Lethbridge Herald, The (Newspaper) - April 23, 1974, Lethbridge, Alberta
LETHBHIDQE April Z4, -The Herald Family Parents favor detailed reports on progress BELLEVILLE, Ont. (CP) Report cards sent out by teachers at Sir Mackenzie Bowell senior elementary school here are probably among the most complicated in the country. They re made up of 10 sheets and take hours of a teacher's time to prepare, but parents are reported overwhelmingly in favor of them. The reporting system now is in its second year at the school composed of Grades 7 and 8 and school surveys show that 93 per cent of parents responding have expressed favorable opinions. "I think we have satisfied the mark said Principal Lyle Sutherland. He was referring to frequent Keep charge OTTAWA (CP) A battery's lifespan depends largely on the current it is required to provide, how long the cell is used at one time and how long the cell remains unused, says the Consumers' Association of Canada. 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PhonM China after the revolution More turmoil predicted among Chinese peasants I I parental demands for per- centage marks "so I'll know exactly where my child stands." The school expresses ranking in terms of A (above B (average) and C (below But the analysis of each student is so detailed that no one complains of lack of percentages. The report card consists of nine sheets, one for each of the subjects taught in the two grades, and one sheet with a graph of the student's level in relation to standardized tests used across Canada. On each subject sheet, the student is marked in three categories. First is the student's achievement measured against his own ability in the subject. The second records his standing compared with the standard for the grade. The third is an anecdotal comment by the teacher on the student's attitude. "If a child has a good attitude' towards school he will Mr. Sutherland said. "Many parents don't know what grade their child's he said. But the 10th sheet sets that straight. Twice a year, fall and spring, the school's two guidance teachers administer the Canadian Tests of Basic Skills to students. This indicates the grade level, to the month, at which the student is operating. For instance, if a student at the end of November in Grade 7 has a vocabulary like that expected of the average Canadian child by May of his Grade 8 year, that student is functioning well above the average level. Mr. Sutherland said it in- dicates the student's growth in not merely whether or not he is passing or failing according to some arbitrary expectation. One parent observed: "I like it except I wonder if it is not a lot of extra paper work for the poor teachers." It is. Each teacher spends up to 40 hours a year on report cards. But, Mr. Sutherland said, the school doesn't hold the usual three times a year parental interviews. The time saved thereby goes into preparing the report cards. The reports are sent home three times year and may be kept by the parents. I The first of two from a rural commune about 60 miles from Canton In the hills of Southern China. By PEGGY Christian Science Monitor KWANG LI COMMUNE, CHINA It seems an unlikely place for revolutionary political activity this commune of back-country farmers, tucked away amid the placid paddy fields and humpbacked mountains of China's southern provinces. Yet the lasting consequences of the late 1960's "Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution" can be seen here amid new warning signals that more turbulence may be on its way. How far will it reach this time? No one is certain. How much has the Cultural Revolution actually changed rural commune life and ways of the peasants on whom China's future so much depends? Kwang Li People's Commune with its people, is a good microcosm of the vast peasant-based social terrain on which China rests. At Kwang Li it was the schools that picked up the first tremors of upheaval in the '60's and it is there that the repercussions have been the most spectacular and long- lasting. In 1967 some of the commune's schools shut down for an entire year so that students and many teachers could travel and take part in "revolutionary experiences." Headmaster Hsu Kwang-lin, who stayed behind had to look after the says the interruption the revolution brought was justified, because the student movement wiped out reactionary influence not only in the schools, but throughout Chinese society. Most of the Kwang Li students travelled only to Shao Workers slice bamboo for baskets. Hsing, the "county seat" about 15 miles.away, says Mr. Hsu, but the other students went as far as Canton, a distance of about 60 miles. They organized the excursions themselves, with help from the school and financing from the government. They held "struggle meetings" to denounce local and national leaders, organized Red Guard leadership in politics and industry, and attacked such manifestations of "feudal culture" as Buddhist temples. They formed propaganda learns to spread Chairman Mao's words through songs, dances, skits, and group readings. By the time Chairman Map's "call" came, in 1968, to re-open the schools, the educational system of the Kwang. Li commune had been re-designed to concentrate more learning into less class time. Primary school terms were reduced from six years to five, junior middle schools (junior high) from three years to two. But at the same time more schools were opened at all levels. Each of Kwang Li's 21 production brigades (villages) runs its own junior middle school, as well at least one primary school. The net result is that more children actually go to school longer than before. Another outgrowth of the cultural revolution is that the poorer peasants have been entrusted with more and more leadership of the commune's schools. In each village the peasants elect a representative who sits with officials and teachers on the committee that sets school policy. The peasants also advise school authorities about lesson material, thus exposing the school to the fundamental, material needs of the local community. The contents of a "blackboard magazine" on a wall of the commune's senior middle schoolyard indicates the students still debate the issues of the Cultural Revolution. Denunciation of reactionaries and not been carried out very declares one chalk- wielding student editorialist. "We must not stop Only through long-term criticism can the broad masses of people and students come to realize what is right and wrong." One policy that may be causing some discontent is a "part-work, part-study" program. Under the direction of the peasants, commune school children spend several hours a week in the rice fields and cottage factories, learning firsthand about agriculture and industry. Virtually all of the commune's graduates are destined for the rice fields, because space at China's universities is severely restricted. All those who wish to attend must spend at least two years in the fields or in a factory. This is because China wants to avoid the problems of other Asian nations, whose scholars and scientists have difficulty coming to grips with the basic challenge of rural poverty. Consequently, also living at Kwang Li are 350 senior middle school students from the cities, who have been sent here to work and be "re-educated." A re-educated youth can request to go back to school; but first the peasants must review his performance to certify that he has "closely linked himself with the broad masses" and "thinks whole-heartedly of serving the people." But among the re-educated city youths working on this commune only one has been admitted to the university since the program began in 1968. Sitting on the steps of his commune dormitory room, Koo Chien-chian, a reeducated youth of 21 from nearby Shao Hsing, discusses his chances for future education. "I have never estimated how long I might have to says this young man, opening and closing his calloused fingers. "As a revolutionary youth, I will wait as long as it takes It all depends on the needs of the country." he has waited five years. During that time, Mr. Koo, the son of a doctor and a pharmacist, has toiled like an ordinary peasant, living with two other city emigres in a one-story brick hut at one of the commune's larger villages. He sleeps on a wooden plank covered with straw matting. Next to his worn, gray pillow, he keeps a flashlight. But Koo Chien-chian asserts that the experience has been a positive one. "After several years' work he says, "I came to see that only through working with the peasants, could I understand their qualities. It is the only way to realize what life is like here." Now, he reports, he has grasped the "consciousness of the collective." And that knowledge, he maintains, is essential to China's future. "Only through this he says, "can the restoration of capitalism be avoided." He insists that he does not miss his former life in the city not even his parents, whom he sees about once a month. he says, "we've been accepted by the poor peasants, and they're as good as our parents." Students are not the only ones required to learn from the peasants. Even top-ranking leaders of the Communist Party are not exempt from agricultural duties. As vice-chairman of both the revolutionary and party committees, Liang Wei-ming holds the No. 2 adminstrative and leadership jobs on the commune. But his blistered feet and rough palms attest to the fact that, like all other government employees here, he is required to spend at least 60 days a year in agricultural labor. "As far back as recalls Mr. Liang, flashing a toothy grin, "it was suggested that all the cadres (government officials) should work in the fields." But few communes paid more than lip service to this until after the'Cultural Revolution. It is through such policies that Chairman Mao seeks to mold the "new socialist man'" who will continue to build the new China. This man would combine the best virtues of both the two historic pillars of Chinese society the diligent unassuming, practical virtues of the peasant with the political consciousness and patriotic motivation of the mandarin (the scholar-official, or Philosophically, the goal is to break down the separation between ruler and ruled, thus to achieve both the whole man and the classless society. On the practical level the goal is China's emergence as a modern world power on its own terms through the increased productivity of its peasants, channeled into nationalistic goals. It depends crucially upon an indoctrinated, well- motivated peasantry who feel they have a stake in the system and are willing to make heroic sacrifices for it. The enemy is "personal ambition." This "bourgeios capitalistic tendency" must be rooted out periodically at all levels to galvanize the nation into renewed patriotic productivity. "Without destruction there can be no goes one of the slogans. And that basically is what the continuing cultural revolution is-all about, whether the struggle is in high political circles of Peking and Shanghai, or down on the rural communes of the plains and valleys. At Kwang Li People's Commune the battle lines have been shaping up for some time. Some suspiciously capitalistic incentives and rewards crept back into the picture during the past couple years of idealogical relaxation. There have been rumblings that things have "gone too far" toward capitalism once again. Some peasants have benefited. As the new phase of cultural revolution becomes more concrete they will-be less concerned about the political personalities who may tumble than about the effect it will have on their own recently gained economic advantages. NEXT: Which way will the peasants Study shows bicycle best 'people mover OTTAWA In terms of energy cost, the lowly bicycle is 50 times more efficient than the automobile as a mode of passenger transport, according to a National Research Council study. Perhaps more damning for the already heavily criticized private automobile is the fact that the Supersonic Transport (SST) is only fractionally less efficient than a car even though it moves passengers across continents at speeds 20 times and more faster, according to calculations by Dr. E. P. Cockshutt, an NRC scientist in the division of mechanical engineering. Dr. Cockshutt has developed a new unit of comparison for transportation efficiencies: something called the energy cost, which measures how many units of energy it takes to produce a given amount of transportation work, that is to move a particular payload. The Lethfaidge Herald Circulation Department Invites applications from boys and girls 12 years of age or older as paper carriers in the following areas in Lethbrldge: 1. Downtown 2. Glendale 3. Dieppe 4. Park Meadows 328-4411 THE CITY SUPERVISOR CIRCULATION DEPARTMENT The energy cost to move a 200-pound car driver 20 miles in his car that averages about 20 miles to the gallon is about 5.25 units. Under the best of conditions, including carrying a full passenger load, a car can achieve an energy cost of about 1.25. By comparison, a bicycle can achieve energy costs below 0.1, or more than 50 times the energy efficiency of the private automobile. The SST, gas-guzzler that it is, has an energy cost ranging from 5 to 7.5. The helicopter, the most inefficient mode of passenger transportation, ranges from about 6 to 10 in energy cost. The intercity train is slightly more efficient than the private car, according to energy cost analysis (1.25 to about the intercity bus is better by a factor of two. The subsonic jets, such as the DC-9, DC-8 and jumbo jets, are on about an equal footing with the car and intercity train, even though they move passengers at about 10 times the speed. But when it comes to moving cargo, as opposed to people, the energy costs drop markedly. The marine tanker is far and away the most efficient mode, with an energy cost ranging from 0.003 to 0.015. WeelWhimsv Oil pipelines, freight trains and container ships are less efficient by a factor of 10, with energy costs between 0.015 to 0.07. The workhorse truck is as much as 100 times less efficient than the best marine tankers, ranging between 0.2 and 0.5 in energy costs, with gas pipelines being slightly more efficient. The cargo airplane is a little better than the passenger plane, with energy costs ranging from 0.6 to 2.0. And the hovercraft is the most inefficient mode of cargo transport, more than 1000 times more inefficient than the best marine tankers, but comparable to the single passenger private automobile. The energy energy-used, work-done of three factors, according to Dr. Cockshutt: The thermopropulsive effi- ciency of the power jet engine turns out to be the best; The frictional resistance of the low friction of the marine tanker, related to its low speeds, is major reason for its low energy costs, just as the freight train with low wheel friction and small front-end air resistance has major efficiencies; And the structural efficiency or ratio of payload to vehicle weight. The private automobile is so inefficient because of its low structural efficiency: passen- gers weighing a few hundred pounds are transported in a vehicle weighing about two tons. The oil and gas pipeline has the best structural efficiency, since only the payload is moved through the system. And the bicycle combines both low rolling friction and Theatre born TORONTO (CP) A theatre company, designed to present plays written by and about women, has opened here. The Red Light Theatre plans to begin production with Entrances, written by Marcella Lustig and Francine Volker. light frame. It's only drawback is the low efficiency propulsion system. And with the less-fit typical North American as a rider, it compares poorly to the Eu- ropean propulsion systems for bicycles there. PUBLIC BINQO _ 16 GAMES BLACKOUT (Pliycd Until Won) LETHBRIDQE ELKS LODGE ROOM (Uptttlrt) EVERY p.m. HELP US TO HELP OTHERSI The Salvation Army Welfare Services Nnd Clothing, Furniture, Toys, Housijiold Effects 328-2860 For Pickup OR LEAVE AT 412 lit AVE. S. BINGO Wednesday at 8 p.m. Lethbridge Fish Game Assoc. Jackpot in 53 Numbers 3 4th 8th 10th In 7 Nurnbvn GOLD CARDS PAY DOUBLE FREE CARDS EAGLES HALL 13th ST. N. FREE GAMES _______ No Children Under 16 LOYAL ORDER OF MOOSE 1234-3rd Ave. N. 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