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Lethbridge Daily Herald (Newspaper) - April 15, 1915, Lethbridge, Alberta THE PA1LT H1RALP FACE THRE1 RAYMOND MAN WRITES ON GROWING ALFALFA (By L. Tanner, B.A., Professor of Science, Knight Academy, Raymond) In writing tills article I do so with no desire to bount of Iho Buccess that 1 had tills past year In .ralslnit ftlfalln. seed; but I '.write a wish that what I write may Do ol some uenuflt aud help to those desir- ing to raise alfalfa seed. 1 liope It may eliablo them to avoid homo o[ the mistakes that 1 made, due to In- experience and my Inability to obtain iiecessary Information. Others have raised seed here from t'lmo to time. As a rule they did not mate business of seed raising. They other ulunlB, 'but did not enclose them In netting to exclude tlio bees. Some bees visited llitf -plants Unit not enclosed ill nutting. H was. ob- servei by the that most o[ the flowers visited UJ huii.ble Ueofl wore tripped, but the (lowers visited by the honey hem and many of the smaller varieties of boos were, In mOBl cases, not tripped. Wlian the exports' examined the en- oloBixl Mowers, they found, to their astonishment, that several of the flow- ers had already tripped. They then watoheil lhe enclosed flowers very carefully. They found thut whenever Iho sun was shining brightly and the weather was 'hot that .IDs Mowers would trip of their own accord. On IllBKu 2. uiiamoan VL raised seed UB a side Issue anil often uic other hand, they observed tnal an alfalfa that they had allowed to become too old to make a good hay Because of thin method It has u. ouance crop than a crop. been inuiu planned one. Duo to these uhanoe the weather was cold and Etormy the llowera failed to trip and would shrivel up and fall off within a few days. As soon as the weather became hot aliain trtpplug wo.uld ,1 reasons for Iho points ad- suffleloiii vocated. Preparation of the Land In the Fall [n the fall, I bellove It will prove an excellent, plan to disc the land or harrow It with an Acme harrow, or to jo over It with an alfalfa renova- tor In advocating the" above treat- ment I do so for Uie following roa- ns: This treatment of the soil .kills many wtjds and loosens up the soil so It will absorb any fall storms that may come. It also ocvers up many weed seeds These will germinate early next spring and hence you will be able to kill them before you Btart your alfalfa crop to grow. The treat- ment of the land In the fall Is the same for Irrigated and non-lrrlgatod land with this difference: On irri- gated land It may prove advantageous to Irrigate in the fall after the Is off. Personally I do not favor this since It methods farmers have failed to make hake place and ssed pods would bo the ci'sorv.litlpns that might formed. These ruiCls. hold true for vapid growth early Indeed, In many cases j the enclosed flowers and the otheni desired. cause a more i the spring than help olhora. the seed had already formed before After many .cxperl- they expected to raise u seed crop of HicJits alonf tills lies, it was .found Ifulfa that bees were not .necessary, for the llllllu. ___ Tt Wdl: So much by way of preview, discussing this suljjcct I shall dlscuas it under Ihc following heads: The alfalfa plant and Us cfCect on Iho soil. H. Growth and blossoming. II. TrinpiiiE, pollination and the efiRCt of bees on the plant. 4. Selection of land for .seed. Ti. Preparation of the land in tho {all. (i. Preparation' of the land in the sprlnc. 7. Determining the time of aomlng. 5. Natural Irrigation. !l. Artlflclnl Irrigation. formation of altald seed. It was also found that when noes did carry the pollen, llliire usually more seeds In Jjod. It was alBO ob- blos- Second growth. Harvesting. Threshing. Cleaning. Uses of served arUttclal tripping was harder to accomplloli during cold and stormy woaiiit; tham duriug bright weather. Here then we have oua of tho most now come to the treatment of weatlur will bo but then you would only not a lair saail orop. It may 'bo of. Interest to soino to give my own experience la thlB mat? I had about fire acres of land this yoar.tbat I wan unable to pasture off. let c. crop of hay grow and cut It about the 16th of Juno. I was able o get tho hay crop off without dlfll- julty. I also got u Bced crop on thlH and. Hut most ol the seed was form- ed on the top of the plants. I did not get nearly so heavy a crop of seed from thin land as I did from land that had been pastured off. Indeed the my crop nlus the 'Beed crop was not worth nearly as much as the send crop alone from an equal area of pastured >hind. It Is ray opinion that the best me- Uioil to get Becd Is to pasture your Held oft until tilu lOlh of Juno, then Irrigate It Immediately to start It to grow. The second best method is to disc tho. land every week or two until about the 10th ol Juno, and (hen Irri: gate. The third best method is to cut a crop of. hay about June Ctli or 7th and then to irrigate as as the hay- Is off. The fourth and poorest method IB to let tho nrst crop grow from the first and trust to luck that you will get the right kind, ol weather. I think the.chances of getting a good seed crop by the various methods two heads: (a) artlllclal. In dealing with natural Irrigation, bed, Plow the land as oecpjy as possible nd work 11 down completely. This ifcures you a bed liich to catch the rain and moiling now. It also 'Insures you u 'bed In the laud in the spring- I 'believe will :bo about as rnllnivs after all that the spring treatment of the land will decide whether we raise seed or not. This head will of necessity have to be treated under two heads, viz.: (a) Irrigated land, (b) non-Irrigated land. 1 shall dual with the irrigated land first and shall gUe two or three I'lllods of treatment. Pasturing method will give three seed crops out of four years. Discing method will give three seed cro'ps out of four years. Early cutting method 1 give two seed crops out of Four years- Fourth crop method will give one seed crop out of lour years. As lias already been noted, I be- lieve you can get a crop by dlsc- rai'lllods ol treatment. neve juu UJ----- I favor pasturing off the fields with ing about as often as by pastunns. Important things ic the production ol in order to produce a good leefl crop we miiat cause the blossoming ol tin .plant to take place during hot wea- j ther instead of cold. unuu. It might be Slated here tnat they IP Brief account my own ex- have sought artificial means of trrp- perlonce. ping the (lowers, such as rolling, Some or the .causes of failure, dragging brush over the field, etc., for their [but with poor success. Tripping can since com, uiuunj i Imna ___ ripping and since'bright, hot j (ayor paBluring off the alfalfa. go much for ilds tripping, we can readily see that Here are [he gated land In the spring. together with suggestions remedy. the treatment of irri- e spring. let us Pasturing off the alfalfa throws the take up non-Irrigated land, alfalla hack and causes It to blossom On non-irrigated land we find It aliout the 10th to July. The necessary to give more attention to weather la nearly always warm about the conservation of the moisture. 1 tills time. We seldom have longcper- favor discing down the non-irrigated iods of cold duriug tills sea- alfalfa Instead of pasturing it off. Wo son of the 5'ear As haa already been should disc the land" In the fall as noted or hot weather is es- soon as.the crop Is off. This loosens sentla'l to formation. By delay- up the top of the soil, largely pre- I also be accomplished by pinching the jng the gTowtn Q( the plants we cause vents evaporation and leaves the 17 "Conditions necessary for a good blosiom. This of course would be impractical in producing a crop. I also Irled hitting, the flower to see what effect this would have, but very little tripping was caused by It. In I hit the flower haro sol many cases seed crop. IS. Tabulation of expenses. 19.' Comparison of an alfalfa seed crop with a grain crop- In dealing with, the alfalfa plant I Bhall take only u small amount of space. Alfalfa lives from year to year without replanting. Hence one'occur. seeding lasts for several years unless Due to the Importance 01 tripping It Is desired to rotate oUier crops with on the seed orop, I deem it not out he blosBOmnlg to occur In warm or Bo it will absorb any moisture that j may fail. Get on the land with a disc raise as soon as possible in the spring am hot weather. eenough to -break it off ol the plant, ani tven then tripping fallod to alfalfa. Alfalfa Is a deep feeder. I remember its roots going flown 18 or 20 feet to reach water in a canal. How much farther they would liavo gone had necessity arisen I can- not say. in addition to this fact, alfalfa. Is one of the'few plants that is able take frae nitrogen djrect from the air and .store It In soil In the form of nitrates.. Because of this fact, the. longer alfalfa grows in a BOil. the luetter the soil Is, and the more productive it will be when it is planted with some other crop besides alfalfa. The .plant is comes into blossom, as a rule, in tlie a rapid grower. It of place to here note some of my own observations regasdlng tripping, made by me while working with my seed crop last BOmmer. I might say here that I was In my seed crop pra'C- tleally every day during Its growth and so had ample opportunity to luake In my fields there were compare- lively few bees and BO what tripping occurred would fee produced mainly by climatic conditions. During my observations I noticed that oa hot, sunshiny days nearly all the flowers that wore open "had tripped. Those flowers not tripped werB easily trip- ped by artificial means. I also ob- latter part of June or early In Jill' i served that in many cases the petals The Bower is a raceme. The base i ot the flowers would begin to wilt end of the raceme 'blossoms first. It before tripping would occur. Also In IB well to remember.this, due to what will later. We will now take up the structure of tho flower. The flower is complete, but irregu- lar. It.lias .both stamens aud pistil. It has five peUls aa follows: one stan- a few cases pollination and seed for- mation waB accomplished by the sta- mens and pistil growing up through the keels without tripping taking place. A warm shower lasting only few hours and followed by_ (bright dord two wings and two keels. The'sunshine seemed to have -no detri- -......mental effect on tripping. It.almost keels adhe'se togetho'r and the sta- inens and pistil are held within them. This brings us to rtbe' pollination of the As long -as the stamens >nd pistil urn-held--between the.1 keels, pollina- tion ta'nn.ot take place.. It Is there- fore necessary 'thai the stamens and pistil be released from the keels in some way. This releasing of the sta- mens and pistil is known as tripping, anil right here is where the main diffi- culty In raising seed arises. If these two keels-separate, or trip, as it is called, and allow the stamens and pistil to be free, pollination -can take place. If the flowers do not trip, .pollination will not take place unleie the. -Btamens and pistil grow up through, the top o( the keels. This is times the case. since tripping Is absolutely Bttry for seeil formation, it is very im- portant that iwe discover, if possible, the causes that produce tripping. In-------, the following discussion of tripping i have the folosdqmlng of the piani and pollination or fertilization, Isliall take place during suitable weather. vhlch water will .bo caught ami con ervoa it comes upward and seeks o evaporate. So much for the land before It is iut Into alfalfa. Now for the trent- nent of your alfalfa Held after you ave a good stund. Get onto your alfalfa.Holds as soon ,s possible In lhe spring and-double JlEC them. For old Holds you can iai-0 the disc cutting as much as 11 vlll It may look like It IB cutting un ill of your alfalfa, but you need have 10 fear o[ tills.' -The roots are very ough as Is well known by all who lave tried to cut them with a hoe or believe I can offer Hiiggostlons that vlll eliminate It on Irrigated and and remuily It lo a large extent ou non-lrrlKiitr-d land. On Irrigated land second growlh nearly bo eliminated by thorough rrlgatiou the first time. Thin starts all the growing and thore will bo pracflca.ly no second growth even ,f lite storms should come. On non- rrlgati'd hind, this second growth can be remedied to u Inrgt extent by the conservation of the moisture al- ready su.wHled. I might note here thul tin- only places 1 waa troubled with second growth wero whore I failed to eive tho alfalfa enough water at llrst. now 'ConiG lo harvesting. Tho Unit thing to lake up will 'be when to cut the: need. Alfalfa seed ilocs not all ripen ut oner; evrn on tho name plant. If wi- wait for all there Is a 'large On Ihe other hand, this true where amount of wind, If we cut the fcocd -before It bogliiB to shell, some of it will not 'bo fully ma- tured. Wo must avoid the two extremes and take the average. I will nole I pastured nearly all of laud down to a dust hud with horses. I look tlie horses off on June S3, but illd not boglu Irrigation until July 3. U made a mlstukn by not In-lusting na HOOII SB 1 took Iho horses off.) On ac- count ol breaks In the .canal. nuU tho unevcunens of the liuiil 1 did not sot through Irrigating until August. Tho latest pleco of land lo bo Irrigated nnd'produco.n seed crop was Irrigated July 2li. I found It necessary to Irri- gate about twenty acres of my send crop the second lime to hold on thu Beed crop. And, as I have already mentioned before 111 this article, about ten acres were Irrigated four times. There also a large amount of late ruin. The seed on the alfalfa first watered was ripe enough lo cut about September was wat- ered very late wiiB Hot ripe at thla timo. When I had my orop about half cul. I was delayed by the heavy fall of snow. I was not able lo do nny more'harvesting for. two weeks. Of the alfalfa seed cut when the snow came, about half, was In the stack, and the other half In piles III tho field. When the snow melted, 1 had to turn the piles over so that they would dry. it was also necessary to cut most of the remaining crop one way on ac. ,eere that need that is full but h toim oj these will ripen after it Is cut. The U- S. Department of Agriculture in their articles on seed raising, "jlvises outline the ami when two-thirds or three-fourths of Iho pods have have two things I lost very little by tho storm Ot the 70 acres ot alfalfa kept for seed, only 65 acres was cut for shovel If you will now run over fields in about a ween WILII __ ___ rle other five acres I cut for be- cause of late Irrigation. O.ut ot tho he spring much moisture can. lie con- ;erved by going over the fields with a eveller This will also make the cut- ting easier in the fall. With Oils method there should Ibe enough mols- ure conserved to produce a good seed crop As soon as the crop is off in the fall, get on the land with a disc, as In the spring, and follow this im- mediately with an Acme harrow. Thlr wlH kill all the weeds, prevent evap- oration of moisture and forms a top layer ot soil that will readily take ur any moisture that may fall. In the case of a -long open fall it will be beneficial to run over the alfalfa twc or three more times with the Acme harrow. So much by way ol natural irriga tlon and conservation of moislure. We now come to artificial irrigation. Per- haps it will be bettu-r to call it merely ordinary irrigation. Many people believe that alfalfa seed does not need much water. 1 the side next to the wheel. The outer was of tlie same opinion until last side and the iback end are turned up year when I found that an alfalfa seed jto prevent the 'seed from sliding off. orop can receive a large supply of A man walks behind the pan. When water and at the same time form and'a pile of seed is collected on the pan Binder without tieing attachment. Sell flake. Mower. Mower with bonnet or pan attached to cutting bar. In choosing a machine It is well to bear in mind that the less the seed is handled the better. If a binder is used, considerable seed Is shelled out while passing through It. Resides a hinder does not get right to the ground. A self rake Is fairly effective, but it loo does not get quite low enough. A mower cuts the seed successfully but runs over it unless the seed If gathered up and thrown out of the way. The mower, with a bonnet or pan attached to it, seems to be the most successful. The pan can be made of tin and 'bolted to the cutting bar. This tin Is the width of the cut- ting bar. It IE about nve feet long on the outside and 6% feet long on mature excellent seed. 15x50 Bach stack contained three sections. There were ten stacks. Tha stacks were allowed to cure for ab. out a month before threshing. It took five days lo thresh tho seed. I got '4 OOOlbs ot good seed from my crop, or' an average of nearly 3701bl. par ere. Jly seed lost in fanning about lltt per cent, by weight. I sold chaff at is machine for 13.60 per ton. A large umber of my seeds have been tested ir termination with very satisfactory .esults. Many of the tests have gona considerably above 90 per cent. I flhall give here some of the main' reaionB why people have failed in their alfalfa seed nrcps: 1. Starting the alfalfa to grow too early and'hence having It blossom In cold weather. 2. Poor irrigation. 3. Lack of study of conditions nt- cessary for a good seed crop. J. Belief that we have an excep- tionally short season here, (I have seen seed raised In parts of Utah where the season is 2 to 4 weeks lie slides It off behind the machine shorter than the season blossoms would fall to open or j the moisture, but It kills the weeds trip and would .drop off. Pasturing] and so give, you a better grade of alfalla causes the plant iseed. I wl1 also conserve_the mo s- the iirst things in irrigalion and so the machine doea not run I 5. Belief that a crop of alfalfa seed is to make the ditches so that all the, over the seed. It IE often a good plan'needs very little water, -land can ha reached quickly with j to have another man go along and 6. Failure to give the seed crop wa- ,_ ter ot lhe pr0per time and hence de- to stool out more, thus producing more flower clusters: On one ol my alfalfa plants that hr.d been- pastured off I counted 509 flower clusters. And In each flower cluster tliere were at least ten Individual flowers. Another beneficial result of pasturing off the tureiand aid the seed cutting by run-1 to carry a full stream ot water. If ning a .leveller over the field after you have had a large amount ol ex- water. Have the ditches ready before'put the piles In better shape in casa start your seed crop to grow, of a storm. Hauling and Stacking the Seed The seed must -be entirely dry be- These ditches BhO'jld 'ba large enough the last, harrowlnc- I dc- not thinlt that pasturing -6r cutting an early crop Is practical on non-Irrigated land. Another method advocated for rais- ing seed on dry land- Is to plant the alfalfa la the fact that whenever the alfalfa in rows or hills and cultivate plant is eaten off, growth is retarded r it. perience in Irrigation you will .be able laying the crop. These causes of failure may he largely remedied as follows: fore hauling. It Is best to cover the 1. Cause lhe blossoming to take bottom of the racks with burlap or I place In warm 'weather by pasturing, to lay out your ditches witjinut much 'canvas. Stack the seed on high discing or back cutting, as has already help. II yo'ur irrigation experience is ground so that no water can run un-, been auggested. -limited you will perhaps save time der it. -Select hnre-ground if possible "'--J-- and money iby having a surveyor lay as It is much easier to clean up when out your ditches for you. threshing. I .believe that the best time to irri-1 The stacks should run east and the i "This method, in all probability, will gate your land for seed is when you or nearly EO. The stacks should and strength Is stored up in roots.' This stored slrenglh is a great produce .a pronlable crop of seed, .benefit to the plani when you do1 But I don't Ibelleve .the crop will be start its growth Another 'benefit of jnearly BO proStaJile as the crop raised pasturing the alfalfa oft Is the fact .Iby ths discing method. When you that you can start your field to the plants you.set them back In Ing any time you want to. The pas-j their growth. This Insures a rapid 2. Study irrigation and do it better. 3. Study conditions carefully. Get all the information wherever you can. Make careful observations yourself. 4. Remember, that as a rule, we Etart the growth for seed. Thus if albout 15x50 feet witli an alley-way have no killing.'frosts from May 10 un you pasture off the land until the 10th. i between the stacks of three or lour Cattle can 6e pastured on the when you permit the.grow I to take place. When you. cultlvi of June, irrigate as soon as the ani- feet. This arrangement enalhles the mals are taken oft. When irrigating (thresher to move quickly. A good always try to reach the high places .plan la to .build the stack in section! flrst. Usually by the time you get the 15x15 feet. This saves cutting thi til September 6-10. seemed to aiil it Cloudy, warm wea- ther, when long continued, hindered tripping to a certain extent. A warm wind seemed to induce tripping by getting the air around' the blossoms. I observed also that the blossoms di- rectly exposed to tho sunlight showed more nearly complete tripping.' A large number of the flowers in the shade tripped when lhe weather was On the other hand cold or cold Etormy weather almost complete- ly arrested tripping and the flowere would shrivel up and drop off. In- deed, a very few hours of cold wea- ther would olfect the tripping. Of course, if the weather turned warm again the flowers would but if the weather remained cold for a day or two, many of the flowers would fall to trip and would fall oft ot the plants. From thase observations we can readily see how important it is to but they don't eat the plant so clpaeJj ;the alfalfa In rows or hills you cause to the ground as horses or sheep a rank growth of the stems to take Whore the alfalfa had ibeen pastured place. This takes the strength from on It 'blossomed clear to the ground, the plant and the moisture from the Pasturing also decreases the weight soil and thus robs the seeds of the of the Blems and increases the num-lvery things they need for maturing, her of blossoms, aud hence the num- Indeed, unless you have an abundant supply of moisture there will not be enough to. mature all of the seeds. When the discing method is used wth Ihigh places watered you have also stacks down when threshing. Always that it gets it. ate watered Uu low places. It yon hare stock, your seed instead of hauling it 7. Watch your 5. Have faith in the country. 6. Remember that a heavy crop of ._ altalfa seed requires mucb. water, es- .e peclally during filling tlma. And sea 'ully, and it. crop give my own observations together some ot the facts obtained, by the U..-S-. Department of Agriculture, and published In their 'bulletins on alfalfa steil raising. Up to about 1908-0, it was supposed that bees were necessary for alfalfa formation. The 'bees were con- sidered-, essential for tripping flower and carrying the pollen. It had been noticed before this time that certain bees would trip the al- falfa flowers very readily! Especially was this' true of. the bumble 'bee on' account .of his clumsiness. It. was observed this ibee would trip several flowers pel It may be claimed iby some that .we cannot regulate this mutter, neither we entirely, but.I shall discuss this at some length' liter on. Selection of Land for Scad When selecting land for. seed It la well to remember the following points for the following reasons: 1. Select land with good drainage so that water oannot stand on it. .2. Select 'land with u few weeds or other plants on aa. poMlble; this insures clean seed. to. ber ol! i Another method that may be used is to -disc the land every week or two. until about the 10th of June, anil then give the. land'a thorough Irrigation. This method will not cause the alfalfa to stool out so much as pasturing. There Is also the ex- pense of several dlsciues- as well as the loss of. the pasturage. ".But you have one advantage. This Is the fact that you have nearly all the killed when the growth is started. This is also largely true when the land is pastured Still another method is to let the Ifajlfa crop grow until-albout the 7th of then cut a, light crop of hay and Immediately Irrigate the land. The following crop, is" then kept for -method may s.ppeal to many because of the.apparent advantage in getting a crop ofihay and a crop of seed. Yet I ibelleverthlB method will prove .'by far the poorest method ot the.three and.will cause more failures than any other method used unless it be just letting the first crop go to seed. Here are some of the objections to raising a. crop of hay before the seed crop: When youTalse a crop of hay, you take a large amount of strength out of.iiie niani (before you begin the seed crop. This is also tnre to a cer- tain, extent with pasturing and-disc- I Ing, hut in these cases there is a con- the stand of cutting offofthe nw-shoota. the stems of discing the plai .nts are stunted. f thstand .This hlnd the seed will be keeps 66V6nu ilOWCES per minute. .11 waa LU. ttu urimin.- wub, 4 also observed that', the hunoy bue and "large ibrowriish seeds will the fact that the alfalfa does not stool out so much as .when It ia disced or. I off. The a hoots grow nearly many the smaller -bees did formed. Most of them., will gei- Srne it reached all the low places, you from the Held to the machine as it give it water whenever It needs an easily do so at the last This prevents loss by shelling. It Is Good ditches .will help you in this. lethod prevents over-irrigation of sary that the seed remain in the stack ome parts. Let the water soak into he land.thoroughly. It takes a large mount of water for a seed crop. If ossible, arrange to Irrigate a given ilece of land all at one-time. This nsures a uniform crop and it will all for some time before threshing. Threshing Threshing is an oneration where much profit can be lost by an inex- perienced machine man. By inexperi- enced, I mean a man who has not had I shall repeat here the conditions necessary for a food alfalfa mad .'our early water turns for turns that will come when you first want to Irri- ate. This will enaJble you to irrigate he land all at one-time. Always use .s large a stream of water as pos- ,fble. This lessens the danger of missing high places which is nearly Iways done when a small stream of rater is used. When you are through rrigating the land, be sure that no more water gets ou accldeutly. It may be wet weather when you intend o start irrigating.. Don't let that stop rou. Go right ahead, and irrigate the and just "the'same aa'if it were not storming.' Remember that it takes heavy storms., to penetrate far nto an..alfalfa fleldi If the season is an average.Hret one, a single .Irrlga- iou is enough to produce a crop of seed., But there is no strict rule that can be. followeed.. last year 1 had to iTigate much of my crop twice. About the only way to tell is to watch the crop carefully. If tho leaves of the alfalfa plant [begin to turn yellow and the iblpssoniB dry up and fall off, It means that the alfalfa must have more water, and that quickly, if you would avoid a crop failure. In fact, if you let the 'blossoms begin to 1'ali before .yoou irrigate the aflafla again, you vlll lose.a large per cent of the crop. 'Very and I believe never, will, more than two irrigations be necessary for a seed crop. Some claim that much" less water is neces- sary. So it is when you have a.light seed crop; but when tiie aeed'crpop IB heavy, a 'large amount of water is necessary. I shall.here refer io one of ten acre fields. It was below the land ol my neighbor. Before I took my hor- ses; put. of the. field, my land was irri- gated by waste water. I gave the land another thorough irrigation after the horses were out.-.After.thli the -waste water .ran pi to it But even this WM opt enough ud I had to re- my iwlchbor, to allow Ma to nii ffoVn on part of my 'ud in that the fcloooos not fall oa. :i bad an p of aeed on tUa plM> thc.Med: ripened nicely, BOW come to subject of ond.-growth- .This .aubject has ant will gtve seed cpnaidereable troiibta eetpeclally on dry lane. But .Ifalfa seed. I am taking the liberty f offering the following suggestions or threshing alfalfa seel: 1. Chcose a thresher operator who ias had experience threshing seed. f there Is not one in your locality, ;ot one from someone else. 2. Hire the machine, by the hour, and insist that it r.un slowly. A'few dll luudred pounds of alfalfa seed ly for lots of help. 3. Have your own men' pitching rorn the stack. Select men foi. this who will feed the machine slowly and -rop: 1. Well drainsd.land. 2. Land capable of good Irrigation, non-irritated land in which moisture la well conserved. 3. Warm weather whan tha alttltaia n blossom. 4. Plentiful supply of water. 6. Two and one-half to three months without frost. It may be Interesting to some to know about what the expenses are In raising a seei crop. If, you are rent- ng land and have it-all In one piece, ,-our expenses about as M- ows, per acre: Land and water rental 16.00 Discing................... 1-50 Mowing raking and piling; 1-25 Hauling J-2J Threshing................ 4. Insist that the proper screens be used in the thresher.. 5. Insist that the concaves be scre'w- ed down as tightly as they will go. This will cause nearly all of the seed .0 be beaten oiit of the pods'. 6. Insist that the tall board .be ele- vated.. This will.prevent a large.am- ount of seed going over in the straw. 7. Always .sack your seed in the best seamless sacks ,ypu can set. Much seed wi'il run through .a small hole. After the seed is threshed, it- inust le'cleaned before it is ready for mar- -et. Most fanning miMs .have, screens suitable for cleaning alfalfa seed; but n many cases these screens, are ex- tra. If this is the-case, order your screens some tlnie before you expect to need them. This .will often avoid much delay. It does .not make much difference. what kind of a fanning mill you lise, providing It ines good work. I .used the winner fanning mill for cleaning.my seed. I believe the "Clipper" Is superior, because.of revolving brush. Alfalfa chaff is fairly good rough feed for horses, sheep and dry cattle According to experiments by.the Unit ed States department of Agriculture it has one.hBlf. the feeding value of an equal weight of first-class alfalfa hay and so its-value would" be determined by the price'ol hay. I shall now give a oriel account of -1--- u'B't ..aninlDt. IJB _____.________ Thope thJs fflay be of some Interest or profit to aoms Lut spring. I, rented p ny own expelrieBeV railing alfalfa seed. Total The chaff -will be worth about (5.00 per acre If sold, or about 110.00 per acre If fed, leaving a total eipense of about when the i chaff is sold, or JB.OO .when the chaff'is fed.. The pasture in the spring will be ..worth 1100-ner acre: so your net expenses per acre would be 18.00, or M.OO, ac- cording to whether you sold or chaff. If you own your own.land you would have no vent to pay, except-tain" and water rent. These might equal per acre at the most.; This would re- duce your land rent from 18.00 per acre down to I2.0Q per acre, or a sav- ing of .J4.00 per acre.. Therefore, in this case, if you sold, your chaff your net eipense. per acre would, be i 13.00 less J4.00 or 15.00-'per acre. fed the chaff, ycur net expenses'wpifid be 14.00, less J.4.00. or nothing. From. tMs.we .see :that .when' you own your own land and- feed the chaif, will just pay all of the'ex- penses. But let us .assume that.' you sell your chaff! your net expenses .are then 15.00 per acre. "Alberta seed always brings a good price, and It wlB.be a long. time. fore 16- It-wdvld then..take im iced acre to -jay' aU ycur tt you'ralasa WOloi, you wpqld of alfalfa, of rtslV Irritation.. ;