Lethbridge Herald, The (Newspaper) - April 22, 1970, Lethbridge, Alberta
Apll 51, THI LttKMIDCI Anthony Sampson JOHANNESBURG la these J all white elections, the bUck side the other three- quarters is out of sight, but not quite out of mind. There is still faint black spectre at the feast. For now that the Afri- cans have been pushed out of the towns, controlled still more strictly by the police, forbidden to form their two political par- ties, to meet white men, to hold meetings, there is a growing worry; that mkody what laejr ure like peas- ants in Russian novels, they are talked about, speculated upon; the okt stories about servants are (old and retold be won't murder me, but he'll mur- der the nadam next door, and her boy will kill me But the convers a t i o n s, everyone krows, have more to do with white guilts and fears than with any reality. For the Afrikaners, this is a relatively new worry, this sense at not knowing the native. In the old days Out Boer farmer, presiding over his obedient workers, was confident much more than the English, and rightly that he knew the kaf- fir, could joke with him, help Mm, let his children play with his own children. But most Afri- kaners now live in the towns, and the apparent naturalness of the feudal color-bar has been replaced with a barrage of leg- islation and fear. remember bow easy it seemed ba farms in the Orange Free State, when was a said one Afrikaner, ty- coon, "but now with all these new laws, the relation ship seems very self conscious." And on top of this worry, there is the old Afrikaner trouble the sexual lure of the Africans; the cases under the Immorality Act have gone up m the bwriers have gone up; 450 w h i t'e men were charged last year, and there has been a mounting number of Afrikaners committing suicide, in an al- Black Spectre At The Feast most ritualistic fashion, after being charged. U might illogical that, having buitt their great wall of apartheid, the Afrikaners should now complain that they can't see over the wall. But it is part of a long standing schizophrenia. They set up a. vast police apparatus to pre- vent African political activity, and it the same time complain that the blacks don't seem to talk any more, or to smile any more. I heard the same worry from an Afrikaner churchman a businessman, an editor: "We oM't tiey're tUik- tap." For the church, of course, the lack of contact is dis- turbing. "In the last two years there's been a massive vrith- drawal from the Christian said a liberal dom- inie.' '.'Nowadays when visitors want to talk to African priests, I find ft hard to get anyone to Beet them. "Of course the Africans are becoming more interested in Black Power I think some of the government are realiz- ing that they have unleashed a social political force which they can't control." An African priest, a conser- v a t i v e theologian whom I'd known 15 years ago, gave the same picture. "Our people are very bewildered. With all these tortures, these deaths in deten- tion, they ask me: 'Why does God give all the power to the white man? The white God has nothing to give lo us we were better off with our own.' And I can't really answer them. As for the white Christian voters, when I see which way they vote I say 'You can go to blazes', and he-gave a little smile al the Iheolopra] implications. "I've tried to hold he went on, "to find .out why peojAs are leaving the churches. They begin to talk about black power, but then when I ask them about it, they don't come again." Statistics support these im- pressions; a survey carried oul in black Johannesburg show- ed that in five years The mem- bership of the black separatist churches had doubled. The ex- o'.ic all black sects, with their bright uniforms, bends and waving flags can be seen every weekend processing through the townships. Thej- are still very passive, and most of their mem- bers are from the poorest and least literate class; educated Africans. have regarded them as something of a joke. But in the retreat from the white world, their role may become more significant in the future. All this of course, and the' change it urpliec, is in keeping with the' government polity of Bantu of developing along their own Knee. But.it is part of the result of apartheid that the pride in blackness can come from either the most con- servative or most radical Afri- cans; both roads lead to black power. "In a country which says while is said one veteran Mack leader, "there's bound to be the reac- tion: black is beautiful. The government wart us, to be black but as soon as we're proud of being black, they get worried." .Does the government realize, one wonders, the magnitude of the break they have achieved? It is much more than breaking up muXi radrl politi- cal or social, or dispersing the liberal fringe. It is a break with the long, deep tradition of Christian education and as- sumptions, which had produced Africans who. were citizens of a much larger world, who were thus a real bridge between the two races. It is that bridge that tes been smashed. The only people who can move easily across the divide are the Special Branch, and they do, in great-numbers and all kinds of disguises brutal and subtle, black and while, uniformed and plain clothes, as- sisted by armies of informers. Some of the Special B r a n c htbe tide of the informers. specialize in beating up, o'.h- ers specialize in Mao or Gue- vara. Nearly all the informa- tion that the government hac, comes through the Sped al Branch. They know a great deal, and no one nowadays will underestimate them. At their head at the head o! BOSS- Is aa urbane and subtle politi- cian, General Van den Bergh, who looks more like an Ameri- can professor .than a police chief. But they lave one great linv iUtion, that all their informa- tion is obtained through fear, the techniques of ter- ror which are becoming in- ereasuigry brnen. It seems clear, for instance, that some at lent of the deaths in detec- tion there were at least sev- en last year were intended to terrorize, others; the explana- tions given by the police in the- courts, that the prisoner had slipped on some soap, or fallen down stairs, were too crude to be meant to be believed. The ripples of fear that come from the knowledge that anyqne might be detained or beaten to death, spread out economically through, the townships, to dis- courage anyone who might be thinking of politics. The police ly preserve their black >m; and if Africans are seen with white men, whether churchmen, do gooders or stu- dents, they are calked on and questioned, to discourage them from doing it again. The informers' are much more than an extension of the police system; they are the means of corrupting and bru- talizing a whole society. With the vast differential between white and black wages, a rela- tively small outlay can produce big returns, and sonve inform- ers operate simply to pay off oW tcores, or out of an obses- sive desire for security: many of the tsotsk, the gangsters who once ruled of the town- ships, have been bought orar to Talking to Africans of the middle aged who had seen a wider world, and then had been pressed back into the demoralized black ope sense of the strain at their lives, the fear, frustration and lack of hope shows through in their faces, and in every ges- ture. Drink is the obriouc es- cape, and mam- have been de- stroyed by H'. The conversation goes round and round, hke that of white liberals, but with- out the way out. Yet whst can they do? Near- ly every African of the intolerable frustration in UN townships, the consciousness that there must, before long, be a massive explosion. They caii sense in the packed buses and the trains, the barometer oi Af- rican opinion; and a succes- sion of railway disasters have added to the anger. But there is no sign of an sign that white men can see- that could control or direct such an outburst. There couid be an outbreak of urban riots, parti- cularly in Durban in the hot summer, on the Negro pattern. But the police are well organ- ized to subdue them effectively. Since Siarperille the whole force has been reorganized, on a much more disciplined and in- telligent basis; so that within a quarter of an hour the mobila police can be anywhere in the cities, with dogs, tear-gas and armoured cars. Prices effective Thursday, Friday, Saturday, April 23, 24, 25 GROUND BEEF: 69 Rod or i Cross Rib Roasts Brand Blade Roasts, Cooked Ham SIM ..I Ib. Ib, FREEZER SALE! Sides of Beef 65c Hips of BerfArxMr75c Chucks of Beef XV 63c IM MM tfmd loaf mi Gainer's Country Ib. Pk8. Mb. Side Bacon Wieners Garlic or Bologna Rings Chicken Fryers (b 99c 65c 69c 53c 89c 63c 69c 39c 128-ci. container KRAFT, Smooth 4 jflr bog r JAVEX BLEACH PEANUT BUTTER INSTANT CATSUP 2 HVIN FARMS ll-oi. botlfe H FLOUR 20 BQftIM MOOD BATHROOM TISSUE FRESH SPRING PRODUCE BUYS! ORANGES iHMNS URGE sin PEARS CABBAGE 2 TOMATOES Orange Tang Crystals 4 79c 79' PEACHES Ensign Vz's or SIked 14-oj. tins 3.79' HEINZ PICKLES 63 SWOT MIXED 32-ei. jor CALIFORNIA FANCY VAIENCI AS 79' I WASHINGTON D'ANJOUS, CANADA 10c FANCY.......... 2 49C California, I Vino Ripcnod Btcf Stook, Canaan No. 1 GRAHAM'S FOOD MARKET 7M 3rd twth PHONE AND SAVt FME DEIIYHY CKOdRlfS 117-M14, IJ7-J4J1 MIATS 127-1III OKN THWSOAY Till t PM. Other Africans believe that higher wages will make life more bearable, and perhaps in the. end give greater freedom; and here we are back to the optimism of white businessmen; and their hopes [or a black con- sumer society and a black mid- dle class, with everyone getting richer together. The market researchers have been busy in the townships, to try to show the scope of the African mar- ket. But really, their figures show how far away they are from any consumer society. According to a-recent report by Mr. Langscbmidt, of Market Research Africa Ltd., 45 per cent of the urban Africans pos- sessed none of the stock house- hold possessions, and only 31 per cent bad electricity in their homes. The average income of an urban African houeeh o 1 with an average of six people about a month' about 15 per. cent of the average white household. "If more of us would take a closer look at their concluded Mr. Lang- Schmidt in some disntay, "then we would not be so sanctimon- ious." A few Africans put faith In the guerrillas (freedom fight- ers to the blacks, terrorists to the whites) coming in from Uie north. The Press says hardly anything about them, but oc- casionally clandestine pamph- lets or booklets appear, with rather extravagant claims of guerrilla victories. (I was. in an office where a booUet had just arrived, through the post', dis- guised as an ordinary notebook, giving the aims of Uie S o u t h African Communist Party and news of the guerrillas; the police had to be telephoned im- mediately in case it was a As for the guerrilla leaders themselves, across the Zam- bezi, their task is not easy. The fighters have become more ef- fective, grad u a 11 y'inliltralirig and educating the villagers, in- stead of mass crossings anrt battles; and they are concen- trating on Rhodesia, the weak- est link in the Southern Afri- can chain. But there is constant pressure for more drastic ac- tion, across the Limpopo into South Africa ilself: since many fighters are going to their sui- i'ide, the; want something more spectacular to show for it. Faced with all the rlead-ends of their situation the net- work of informers, the stooges in the reserves, the waste of guerrillas there is talk (no one can kpow how much) of tola', terrorism. Only when Af- ricans fear their own people more than the police, it Is ar- gued, .can the informers be bro- ken; only when there is mas- sacre and arson will the real showdown begin, and the oul- side world be forced to inter- vene. There are white liberals, too, who are impatient, even contempt u o u s, of the African passivity. "Look how they just allow themselves to be arrest- ed and handcuffed and led off by a single But for the ordinary Africans, still try- ing to build up some kind of family Ufe In the midst of all the fear and constriction, the consequences of an escalation of terror are too terrible In think of. In spite of the pressures to- wards black power, and the im- possibility of making contact with whites, there sim. seems lo be a reluctance' e ve n among the young look towards a whoUy racialist finally fo slam the door, (ffrilttn for The HeraM and OWerrer, Arctic Pollution Controls By Bruce Boissr.', NEA W ashlnglw Corrcspeaoent WASHINGTON Canada's plates and a bus-sued hole OT its n Prime Minister Trudeau offered leg- first trip last sumrcer. islallon to establish his country's unilateral control for purposes over a zone roughly 100 miles north from the Ca- nadian Arctic islands, be played an ace the United Sales cannol easily malch. There evidently is some private official grumbling here that Trudeau is playing an internal political game of his own while exerting pressures on the TJiyted States to negotiate special rules for the Arctic which other nations might use as a precedent that could cripple the vital free movement of ocean-going commercial ships. But Trudeau has t tremendous advan- tage which we cannot gainsay. An incred- ible series of oil spills, many in or near U.S. coastal waters, has given any "anti- pollution" undertaking an urgency which makes talk about the conventional freedom of the seas seem dangerously outdated. The fact is, Trudeau has a highly salable case when he talks, as be does, about the perils to Arctic ecology from possible oil spills out of tankers which may make the Northwest Passage from our developing rich fields on Alaska's North Slope. The prime minister argues persuasively that in the Arctic the life forces are as delicately balanced as anywhere' in the world that the close link between land, sea and ice might be disrupted for cen- turies by pollution. In Alaska, tractor tread marks from the Second World War still scar the desert- like plant growth of the northern tundra lands. Moss and lichens may lake a cen- tury lo grow in old wheel ruts. The ma- rine life adapted to the brutally cold but pure Arctic waters might never recover from any measurable temperature changes or other effects of pollutarits. Moreover, sea ice more than two years old is hard enough to cut through ordinary steel chip phtes like a hatchet. And though' the celebrated U.S. experimental tanker Manhattan, now making its second voyage toward Alaska through the ice choked Northwest Passage, is specially armored against ice, it suffered several cracked Some qualified sources here believe, how- ever, that the Canadians mistakenly view the Manhattan as a prototype of the tank- ers we might use regularly in those waters. 1 am reliably informed it is not. At tons and foot length, Uie Manhattan is the largest ice breaker ever built. Foreign experts aboard on the 1969 voyage gaped in amazement as it cracked through 60-fool-thick ice floes. Its bow can take pressures up to 600 pounds per square ir.ch (for the average ship hull il is 15 The fhip also has a steel girdle of extra thickness at the water line. I talked to one of the designers of this vessel, lie asks not to be identified. But.he told me any regular U.S. Arctic tankers would not only have the same tough prow ar.d girdle a? the Manhallan, but probably a very thick double hull over-all able to withstand pressure up to 3W poirnds per square inch. This would be much beyond the breaiiing strength of the hardest Arctic ice. Furthermore, this designer says oil in such tankers should properly be stored ia tanks kept at a careful interior distance from the hull. It U his view that Canada's present stress on'her own "construction standards" for Arctic passage tankers is not useful. He finds these vague and unsuited to the prob- lem of working through totally frozen seas. He thinks the Canadians and others should right now be consulting with the three chief ocean vessel insurance underwriters on specilicctioiis for ships intended to ply ice- covered waters. Yet such a move may need the push it could get from an urgently sumiconed, quick acting parley of the five Arctic na- tions (the United States, Canada, Russia, Iceland and We favor such a conference. But if it toa not convene and act swiftly to fix new in- ternational rules to fit Arctic conditions'and today's "anti-pollution" needs, Canada's present independent move toward control will enjoy much support and sympathy around the world. High Cost Of Incarceration From. The Fi asocial Post QUT OF A QUESTION asked in Pariia- roent by David. Orlikow, NDP mem- ber from Winnipeg North, corre some re- markable facts on what it costs to keep a' man behind bars. The most expensive form of prison, It appears, is the medium security institu- tion. Quite aside from the capital invest- ment in bricks, bars and mortar, it costs a year to maintain an inmate in one of these. Maximum security prisons cost less, presumably because there are fewer activ- ities for the prisoners and similar staffs. In these, the annual bill is per inmate. The least expensive method of incar- ceration, file minimum security institution which includes work camps, is still costly enough. There, the price is J5.067 per year per man. Prison costs, moreover, are undergoing a serious inflation all their own. For example, .the rise per prisoner held in medium and minimum security prisons has been 39 per cent in only two yean. In contrast to these very substantial charges for keeping a man behind ban, the cost of parole supervision is smalL Solicitor General George Mcllraith esti- mates that this averaged out to f851 per parolee in fiscal year 1968-69.- In addition, the cost of parole operations had risen only 24 per cent over the previous two years. Other studies provide much evidence that protracted incarceration for lesj than horrendous crimes does little to fit offend- ers for constructive civilian life. These latest facts on prison costs suggest. that from the taxpayer's point of view as wen, lengthy prison detention is getting us no- where fast Abortion Laic Change In U.S. From The Christia a Science Monitor JXDR EVERY POUR births in the United States, one pregnancy is deliberately and usually illegally aborted. This fact underlies much of the pressure for basic abortion law change in America. Such change appears to be coming. Until recently, "abortion change" meant "abortion women were to be granted abortions if continued preg- nancy threatened their bodily or rr.enlal health, or in cases of rape or the likeli- hood of a deformed child. Ten stales voted for such reforms, beginning win Colorado In 1967. They have found, how- ever, that ruling on individual cases is cumbersome, that the law favors abortion for the rich, and that quicker and cheaper and often less safe Illegal abortions are still resorted .to by the overwhelming majority of women seeking to end preg- nancy. In recent months, abortion "change" has come In mean "repeal" of restric- tions on abortions; women or couples and their doctors would decide (or themselves whether an abortion was wanted. The slate would be left out of making the decision, except that if might require the woman to have lived in the slate for a period of mouths, or that the abortion performed before the pregnancy were car- ried too far along. Hawaii and Maryland recently decided on such repeal action. New York did so a little later. And doten other ifales have repeal bills before (hem, The chief arguments against abortion !tw change are that H involves the extinc- tion of embryonic life, that it raises grave religious and moral questions, and that It would contribute to greater permissiveness in an already lax society. The argilmer.ls for change are Ifiaf abor- tion already is available "on demand'1 through a mllltoiva-ycar bootleg lixlus- Iry, lhat present laws discriminate against tfae poor, that women or coupkt bavt tbt right lo determine for themselves whether to let a pregnancy develop, and that harshness of existing laws causes need- less anguish. Of course, lo argue for repeal of legal restrictions is not to say that abortion of itself is good. There are signs today of growing callousness toward (he enduring responsibilities of sex and family. The 'value, beauty and spiritual impulsion ot the human expression of life need vigorous reaffirming. There U need for greater concern for the welfare of others' in human relationships, particularly the woman who might bear a child and the child itself. Wisdom anci discipline in sexual matters should replace selfishness. In an age of genetic engineering, when it is becoming technically possible lo alter radically the processes of birth and the shaping of individual characteristics, abor- tion may raise another question: How much tampering with these natural pro- cesses is society lo accept? Under what circumstances? Who will make the deci- sions? What implications for future pubtte policy might stem from changing the legal sialus of abortion? This said, the present de. facto situa- tion seems I o make abortion law change clearly necessary, This would help end i covert and hazardous industry and re- place it with an open framework (o which sensible safeguards could be applied. But the deeper issues involving the values in liurnpn We, the need for moral restraint in all phases of society, and man's spiritual relationship to God cto- not be disposed of w easily. There remains the calloused Indifference to then issues which all too often Is reflected in unwanted; pregnancies. The widespread resort to abortion should awaken society to the need to overcome (he wrong thinking or false values which lead to U. The greater need is not so much legs! reform as a reformation of society's con- cept of tta meufaf lift.