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Lethbridge Herald, The (Newspaper) - April 23, 1974, Lethbridge, Alberta April 23, i nc LB i IIBHIUUB Religious differences in British Isles When the Reformation roared through Europe in the 16th century, tragedy struck the British Isles. The people there reaped a hurricane which churned on for some 400 years chewing up and spewing human beings, especially the Irish and Scots, in every direction and to almost every part of the world. It should not be forgotten that all the peoples of the British Isles once belonged to the Roman Catholic Church. What the strength of their beliefs were is an altogether different story. But the date 1537 looms large in tragedy for Catholics: English, Irish, Scots and Welsh. In that year Henry VIII declared himself free of Rome and head of his own church. A number of very good films recently went into that story. BERRY'S WORLD But the declaration meant death for thousands of innocent Catholics in those islands. The furnaces of change fueled by Henry Tudor consumed bodies by the thousand, churches and monasteries by the hundreds and prelates by the dozen. Euphemistically, historians record that the Church of Rome was dissolved by the king, who was indeed the last of the truly English kings of that country. The Reformation in England gave birth to the monstrous Penal Laws. These were tried out in Ertgland under the form of and were perfected during the reigns of William and Anne in the 18th century. Meantime, Scotland, after evicting thousands of 1974 by NEA. Inc uffih "I'm sorry, son! I just can't help wishing you had decided you wanted to be a wood carver in Vermont BEFORE we sent you through medical By Louis Burke, local writer Highland Catholics, turned to John Calvin and John, Knox for its religious structure which emerged as Presbyterianism. Wales came under the influences of John Wesley, once Church of England, and from whom developed Methodism. Ireland resisted stubbornly and refused to accept the laws imposed by Henry and his new Church. This was a "blessing" in disguise for the Tudor monarchs and those who followed them. In their books, the stubborn Irish could be "rightfully" dispossessed, their lands confiscated, their clans smashed and the .people driven to the forests and mountains. This was done ostensibly in the name of religion, but in'' reality the motive was economics. The monarchs needed money to pay their helpers and friends. They had only empty coffers after fighting the civil war known as the Wars of the Roses, but on paper laws, they possessed millions of acres of Irish land. Instead of coin, they paid their debtors in kind Irish lands. Cleverly, Elizabeth I gave the Irish leaders the option of leaving for continental Europe, to Spain, France, Portugal, Italy, Germany, Austria, and even Russia. They ran by the dozen, deserting their peoples, leaving them leaderless to the mercy of an English soldiery which showed none. Romantically, the Irish children today are taught that this desertion was "The Flight of the Wild Geese There was nothing romantic about it. It was, indeed, a scramble to leave a sinking ship. But the ship, Ireland, would not sink. English Penal Laws were clamped on Ireland for 200 years. The Irish were hounded, hunted and jailed for speaking Gaelic, wearing Irish dress, using their Irish- names. Thousands dropped the "0" and the "Mac" to avoid the fines imposed. The Irish were forbidden to live in corporate towns and had to retire to the woods and mountains come nighttime. Irish Catholics had to support Protestant clergymen, attend their services, or pay fines. Irish teachers were an outlawed bunch who conducted schools in ditches and behind hedges; hence the term "hedge- school" in Irish educational history. The Irish were not allowed to own land unless they conformed to the State Religion. These laws followed the Irish everywhere. They were imposed on them in New Brunswick and Nova Scotia. The Irish found them when they arrived in Australia, Tasmania and New Zealand To be Irish and Catholic was to be condemned, cursed and damned. Edmund Burke, the great Irish political writer who lived during those, times tells that man had never invented so perverted a machine as the Penal Laws. The confiscation of land was wholesale and greatly stepped up after the northern leaders left for Europe where their descendents live today often in noble splendor. The entire north-east section was cleared of Irish who were driven to the bogs and mountains. Across the waters., in Scotland and northern England, people were told they could have Irish land for the taking. They flocked into Ulster by the thousand; they must have known what they were doing, but it was the game of the day. So Irish peasants watched from the forests and the hills while Scots and English peasants grabbed what had been home for centuries. Those Irish peasants never left the area. They hung around for more centuries, and they have surfaced today with their demands, not necessarily looking for their lands back, but determined to have their share of what they see as their own cake. Book reviews The other two provinces, Leinster and Munster, were reserved mainly for the English who had- rendered service to the monarch. Most of the Irish were driven to the fourth province, Connaught, which was poor in land qual- ity. But again, the Irish held on or trickled back, and soon the English found themselves floating on a sea of Irish peasants. This was not an agreeable situation. So many of the landlords absented themselves to live in London, or on their English estates. During the 19th century, many of them sold their estates back to the Irish, and when the Irish Republic emerged in the 20th century, the government instituted a system of buying back land from English landlords. The Irish, then, paid many times for the land which was originally their own. Thus, in the name of religion, the Irish were persecuted and crucified for centuries. Some will shrug a shoulder and say that religious persecution was the order of the times. In our times, inflation may be the problem, but that does not mean people do nothing to rectify it. Likewise, one cannot absolve the British for what was done in Ireland and condemn the Germans for what they did in Poland. Of course, today's action is no good to those Irish long dead. But the actions of many yesterdays is still at work in the north-east corner of Ireland today. Thus, it has been shown that tribal and religious differences play significant roles in modern Ireland. In the next feature, the economic factors will be examined. (Second in series) Excellent initiation "Traitor" by Divomlikoff, (distributed by Doubleday, Trans-Canada Telephone System Before you can solve a business communications problem it has to be identified, right? We've got a man who can help you do both. And his in-depth study costs you WHO IS HE? An ACT Communications Consultant. He helps small businesses spot problems they thought existed only in large companies Helps large companies improve their profit picture at branches coast to coast. Helps knit world-wide organizations closer together. What can he do for you? As a trained business researcher, he works with you and your people. Pinpoints communications gaps. Gets to grips with delays in moving, processing and dealing with information vital to your everyday business decisions. His in-depth study costs nothing. And it can mean greater efficiency and profit for you. Edmonton: 425-2770 Calgary: 267-3777 Other: Dial '0' (Zero) and ask lor Zenith 33000 Toll Free Talk with a Communications Consultant Keeps you in touch with tomorrow This novel is an interesting piece of work set in Russia and highlighting a particular Communist problem i.e., how to deal with the Russian Church. In this case, an agent from their special services is assigned the task of becom- ing a priest in order to become a bishop so that the regime may have a direct line to high Church people and places. He does an excellent job up to a certain point and time in his life. Then simple matters seem to go aschew. It is no book for the devotee of Russian literature. In style and structure it is stripped of everything Russian and seems to have been written especially for those of the western world who do not want the mental effort demanded of a true piece of Russian art in literature. There is little complication in plot. The reader will not have to wrestle with Russian names, or Russian pronunciation which characterizes the many major works in that language. This, is, perhaps, where the novel scores precisely. It is a work suitable for the beginner; for the one who wishes to be initiated to Russian literature. It would make an excellent novel for the high school or the first year university student. It has a lot to recommend it for those starting Russian literature. LOUIS BURKE Books in brief "The Essence of the Game Is Deception: Thinking About Basketball" by Leonard Koppett. (Little, Brown and Co., 274 Koppett analyses every aspect of basketball: its origin, its rules, its personalities and the game itself. He refutes the claim that a basketball game boils down to only the last minute of play, emphasizing that each passing minute of the game, every error, every good play, is critical to the outcome. Remove any one play from a game and the over-all aspect is affected. But most of all he stresses that the key to a basketball game is deception. With most players capable of hitting most shots, passing, dribbling, or rebounding with almost equal ability, the one big plus they have going for them is deception. It is interesting reading for the basketball fan. GARRY ALLISON Model UN was eye-opener By Eva Brewster, free-lance writer Perhaps it is somewhat late to talk about an event that is now well in the past and has been largely ignored. Ignored why? Because many people were working or because the two-day event took place during the Easter holidays? Or, less valid an excuse, because it was a students' exercise, cynical adults did not take seriously? Whatever the reason, I am everlastingly grateful to teachers who couid not or would not get involved in the model United Nations at the Lethbridge Collegiate Institute. Their loss was my gain, for it gave me the opportunity to become leader to the Western Bloc of 18 nations, all represented by delegates and observers. The whole affair was an eye-opener to me that I'll never forget. If anybody labored under the illusion that youthful delegates of different countries would immediately see the mistakes made in the adult world and avoid the pitfalls in minor matters, for the sake of peace, such illusions were temporarily shattered. Among the western bloc were as many opinions as there were representatives. At the start of the morning sessions it seemed an impossible task to guide them to a viewpoint everyone could accept. This fear proved unfounded. It soon transpired they took their tasks so seriously and were so determined to find a formula for peace that they overcame almost insurmountable obstacles and found a common denominator. Even the most extreme factions were able to modify their demands so that they were finally acceptable to other power blocs who had appeared irreconcilable. The diplomacy as well as a little surreptitious "horse-trading" practiced among the delegates could serve as an example to the real United Nations. What was perhaps most conducive to international rapport was the delegates' obvious sense of humor, evident during the opening as well as closing ceremonies. Lethbridge MP Ken Hurlburt, for instance, addressed the assembly with a talk on his recent visit to Cuba. Whenever he referred to favorable impressions, the Cuban delegation approvingly thumped their desks. When he mentioned that, for some unexplained reason, all toilet seats had been removed in Cuba, the Cuban representatives booed with equal fervor and I'm not sure that Mr. Hurlburt appreciated the reaction. "I don't believe it. I simply can't believe in the absence of toilet seats in moaned the charming U.S. delegate during an informal meeting in the girls' washroom later. Her remarks were drowned in laughter when it was discovered that in this very room, here in Canada, two toilet doors had been removed from their hinges to a destination unknown. The debate on priorities what's more important: doors or seats? might have gone on but for the necessity to table amendments on weightier problems. Finally, after the official resolutions (for years unresolved in the UN) had been accepted, amended or rejected, the august assembly presented a resolution of their own: "because of the world shortages in energy and materials, be it resolved that: (among other clauses) the governments of Italy, Chile and Mexico double their exports of kidney beans to overcome the gas shortage in the U.S.A.; the harems of the delegates representing the United Arab Republic, Saudi Arabia, and Jordan be limited to no more than two wives per delegate; because of the frequency of war instead of love, a member of the delegation of the U.S.S.R. kiss a female member of the delegation of the general assembly. Needless to say, the members of the latter two delegations responded with pleasure and alacrity. If ever, in future, I get discouraged and, temporarily, lose faith and hope in humanity, I'll look back on the model UN and remember that a new, enthusiastic and more honest generation is growing up in Canada As long as they don't lose their sense of fair play, their willingness to co-operate, compromise and modify their demands, there is hope that, one day, the United Nations might, in reality, become the body it was intended to be. In the meantime, I would urge the adults in Southern Alberta to take an interest in the Uth model UN next year. They could, by their participation, make a dream come true and show they care about their world's and their childrens' future. More than that, I guarantee they will learn many things from the model UN they did not know before. Providing child care By Frances Isaacson, colloquium student, University of Lethbridge A report of a recent conference held in the United States would seem to add weight to the position of those individuals opposed to day care. It leaves the impression that Bowlby and Ainsworth have come up with some exciting new findings. In fact Bowlby's work on Maternal Deprivation is over 20 years old and has been the subject of much controversy especially during the last decade. Dr. Paul Rochell writing in the American Journal of Orthopsychiatry said of Bowlby's study that some dangerously unscientific assumptions had occurred in making comparisons between institutionalized infants and infants that leave their homes for part of each day but return home at night. He ends the statement by saying that "as a result women are taught to believe that infants require their undivided attention during the first two or three years of life, at least." And Dr. Leon J. Yarrow writing in the same vein says "there is no clear evidence that multiple mothering, without associated deprivation or results in personality damage." When confronting this issue we must be sure we have all the facts, for without them we cannot make the kind of decision that will be of the most benefit to our children. Anyone who would rest easy about the kind of facilities available now should acquaint themselves with the books: Two Worlds of Childhood by Urie Bronfenbrenner and Windows on Day Care by Mary D. Keyerling. These will quickly dispel the myth that we are a nation that loves its children. Although these studies were conducted in the United States, we need only consult the Report of the Royal Commission on the Status of Women in Canada to determine the number of children in need of day care and the type of care they are receiving now. Acting on these facts the commission recommended "that the government initiate day care programs, providing consultant and other services and absorbing part of the costs not met by fees." Before we shrink from the prospect of the home being "rent asunder" by the state we must cease to think in ethereal "should" and look at the "is." It is a fact that 24 per cent of the Canadian female labor force are mothers. Among them, they have more than a million children of school age and pre-school age about 18 per cent of Canadian children. And it is also a fact that almost children under three years of age have working mothers. Whether these woman work because of economic or emotional needs or for some other reason that they consider valid is not the issue. The issue is the necessity for day care facilities because these women do work. The time is past when society can refuse to provide community child services in the hope of dissuading mothers from leaving their Children and going to work. We are faced with a situation that demands immediate action. Further, whatever the reason for the mother working outside the home there is some evidence to suggest that children can benefit from enrolment in the proper type of facility: a centre staffed with trained and screened personnel and designed with the physical, mental and emotional health of the young child foremost in mind. In some countries these centres have small flower and vegetable gardens (which the older pre- schoolers help to fountains and wading pools for summer time fun, play areas of dirt and grass, etc. Expensive? Surely, but felt necessary for the development of the child to his fullest potential. In a country given to the acquisition of new things and priding itself on the "good life" it provides, could we not boldly determine to give our children, all our children, the respect and dignity that is each individual's due by providing the best possible care. We should lay to rest the notion that this issue has been settled and the child is best taken care of at home under the exclusive care of the mother. There are, at this time, no facts on which to base this attitude. And we could free both the mother who works outside the home and the mother who works inside it from the fear and anxiety that attends our uneducated speculations about this issue. Most of us love our children and attempt to provide for them the best possible childhood. Many of us feel the frustrations and fears that come when we are not sure that we are doing an adequate job as parents. We must attack this problem by giving support and aid to parents faced with the problem and by initiating'new methods of child care. ON THE USE OF WORDS By Theodore M. Bernstein Short flop. A recent discussion here mentioned a series composed of "A, B and C." Miss Josephine R. Pappalardo of Philadelphia was disturbed by the absence of a comma after B. She said there should be one there and added, "All my sources of reference indicate Ihfs to be correct." Some reference works do indeed set forth a rule to use a comma before and in a series. One of them is Words Into Type, but it quickly adds, "Newspaper and magazine writers and publishers do not generally observe the rule in all cases but use the comma, only when clarity demands it." Porter G. Perrin's Writer's Guide and Index to English says, "Usage is divided over the use of a comma before the last item of such a series." And H. W. Fowler's classic Modern English Usage cites the series "French, German, Italian and Spanish" and says: "The commas between 'French' and 'German' and 'German' and 'Italian' takes the plact of 'and's'; there is no comma after 'Italian' because, with it would be otiose." So we might say that the rule of a comma before and is honored in the breach almost as much as in the observance. In between. Some people are optimists those who take the most hopeful view of things. Others are pessimists those who always expect the worst. An inquirer wants to know whether there are people in between and if so what they are called. Indeed, there are people in between and they are sometimes known (maybe that should be by a little-used word: meliorlsts. They subscribe to the doctrine of meliorism, which holds that the world is neither good nor evil, but that man can make it better. Of course, that's not exactly a neutral position since the meliorlsts do see some hope, but they are the closest we can come to true in-betweeners. ;