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Lethbridge Herald, The (Newspaper) - April 11, 1974, Lethbridge, Alberta ThurMUy, April LETHBRIDOE HERALD-5 Climatic changes for world forecast By Max Wilde, London Observer commentator GENEVA Evidence is accumulating that a major change in the world's climate may be on the way, especially in the girdle of the earth just north of the Equator and perhaps also in a comparable zone to the south of the Equator. The social and economic consequences of such changes are practically incalculable. One immediate indication of them is the severe drought that has hit the Sahelian zone of Africa, a good part of which has already been completely abandoned by nomads and their flocks. Professor H. H. Lamb, Director of the Climatic Research Unit at the University of East Anglia, in Norwich, England, writes in the United Nations publication development forum, that current research on rainfall and wind circulation suggests that the long-term prospect is towards increasing drought in the Sahelian zone. There may be shorter term fluctuations runs of four to five years bringing more rainfall but. he says, "it would be very injudicious to take these easier years as anything more than short term interruptions of the drift towards increasing drought in the regions nearest the Sahara." Professor Lamb says: "In parts of the zone between 10 and 20 degrees latitude north, there have now been five or six successive years of drought, and rainfall has been generally decreasing since about 1930: five-year average rainfalls have fallen by 30 to 50 per cent since the 1950s." In 1973, he says, the weather caused failures of crops and pastures not only in the zone 1974 tjy NEA, Ini "Hey EVERYBODY'S streaking' There's no one left to shock'" immediately south of the Sahara, but also in the other northern hemisphere deserts. "These droughts seem to have been associated with a longer and more persistent flow of the air over land from the regions in middle latitudes which were also dry and covered more often than usual by anticyclones." This he links with a situation of continually high atmospheric pressure over the higher middle latitudes of the northern hemisphere, roughly between 40 and 70 degrees north, which dominated weather and general wind circulation patterns in both 1972 and 1973. He adds: "In parts of this zone, particularly near the British Isles, annual mean pressure in 1973 was over three millibars above the long-term average. Serious patches of drought also occurred further south in Africa. In 1973, the coffee harvest of Ethiopia, Kenya and the Ivory Coast was adversely affected, while Nigeria's groundnuts, sorghum and rice crops were severely reduced, in general to about half the yield of a few years ago. An uneasy feeling is growing in United Nations circles, particularly those immediately concerned with the Sahel tragedy, and that in Ethiopia, that all the aid which has been and is being provided may turn out to be little more than patchwork and that, ultimately, the only way to save the afflicted populations will be for them to migrate permanently and settle further south. If this becomes necessary, it will be an enormous undertaking. The Sahelian zone supported, only a few years ago, a population of nearly 23 million people with livestock herds consisting of about an equal number of cattle, 17 million sheep, 21 million goats, 1.7 million camels and 2.5 million horses and mules. Furthermore, the countries further south are themselves still mostly in an early developing stage and there is an acute shortage of communications in most of them, and a severe lack of railways and metalled roads. A great deal more is likely to become known shortly about these climatic changes because of one of the biggest and most intensive international weather and ocean studies ever undertaken, under the auspices of the UN World Meteorlogical Organization ami the Intern.atioral Council of Scientific Unions, which are part of the Global Atmospheric Research Programme This project, called GATE, an acronym for GARP Atlantic Tropical Experiment, will have its headquarters at Dakar. Senegal, and will run for three months starting in mid-June. It will involve scientists with administrative personnel from 30 countries, using 36 ships, a dozen specially equipped aircraft, and observation posts in 46 countries and on many small islands. There will be 100 scientists at Dakar headquarters, while some 1.500 will man the ships and aircraft. While Dakar is the approximate geographical centre of the wide tropical band under study, it will extend beyond the Atlantic, westwards across South and Central America into the Pacific, and eastwards across Africa into the Arabian Sea and the Indian Ocean. Countries providing ships or aircraft for GATE include Brazil, Canada, Colombia, France. Mexico, The Netherlands, Portugal, the Soviet Union, Britain and the United States. Total costs have been estimated at around million. Soviet and American space satellites will also contribute data, which will include sea temperatures, salinity in the upper levels of the ocean and observations of air temperature, relative humidity, pressure, wind direction and liquid water content. R6VCLSTOK6 iransif mix LETHBRIDGE TRANSIT MIX 12th Street 2nd Avenue North Call: E. H. Buck 327-7262 Equipped to serve all parts of the industry, summer and winter. Maximum Quality Control. Prompt Delivery. No job too large or too small. Efficient and Courteous Service. jRCVOSTOIK Budget Plan ft RCVOSTOKC Rainfall studies in other parts of the world in the past year show some sharp contrasts. In middle latitudes, especially in the British Isles, the period from July 1972 to March 1973 was the driest since 1949-50 and groundwater levels were not replenished during that winter, according to Professor Lamb. After some rather wetter periods last summer the deficiency set in again in October, so that at the end of the year soil moisture was again deficient. Some areas in eastern Britain, e.g. near Edinburgh, had under 60 per cent of their expected rainfall both in 1972 and 1973. Water shortages for industry were also reported in Japan, wher.e steel production was cut in August. However, in California there were floods early in the year and, in some parts of the state, the 1972-73 winter was the wettest ever recorded. In the Middle West of the United States and the Great Lakes region, huge areas were .flooded in April 1973, lake and river levels rising to their highest point since 1844 and, in some cases, since records began somewhat earlier. Although for much of Europe including Scandinavia, the winter of 1972-73 was the third mild winter in succession and a warm summer followed, especially in Scandinavia and Germany, there were some remarkable cold invasions in the autumn and early winter of 1973, and snow covered the ground briefly in central Finland as early as August 24. In the southern hemisphere, "the patterns in 1973 seem to have been affected by anomalies rather similar to those in the northern hemisphere, but shifted somewhat says Professor Lamb. There were droughts on the fringes of the desert zone early in the year, but these gave way to floods later in central, northern and eastern Australia. Drought, which had afflicted large areas of the continent in 1972 continued in the south with a heatwave and bushfires in Victoria. In southern Africa drought continued in Rhodesia and South Africa early last year, but in mid-August snowfalls cut off villages on the high ground of Lesotho and storms affected South Africa in October. BOOKS IN BRIEF "The Rat King's Daughter" by Chris Connor and "The Peacock's Wedding" by Alfred Koenner (Clarke, Irwin Company Limited, each Two well bound little books, beautifully illustrated and very suitable for younger readers. In the first volume King Rat is seeking a husband for his daughter. He takes her to the sun. the cloud, the wind, a mighty wall, and finally back home to the handsome rat who was Miss Rat's original choice. "The Peacock's Wedding" tells about a conceited peacock who has a big wedding feast. All his animal friends attend, the frogs sing, the goats dance; but the crafty fox puts on the best act when he runs off with all the lood and drink. TERRY MORRIS "Across the Medicine Line: The Epic Confrontation Between Sitting Bull and the North West Mounted Police" by C. Frank Turner, (McClelland and Stewart Ltd. 270 pages, Turner has taken a point in history that has always been more or less summed up in one chapter or less by other writers and made it into a stimulating work. Sitting Bull's stay in Canada, as chronicled by Turner, is a landmark in Canadian historical writing. The relationship depicted between the great Sioux chief and Major James Walsh of the Northwest Mounted Police is honest and intriguing. Walsh assumes stature never before attained in the history books, as Turner renders the credit due him. This is an exceptionally fine book and will find a place in the libraries of those who have an interest in the Indian history of this area. Rather than spend time pointing out the highlights of the book we advise you to read it for yourself, and enjoy a superb piece of literature. GARRY ALLISON is it? By Gregory Hales, local writer It has been said, with some amount of piety, that teachers, as professionals, ought to think nothing, nay, ought to embrace the opportunity, of donating some of their holidays to the writing of behavioral or otherwise. The argument I have heard goes like this: Teachers are professionals, professionals should freely devote time to remaining current in the profession, writing objectives is a way of keeping current, therefore teachers ought to freely devote time to writing objectives. Well, let me say something about that. True, professionals ought to "keep up" with changes in the profession. And most teachers do. Most teachers do read, do prepare their lessons, do mark papers, do try out the new ideas and reject those which are inappropriate while retaining those which are productive, do attend conventions, workshops, and seminars in an effort to keep abreast of the times. Most teachers are professionals, in the same way that doctors and lawyers are. Most doctors read the medical journals to keep current; most lawyers read contemporary cases of law which are of on their own time as part of their maintenance of professional standards. And most teachers do the same in their professions. The question arises now as to whether writing objectives in say, the summer holidays at someone else's beckoning, falls in the same category. Having already mentioned those two other venerable professions once, let me cite them again. Would a doctor, at the call of a hospital administrator attend to a patient while the doctor is on the weekend and expect no remuneration from either hospital or patient? And would a law firm dare to call back after hours the junior partners of the firm in order to brief them on the latest court precedent without offering substantial monetary benefits? And would either the hospital administrator or the law firm suggest that the doctor or junior lawyers had a professional obligation to give up their weekends or evenings in order to answer the call? I think not. If anything, the case can be made for paying extra for such an undertaking. But now we come to the teaching profession, which incidentally does not set its own hours of operation, which does not benefit monetarily to anywhere near the degree of the professions of medicine and law. which does not have the same control over who may enter the profession as is the case in law and medicine, and which has no control over who its clients will be. as law and medicine do. But teachers, bless their hearts, are expected not only to give up part of their summer vacations, (when many are away at summer school legitimately upgrading their professional qualifications) but to do it with a smile on their faces and without extra remuneration. I say baloney I If teachers are to be professionals, they should behave like professionals in the same way the other two I have mentioned do Doctors and lawyers behave like professionals, but they also look out for themselves. And that's just what teachers are going to have to start doing looking out for themselves. Beginning now! Hunting in Henderson Lake Park By Helen Schuler, local writer The area around Henderson Lake is indeed a rich hunting ground for glasses and camera, the mixture of deciduous and evergreen trees attracting many varied bird species. We had gone there with a purpose we had heard reports of a blue-jay in the vicinity. This bird is not supposed to be here, and to my knowledge, there are no recorded sightings of him here. Besides, it was a glorious day and I needed an excuse to leave the dishes in the sink and take off. We were first greeted by the "chirrs" of the Bohemian waxwings, and, as we neared the spruce grove, the soft clear whistle of a pine grosbeak a young one perched on the tip of a tall poplar. Then we heard it a steady, plaintive "Jay, jay. jay." We followed the sound, and, there he was, this gorgeous, bright-blue, crested creature, flying right across in front of us. to land in a spruce. A moment later he was joined by another. Perhaps they have decided to take up residence. Like their cousin, the magpie, they are a cunning and raucous pest, but one of the most interesting characters in the bird world. He left us then, and flew into someone's yard. Feeling that someone might just not take kindly to some character prowling around their yard with binoculars we continued our way around the lake. We came upon another resident a great horned owl, huddled on the shady side of a tree. He watched our approach through half-closed eyes. Doubtless he was hoping we would do nothing to bring him to the attention of the many magpies, who love to make life Book reviews miserable for him. He was alone. Perhaps he is the mate of the one whose decapitated body we found in the Natural Area last winter. We didn't disturb him. and continued on our way. Near the big pines at the end of the lake, we heard an unfamiliar whistle. We stopped there, and waited. Suddenly a small, brilliantly colored bird flew down and lit on a branch just above our heads. It was a red crossbill, and to our delight, he promptly proceeded to give us a demonstration of how he used his very special beak to gain his food supply. Without the slightest concern for our presence, he proceeded with his meal, giving us a perfect view of his beautiful rosy-red plumage and his acrobatic abilities, as he hung upside down, skilfully prying open the pinecones and extracting their seeds. We left the park then and returned home trophy-less, because we had forgotten our camera, but content nonetheless. We had seen mtirh that day and had gained much pleasure from the seeing. We in Lethbridge have been very fortunate in the past, in having people of foresight and wisdom plan the development of the city, people who saw beyond economics to a balance of esthetics, with the result that we have right within our city limits and within reach of all its citizens, such areas as Indian Battle Park. Gait Gardens and Henderson Lake. Here all can walk in coolness and greenery. We are now reaping the benefits of this thinking ahead and hope of course, that continuing administrations will have the same sense of a quality of living which can be gained for a city by proper planning. Deterioration of Crees "The Temptations of Big Bear" by Rudy Wiebe (McClelland and Stewart, 415 The Temptations of Big Bear is a historical novel, set during the 1870s and 80s, which iocuses on the deterioration of the prairie Crees. The story centres around the Cree chief, the aging Big Bear, as he tries to deal with the white man without destroying his tribe by signing a treaty; as he faces the starvation of his tribe caused by the disappearance of the buffalo; and as he tries to prevent the inevitable rebellion of his warriors which results in the Frog Lake massacre and the destruction of Fort Pitt. This uprising brings the final reprisal of imprisonment upon Big Bear. The great strengths of the novel are Rudy. Wiebe's beautiful descriptions of the prairies and his Characterization of Big Bear mainly through dialogue. Wiebe however, should have groomed his narrative more carefully. Passages ol exposition- are pockmarked with awkward constructions. Unwieldy clots of well researched facts clog the story's progress. Further, the descriptions of Indian tribal life are weak. Are we really to believe that the Indians, like the cowboys in Westerns, loved their horses more than their women? The novel most.consistently fails in Wiebe's presentation of women, who. with one exception, do not develop beyond their social roles as sexy, hardworking squaws and pure, pampered white women. Despite its flaws. the book is never uninteresting. Big Bear is a character of compelling stature, a tragic hero. If only he had been set free in a play historical plays generally work better than historical novels. The dialogue in this book carries unusual power so that it rolls right over the lumpier scenes. JOHN BELL Fascinating ruins "Petra" by laian Browning (Chatto Windus, 256 pages, S18.50, distributed by Clarke, Irwin Company The Rift Valley between Aqaba and the Dead Sea contains the ruins of one of the most fascinating cities in the world Petra. It was unoccupied and almost forgotten for a thousand years when, in 1812, John Burckhardt visited the site and brought it back into human consciousness'.' Originally the city was occupied by Edomites but eventually it became a Nabatean centre and seems to have remained such until nearly the end. despite Greek and Roman dominance. Indications are that the population, which at the peak may have reached had largely drifted away to other places before a natural catastrophe wrought the final destruction of the city. Much of the mystery surrounding Petra has been dispelled by archaeologists but it has a lascination that may even be enhanced by (ruth-Part of the interest in Petra stems Irom its remarkable site and the abundance ol stone carvings that have survived. laian Browning, following a short history and the story of Burckhardt. gives a detailed account of the remains of the city. The text is profusely illustrated, with the pictures and drawings of the monuments generally being on the same page where they are described. No .tourist should visit the site without reading this book in advance. It would be a rewarding experience to be able to lour the site leisurely with this book m hand. DOUG WALKER ;