seedsmen and nurserymen? I am not sug- Farm Service, Winnipeg- Government Asks More Flax Seed V Belt DRIVES 'A inch. to 10 fa. to 100 to. B inch. to 19 in. to 100 la. We also design and sup- ply multiple belt drives. Stocks now fairly complete. MCKEN2IE Electric Ltd. PHONE 3637 MaO and plume orders riven prompt attention. A Dominion Government an- nouncement to the effect that the guaranteed price for flax seed, effective August 1st, next, -will be increased from. S2.75 to per bushel, places this crop on an ex- cellent cash, return, basis, and it is expected that more flax seed, be sown this year in view of the -world shortage in flax and vegetable oils. Grave concern at the alarming decrease in flax acreage in Canada had been expressed at a recent own tnougntful consideration as j megting of the National Barlev and you ae.eiop your future programs Tjnseed FJax Committee held a; Winnipeg. A statement issued by the chairman said that unless the situation was remedied in the near future, the effects -would be far- reaching and decidedly harmful, .t was brought out at the meeting gesting ihe answers to these ques- tions, but am raising them for cl work at your several institutions. As an indication of the magni-1 tuce of the variety problem, may I j call your attention to the fact that; the mere tag's of recording i names of these new varieties is so great, it has not been attempted ex- Flax." This book was writtea by men who have studied and know every phase production and contains useful information to en- able farmers to obtain maximum viel'is fay latest methods of cultiva- tion. Illustrating the scope of the market for flax and the shortage of tbi-; commodity, briefs submitted at the National Barley and linseed Flax Committee meeting showed that a shortage of linseed oil would seriously afiecc Canadian, industries such as the pain; and varnish in- dustry and the linoleum industry. For to botJa. linseed oil is iceir life blood. With the huge building pro- jecTS planned in the pose war era for town and country, flax will be in urgent demand for some time to come. Flax authorities at the meeting pointed CUE that there was little possibiliiv of Canada obtaining flax There's a big change coming over fanning ui the next decade or rare, and it be reflected in Southern Alberta. are going to pat more land down to grass to restore fibre and feruiity, and we're going to raise bigger crops oa less acres. Thar may not apply to the big farms and ranches for a while. But the change wil come. We must slop soil drifting. Here in South. Alberia we are jusi beginning to realize that bigger ciops can be raised oa less acres. The 15-ton beet club and the 15-toa potato club nave pointea the way. in Illinois com growers are talk- ing 159-bushei yields using hy- hnd seed. And here is how Koger H. Bray, professor 9f soil fertility of the University of Illinois tells the farmers how to go about it, and how, with some adaptations, we might get bigger wheat and hay and grain crops in Southern Alberta: First. Mr. Bray, suggests, find a bluegrass or legumes sod oa good prairie soil wnich has been down for four or more years in grass, preferably a feedlot. Or at leas: stare with a soil brought; up to the ICO bushel yield level by good manage- ment. Second in his six-point pro- gram is to test the sou to see that K is not too acid, and is high in available phosphorous and potash. Third, where necessarv add phosphate and potash. Fourth, make sure there's enough nitrogen, either through, legumes or commercial fertiliz- er. The farmer who K. ready to go all put in aiming at high yields should broadcast two to three pounds of nitrogen an acre for each extra bushel he is after. Fifth point is apply six to eighs loads per acre "of well- roited manure, and plow as ear- ly in the spring as possible. Sixth, plant at heavy rates LETHBRIDGE EXPERIMENTAL FARM WEEKLY LETTER VITAMDf A DEFICIENCIES were bought tie previous year. to the fact that vitamin. A Is rapid- Mainly because very few people Jly destroyed when exposed to the the unstable nature oi j air manv farmers unsiiowingiy are min A in feeds and fish oils, many 1 feeding feeds thai contain mile it cases of vitamin A deficiencies an- i any vitamin A. jnualiy occur among poultrv and! Howeier, often grass-eating am- livestbck ia Southern Aiberta, espe- I mals "mil show no symptoms n A througnout tne watery, inflamed eves, ttsis vitamin in their receiving feathers, and a staggering gait- or more than their daily requirements, laving hens that are steaoily de-'But if they were on poor pasture creasing in egg production ana" have {the previous summer they vrul have flax, bufc linseed oil will pe in great demand from, all countries lor the enormous reconstruction necessary to repair the ravages of war. The boofc "The Truth About Flax" sponsored by the committee has been approved bv the Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Alberta Depart- ments of Agriculture and shows how flax can. become one of the most profitabe cash, crops. A iree copy can be secured simply by addressing a request to the early spring' "jEaebT vear winter months even though, they many letters reach" this Sta'uon are receiving very little vitamin A 'in their feed. This is especially true if thev were oa gcod pasture the previous summer, as they are able to store substantial reserves from farmers explaining various ab- I normalities among their poultry i and livestock, such as unthrifty chickens that fail to grow and have j have their appetite and of ten preserves and so nigh vitamin A feeds should be fed to them at all nave no milfc at the time of the birth of their young. Others ex- plain that their young growing ani- mals appear weak. co-ordina- tion of their legs, their legs are times. Green grasses and other forages, especially alfalfa, are very high in vitamin A potency but this rapidly swollen and still, and that they j decreases as the plant matures and often have scours. All such ccndi- is also rapidly when the tions indicate a very marked vita- min a deficiency. If such marked deficiency condi- tions exist on some farms, there are probably many other farms where more mild deficiencies exist, that show no outward symptoms but which are impairing the health and efficiency of IH many of these cases farmers explain that they are feeding alfalfa hay. or fish oils, a mixed feeds fortified fish oils, but on further en- quiries it is often revealed that the hay that is being fed was not put up" in good condition or thas the oil or mixed feeds being fed or linseed oil from abroad. Only a National Barley and "lineed Flax few countries in the world produce Committee. Winnipeg, Manitoba. any good seed which can take advantage of the season, the soil and the fertility. A hy- brid that withstand crowd- ing and hot weather is best. Planting should be in 30-inch rows with stalks eight to 10 inches apart in the row. He reports it is important to organic matter and humus in the soil. In many cases yields are limited only by the amount of nitrogen fixed by legumes and suoplied bv the native humus in the soil. Un- less more nitrogen is returned than is taken off, humus can- nos be expected to build up in the soil. CTOD is cut for hay if it is allowed to lie exposed to the sun and rain or to mould or bum ia. the stack. Good quality, green, well preserved hav is the best source of vitamin A for winter feeding and even this hay slowly loses its vitamin A po- tency during storage. In fact, by the following spring it. will con- tain only a fraction of the amount that it. contained the previous fall. Fish oils, too, lose their vitamin A content very quickly when ex- posed to the "air. and If allowed to go rancid all the vitamin A will be destroyed. For this xeason the fish oil containers should be kept tightly closed and stored in a cool dark place. Fish oils mixed with, ground feeds also lose their vitamin A content very rapidly stored in a cool place and even under these conditions most of the vita- min A -will have been destroyed within 3 or 4 months after mixing. Thus, commercially mixed feeds cannot be depended upon to supply vitamin A unless only freshly mixed feeds are bought and then only if bought in such quantities that will last for not more than 4 to 5 weeks. If fish oils are mixed with feeds on the farm only sufncient quan- tities as will last 2 to 3 months should be mixed at any one time. Kb mixed feeds or fish oils kept over the summer months wiU con- tain any appreciable amounts of vitamin A_ of thg committee that the need for sod and succeeding crops often oarV of ard ai> urgent vegetable oils were poor. Thai condition was i A Jnost itaportant oil-produc- overcome. and can be overcome, by 2re. no '-uch as crop m country is summer fallowing. a 11-'- of "varo'-ies o' -eeptabler HP--P flax- Flax has manv by-products Wilt, for mar.y years a bugbear ar-d "there a soecialized flow- i and u the o'f- of flax growers, can be overcome an fanner himself is directly effected, by use of wilt-resisting varieties ]V Probst- he flai products now_ available. In the same way, ,f "CT 5- linseed sneal for his S development of rust resistant flax j {strains Jias helped overcome i _ worst disease to which flax of the past were subject. The booklet, available on request from the committee tells about choosing i flax, about the proper crop, rota- tion, weed and disease control, pre- i paration of the seed bed, the varie- ties of flax most suited to the dif- ferent sections of the prairies, and of harvesting and is a hieh- sood ant flax j 1 caSUe> for buildings "and ome the i American Pomolog'cal Societv and 2 machiriery and in ax crops j ibrary of the United States 1 otiler iniportant TO the suc- t Itepartment of Agriculture attempt i operation of his farm. i -o seeo a coninlete list ol varieties i an escort to ease preseat con- field for T ablv ilielT- flxx f np VJi CknUU t Society for Hor'ucuitural Science "a has recently become interested in j >auonai "Flax good gouu rareful gram." evervro- crop pro Flax needs good soil and available if applied to the crop before, bui manue is not recommended ordin- arily because Jt may carry seeds and leaves over the land too open if us- ed for the flax crop. However, if manue is applied in the summer fal- low year, flax -will respond to it the following year. _ their Jlax acreage, the _ JGarJCj- lisscsd Flax this problem and Committee have released a new a committee to study the" -whole entiUed "The Truiii About question of nomenclature and the recordm? of varieties. Mr. iL B. Davis And the speaker are mem- more active today than our ex- bers of that and we penment stations in the United i solicit, your suggestiojis and advice. States. I know Uiat most of the it worthwhiSe to attempt to set', members of this society have been j and maintain such a register or doing splendid work in the prairie check list of varieties? Probably JE I provinces. I am, somewhat familiar j can be most easily accomplished with the progress of your efforts i with fruits snd nuts. Should we i to divide these provinces into hor- j ce content with, a coverage of that 1 ticulrural zones, and vou are to be fiela. or should it be on a broader congratulated upon the success you basis? It is possible or -worthwhile are attaining !n this very difficult to attempt the maintenance of an problem. Zoning is of fundamental list of vegetables, and importance in any large state or province in connection -with varie- ty testing and the setting up of recommended planting lists of hor- ticultural crops. Because of your experience and progress in these endeavors, it may appear presump- tuous to bring to you some of our experiences in fruit variety testing in Minnesota. (To be continued) j what herbaceous orni- mentals? i nese plants and tables present the greatest prouiem because of the rapidity with -which new varieties appear and disappear and because of a -widespread laxity or carelessness in the" matter of nomenclature. In the matter of variety testing Canadian stations are "probably When gasoline of reduced quality was a neces- sity, most motorists got the habit of using premium-grade fuel. Now that this is no longer necessary thousands of drivers are switching to new Esso and SAVING 2c ON EVERY GALLON! Esso is Canada's newest gasoline, the highest quality anti-knock gaso- line ever sold by Imperial Oil at regular, non-premium price, sale now at Imperial Oil everywhere in Canada. It will give outstanding performance in most cars on the road today. See for yourself... fill up with Fsso next time. It's on dealers OIL INEWSPAPERif NEWSPAPER! ;