Industrial Press Newspaper Archives Oct 1 1870, Page 1

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Industrial Press (Newspaper) - October 1, 1870, Cincinnati, Ohio WASHINGTON. ST. LOUIS. Vol. 1—No. 4.] CINCINNATI, OCTOBEE 1,1870. [Single Copies 10 Cents.INDXJSTRIAX. .PRESS KNIGHT BROTHERS, -    •    PuBLisHUfts. BOOH 49 P1K£*S OPR A HO VSR, 0INCIN1TA.TI. R. T. BRADLEY & GEO. H. KNIGHT, Editors. T«rms of subscriptioii, One Dollar per annnm in advanoe. CLUB RATES: aubebf 5..................  95    00 An extra copy to getter up of dub, Clube of 10.....     98    00 Caiibe of 20........  9U    00 aubs of 50..........................930    00 Qubs of 100........................950    00 An extra copy will be sent to getter up of club in all cases. TABLE OF CONTEBTTS. I ^ (Articles marked with a PAOX. The Labor Question as affi^t- ed by Trades Unions  83 Rights of Inventors..  .....33 Warming and Yentiiating, N^iby E. Y. Robbins... A few words about Wheat. By S. K........................... Infimgements of Patents. By eT E. Wood. No. 2...... Chemical Matrimony........... Tiik C^em^try of ^ the iCitchen. No. 8......«...i..................... Union Brass Works.............. Educational Ristitutions  37 life in Mars    38 Dedsionsof the Commission- 84 35 35 35 ) 85 36 36 star (<•) are Illustrated.)    . PAOI^. er of Patents  .............. 39 Recent Patents.....'............... 39 Niagara Falls.'V..................... 89 Plat of Interior of the Great Expodtion Buildings.......40-41 Metal Quotations. By H. U. Rogers & CJo..................... 42 Alcohal and Its derivatives..    42 Superiority o f , American- Workraanship..\............... 43 Mechanical Pbweis  ....43 Just of Articles and Ei^ibL toráat the Greaf .Expoal* tion in progress at (üpcin-. nati  ......................-    44j Advatisementa  ......45    to48l *tfor^e«í^¿ré.'---F<ír tíirté bf twenty aaibeiriheni, accomphqM by' 920, we will send to the agenta copy of Webster’s Unabridged Wctíonary, THE LABOR (ilJESTIOIir A8 AFFECTED BT TRADES? VMIONS. It is only within the last fifty years that trades’ unions have become a distinct power, and a very few years since they have been advancing toward a foremost place among civilized institutions. Under great difficulties, against frequent discouragements, and much bitterness, they have gone on extending, developing and multiplying themselves until their strength is firmly established. When under discussion, the unions are generally violently attacked by capitalists, who regard them as conspiracies against society, or they are championed by union men who defend, without apology, their excesses, and the vexa^ tious requirements that frequently impair their usefulness. That skilled labor has been largely benefited by combinations called “ unions ” it would be folly to deny, and it also seems that they haVe so far learned wisdom from experience, as to be able, in most oases, to enforce all reasonable demands without the necessity of assuming the oiFensive. It is BO easy to pick up ready-made opinions on the labor question, that appear at once attractive and plausible, that the mass of readers and thinkers are content to accept a few trite sayings about “ supply and demand ’* and the “ irresistible force of capital.” • Ordinarily in a free market, supply and demand fix the price of such commodities as may be offered for sale. Yet in the case of labor there are certain new elements that destroy or modify the application of the law. Take the case of the farmer, who has a hundred bushels of wheat for sale. He may, if he finds the price unsatisfactory, Vithhold his wheat for months, taking his chance for an advance in price, and he has still a hundred bushels of wheat on hand. If at the end of three months the price of wheat is the sftijie, the farmef or other holder of the wheat has lost nothing except the use of the money which he might hal4 had for that time. The man who enters the market with his own labor for sale, occupies an entirely dififerent position. If he is dissatisfied with the price and waits a single day, he has lost the price of one day’s labor, and that loss can never be regained. If now the man who offers his labor for sale, has no reserve fund on which to subsist while waiting, he is compelled to sell at some price, and if employers combine t? keep down the price, it is a grievance of which laborers may justly complain, but serious as it is, it indicates a mode of redressing itself. . The obvious remedy for defeating suck a wrong, is a counter combination, creating a funjd by mutual stbscriptions, which is regarded as a sort of insurance fünd, and'^enables'the union to support able-bodied members desisting temporarily from work. If now in the éase of a strike or a lookout, both parties strained their energies to the utmost, the- men ivould probably be the first to give in, but employers would likely stop far short of an extreme efifort. No doubt they, could, if they tried, hold out longest, but most probably they would not try, for to hold out to the l^sjbVould post infinitely more to them than to tbei^.ojpponents^i To^them entire exhaustion of re-soiu^es would be absolutely fatal, whereas to the wótíl^Jbo oply A tcniporary coUaDso. jFor ceases t(ybc,;?a capitalistj whereas a laborer áffer spending all his savings, may still fall back upon an qndiminishpd stock of personaf strength and skill, ll^ith very inferior resources, thearefqre, it might be <|iiite possible fir workmen to hold out as long or lougcr than employers would choose to hold out against them.    , . . -    ,    ; Expericupe has, however, sbown that as a qnion gr«ws in strength, the chancelB of collision between it and employers diminish.' 'The stronger unionists are, the more anxious are einployep, propitíát^ them. The richer they are, the less Willing ate $hpy to risk their money. A well filled treasury, i9hil| giving a certain security against disastrous failUrés, seems oddly enough to make them timid. As long as they have little'' or nothing to lose, they raise the song of battle recklessly enough, but as their cofifers are flUing, they grow avaricious, and get to look upon Strikes as extravagances to be resorted to only in tremity.- It is of course impossible that excited and prejudiced men, with real or fancied interests at stake, should act always wisely or with forbearance, and the time cah.^not be near at hand when dififerences are impossible, but much has been done in England to make these unfortunate labor contests unfrtquent. The plan adopted has been to establish courts of conciliation and arbitration, composed ofequal numbers of manufacturers and workmen. The rulings of these courts could not, of course, be made compulsory, yet their decisions carry with them a moral obligation that has not thus far been violated. They have been successful in reconciling dififerences, and abating demands which might, otherwise, have brought on a conflict. Whatever, objections might be urged against such courts by theorists, the fact yet remains that they have, in practice, been found to exert a very salutary influence, and it is believed tbai tb®7 might be beneftcially introduced here. RIGHTW OF IHYENTORS. II. Before dismissing this subject we will venture to present a few phases of it that may have escaped superficial observation. One of. the oldest and most universal of the arts is that of the potter. Fragments of earthenware aocompanying the rude implements of barbaric life, are found abundantly distributed both in the Old World and the New; but in China only is> found the beautiful ware which bears her name. That'most exquisite art, the manufacture of porcelain was for ages known only to certain families, and according to Chinese annals was three times utterly lost and forgotten daring the wars which desolatpd that country. Some valuable secrets of its maniji-facture remain lost The most ancient specimens are so superior in enamel to any of the reinvented porcelain, as to be worth many times their weight in gold.^ The lost arts of Flexible glass and of Bronze cutting tools, and the dye called Tyrian Purple might also be cited. Indeed the custom of antiquity, continuing down to quite a recent period, was to preserve the secrets of special crafts in the custody of particular com-munrties,or of close guilds'or Oorporatiou8,as the very language of the times plainly implies. Art was constantly M^iatod with mysteryy crafty cumiingy and sel£sh kani^ra . of ei^ the industi^ of those har« barons had, in self-protection, to surround itself. The who controlled the secret of fabricating for his lotd áh impenetrable coat of mail, possessed a more invMable guarantee of protection than an oath taken on ail tbef ioly relics in Canterbury or Magdeburg. *    ■ '    \    ' The graduaLbreaking doim of this barrier of ex-olusiveoeSs, a result only achieved in its fullness within the me lOry of men now living, is largely at-iáributable to fhe beneficent, influence of the patent Y^steéi, inaugtraied by tbe so-oalied Statute of Mo-;á3J|Í3tíeáí, A. D. 162f3^ which Weeping away the odious crowTi grAts of exclusive bráde in salt and other common neoe isaries of life, specially excepted, “ for a term not Wceeding twenty-one years, any new manufaotufe within this realm by the true, and first inventor thereof,” who, on his part, was required to ^lijjce on recoid a complete specification^^ of his in-%eitibn, both to clearly define the samé, and in order that at the ekpiration of his term puhlick” might be fully instructed therein. Humanity since that day has had no lost artSy but with sure and ever advancing steps has experienced a material progress that eclipses and almost outnumbers the achievements of all previoue time. Of inventions that have haá a controlling influ-ence in modern pr(%re8B, the steam-engine is admit-tedly conspicuous, and all familiar with its history appreciate the important aid afforded by a capitalist to the inventor Watt. In extending this timely aid^\ Boulton, as a man of business, relied implicitly on^^ the protection thrown around the undertaking by Mr, Watt’s patents. But for such protection could capital eyer he fbpnd willing to risk investment in enterprises, which, in the moment of successful oulmlRstion, any one might enter and reap the benefits? ♦Hue. '    '    - ' •

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