Page 1 of 9 Aug 1860 Issue of Indianapolis Old Line Guard in Indianapolis, Indiana

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Indianapolis Old Line Guard (Newspaper) - August 9, 1860, Indianapolis, Indiana The old Constitution the Union and the Equality of the states vol. , Indiana thursday August 9, 1860. The old line guard. To puj3t.ished t 1=1 i Quot pc is is Edaj Toat i dial Al ohs Indiana by a Harkness. T 33 let. Is a , until to tier the Preslac Tinl election. And ability of to in Advance in All cases. Fully appreciating Bis commanding talents and Noble qualities called him from retirement to represent them in the legislature of the state. Although the county was opposed to him in politics being w in by a Large majority yet Sulci was the admiration of the people for the Sterling qualities of his heart and the Brilliant character of his mind that he was elected in the year 1849, by a decisive majority Over his who competitor. Among the Foremost in support of or. Breckinridge was that unrivalled orator Henry Clay who i abjured his politics to pay a just tribute to the Worth Falvert sements inserted at the usual rates. John 0. Been Midge. Upon the meeting of the legislature he was honoured with the democratic nomination for speiker and received the unanimous vote of his party. His term of service was Brief but he left upon the legislature the impress of his eloquence and talents by his Able advocacy of the cause of education internal improvements and every other measure which tended to promote the cause of moral and material Progress. We publish below a biographical sketch of the Gal during this session he introduced a series of resold Lant Standard bearer of tie National democracy John tons a finning Many of the principles subsequently 1 a 1 1 u 11v, enacted to the Compromise legislation of 1850, and ,Whichhasbeenpreparedandpub-, support of the entire democratic listed by the National democratic executive com-1 to in the legislature. Mittee of which Hon. L i. Stevens is chairman. We commend it to tie perusal of the democracy of the Union and especially to the Young Nien of the party. Duty to his Young and growing family required that he should return to his profession when he declined a re election but the people Quick to discern and prompt to Reward True Worth and True greatness ii Iii Jav i i Viiu Lii a Uii ii a Iii ii us a Tinc of who will find in its every Inie encouragement to pm Ulac the deeds which it records and the strongest in dictates of his sound judgment and affectionate Liepart Sentive to rally to the support of one who at the age j Imil marked out for himself. _ in january 1841, the son brother husband poetical a As member of Congress vice president of the United states senator world who assured him that his candidacy would materially Aid or. Powell s election he reluctantly consented to become a candidate for Congress in the Ash candidate of his party for the highest gift a free peo proposition. A Voung pie can bestow we Imd John c. Buecking Uidl. In Man wit i a family depending upon him for support dowed Avith Virtues and tak its of the purest and was called to Lead a Ibi Loi n Hope when defeat seemed i inevitable. The name and Home of Clay hallowed the a ground of contest in the hearts of his devoted follow Uliey were Loyal in their attachments and con if Flicht order. Biographical sketch of John c. Bill evian Ridge let Emo la Atic nominee Fok president. J rident in their strength they had wealth influence i numbers and they would sacrifice All before the spot j of their idolatry should be profaned by the Triu Yjih i ant March of those they deemed infidel to their i Rin is sited by he Nuli Omil a democratic executive cd Minitee Caples. To defend their Citadel to represent their sen i tibents the whigs selected their most Gallant Cham the history of John c. Breckinridge the nominee i Pion. General Leslie Coombs whose Fame is As extended. .1 t. 11 he has been a Soldier with Harrison to Rescue the women and brutal foe and to avenge her men betrayed and murdered at the River Raisin. He had Given a Gallant son and a Fortune to the cause of struggling Texas. He was identified with the fortunes of the great chief he had served so Faith full and loved so Well. He wins an eloquent and experienced speaker a politician perfectly familiar with the questions past and pending. He was an Able Manly and generous foe and therefore the More for mid aisle before a Kentucky constituency. With a full foreknowledge of the inequalities of the contest or. Breckinridge obedient As he Ever has been to the Call of duty at great personal sacrifice entered the contest and to the consternation of his opponents and to the Surprise of the democracy throughout the Union after a most protracted straggle of seven months was elected by 530 majority a change of More than two thousand votes. When it was subsequently insinuated in Congress that he owed his election to foreign Aid Quot no sir Quot said or. Breckinridge Quot i came not Here by the Aid of Money but in spite of it. I have to say that i represent a District in which the Money Power of the Commonwealth is concentrated and that Money Power is in the hands of my opponents. It was loudly proclaimed in the streets of the City where i live that i should be Defeated if it Cost s5 0,000 to do it and i can Tell the member from new York that at least s30,-000 were spent for that purpose and As the result shows in the opposition were Defeated but not conquered they determined to make another desperate struggle to Rescue the District from the grasp of the democracy. They cast carefully about for the strongest of their champions and decided in convention to Call gov. Letcher to the conflict of 1853. He was a Strong Man he had reached the highest honors his state could Confer on him in his hands the whig Banner had never lost a Victory or suffered a defeat and his friends deemed Iii invincible. The nomination of this gentleman was announced with shouts which reached the ears of his Youthful competitor As he Lay stretched upon a bed of sickness his courteous competitor called to tender him a Short respite from the toils of the canvass but the shouts of his opponents had aroused the indomitable spirit of the Gallant invalid when after returning his thanks to gov. Letcher for his Courtesy he replied Quot no sir do not delay your canvass on my account take the stump and i will meet you As soon As my strength will he did so the contest was Lon of fierce and bitter again was the invincible Breckinridge triumphantly re elected by a majority As decisive As that Over his ii St competitors his his Way to observe the country he settled in burling i invincibility proved the prestige of Success stamped ton Iowa. It was indeed the then far Distant West j upon his brow and his District which for the first time for or. Breckinridge during his Tavo years residence was rescued by him from the whigs now lost to the in Iowa hunted the Elk and Buffalo on the site of its opposition in All probability forever present Capiuk. Thus in the earliest period of his j his Brilliant career in Congress for four years is manhood was or. Breckinridge thrown upon the re fresh in the recollection of All. While he was the Mote Frontier and he knows from the warm and faithful and efficient representative of All the interests heart Felt associations of those Days the patriotic Noble of his immediate constituents he was the bold Manly and Selt sacrificing character of the american Pioneer. And fearless advocate of democratic principles and in 1843, on # visit to Kentucky he addressed and j measures and was universally acknowledged As the married miss Mary c. Burch of Scott county his Leader of his party by his friends and foes present wife a lady endeared to All by her Domestic 1 indeed his Power to Combine a proper attention to Virtues and her accomplished manners. She was the minutest wants of his constituents and to the de largely connected with the influential families of Ken a tails of the Public business Avith a steady and Power Tucky aided by whose influence the friends of or. Breckinridge induced him to abandon the idea of returning to Iowa. He settled in Georgetown Kentucky and Rose rapidly to distinction in his profession. Gushed men of our country. He avas descended from an ancestry both on his paternal and maternal Side who were distinguished in the wars of the revolution in the subsequent political conflicts and history of the country and especially distinguish etl for their great services in the advancement of religion learning and Good morals. In Kentucky the name of Breckinridge is held in special veneration for it is connected Avith the Auto worship of the first regular Constitution of Kentucky and the celebrated state rights resolutions of 178y, and is also connected Avith the first efforts made in Kentucky to open the navigation of the Mississippi to the great West. Of his ancestors on the maternal Side Are Wither spoon and Smith the Fri Mer a signer of the declaration of Independence and both presidents of Princeton College. The connection is an extremely Large one and has been characterized by patriotic and useful Sera ices through several generations. He avas born near Lexington Kentucky on the 16th of january 1821, and although not forty years of age is the second officer of the government a position it is universally conceded he fills Avith great ability dignity and impartiality and Noav by the unanimous voice of his party he is presented for the first office selected to Bear their Standard in the approaching presidential contest to contend for those great constitutional Juii Sciples of Justice right and Equality for Avrich his fathers struggled during the Stormy Days of the revolution and Avo dedicated the energies of their gifted minds in Estah Shing and defining the True principles of our glorious Constitution under Avrich ave have groan from a Cav feeble and sparsely peopled colonies to be a great confederacy of thirty three Sovereign states teeming Avith a population of More than thirty millions of free prosperous and Happy people. Or. Breckinridge lost his father at an Early age and Avith his Nio her and her four other children avas left almost entirely dependent. With however the generous Aid of relatives and his Avn constant exertions he avas enabled to pass through the necessary course of studies required to enter upon the professional career he had marked out Lor himself. He graduated at Centre College Kentucky in 1838, passed six months As resident graduate in Princeton pursued his lava studies under the instruction of judge afterwards governor Owsley and completed them at the Transylvania lava school. Admitted to the bar in 1841, he determined to try his Fortune in a Nav land. Accordingly Avith no heritage but Liis talents and fair name he set out in the fall of that year Avith a Friend and leisurely pursuing Fui grasp of the great political and Public questions of the Day evince a breadth of capacity and systematic j habits of business Avrich fit him for the first place in i the Republic. Thus an indemnity for the widow a and i but he Early took part in the political contests of his orphans of the Galla i Mckee Relief for certain con state in 1844 canvassed it for or. Polk and from statue its Avo had made expenditures by order and on that period has borne a prominent share in every political conflict. Account of the government reimbursement of losses to a contractor for the discontinuance of a mail service the mexican War broke out and the Gallant sons of great importance to Kentucky the removal of re of Kentucky Avert to be found in the front rank of striations upon the location of military land a variants the armies of the Republic. The glorious yet Mournful history of Buena Vista especially i rejoiced and saddened the heart of Kentucky. There Many of her bravest sons her clays her Mckee her Harding the getting an appropriation for the Purchase of an american cemetery near the City of Mexico where the remains of our Gallant soldiers Avert gathered under the Protection of their country s Flag Avert slept their last sleep. It avas resolved that their re among others objects to which he gave his exertions i Nln final if �11 a Lii of Lio Vns 111 non Orff in lir Mains should be gathered up taken to the capital and there consigned to the Tomb amidst the tears of the people and Avith All the solemnities Avrich reverence and love could dictate. Or. Breckinridge alas the orator of the occasion and pronounced a most admirable and affecting Eulogy. A Call avas soon made upon Kentucky for additional troops. It was deemed a critical and turning Point of the avar. Gen. Scott had advanced upon the City of Mexico. His rear a As in Possession of the enemy. His troops had been i Catly reduced in Battle and by disease. Larger and More perilous movements Avert in contemplation. Under these circumstances or. Breckinridge volunteered and received from his old preceptor. Governor Owsley the Only commission of Field officer conferred and in All of Avrich he avas successful except in the Case of removing restrictions upon the location of military land warrants. As an evidence of his great judgment and capacity in conducting measures through the House ave Avill refer to the deficiency Bill of 1853. It had been rejected by the House and recommitted to the ways and Means. The committee reported Back the same Bill and entrusted or. Breckinridge Avith its management in the House. It avas vigorously resisted. The discussion lasted several ave eks. Or. Breckinridge avas ii ways at his Post a Savering objections explaining doubtful Points interposing to Cut off indiscreet speeches from friends turning off the hostility of opponents by a kindly word and finally Avith scarcely by him upon a Democrat Viz that of major. On the loss of a single item carried the Bill through by reaching the cite of , in december he found a vote of 138 to 111. La the course of the de the avar virtually at an end and the regiment to Avrich he belonged was employed in Garrison duty to hold the City of Mexico and to protect its inhabitants from pillage and disorders. During his stay in the City of Mexico major general Pillow was tried by a court of inquiry i major Breckinridge s Fine Legal talents were required on that occasion Amnein he distinguished himself by his Able and successful defence of general Pillow. At the close of the War he rejoined his family and resumed his profession. Frank Manly generous and just Avith a heart that Nea or throbbed with one pulsation save for the Honor and ave fare of his country he soon became a great favorite with the people who. Bate or. Breckinridge said Quot i am perfectly Tavare or chairman of the ression Sivility which i have personally incurred in attempting to conduct this Bill through the committee of the whole and that it would be impossible having the Bill in charge to engage in irrelevant and heated discussions upon the Advent of the know nothing party or. Breckinridge was the first to take the stump in Kentucky to attack it. There he Laid Down the Broad proposition that men citizens by our Laws were equal and that any distinction made on account of birth or Creed Quot was at War with the principles of our government and tended to overthrow the liberties of our country and in Congress he made the first speech upon the subject in which standing upon this proposition he exposed in a most masterly manner the fallacy and destructive tendencies of its Creed As at War Avith the social relations of life and a fatal bloat aimed at civil and religious Liberty. In a debate on a Bill reported by or. Wentworth of Massachusetts on the 3d of March 1855, to prevent the importation of certain classes of foreigners to this country after an Able exposition of its Absurdity and injustice i. Breckinridge said Quot i do not propose to enlarge on this subject. I regard this Bill As one of the fruits of the prospective feeling which is just now pervading the country. I Noav it is popular and i know it is save Ping like a Hurricane from one end of the country to the other but it is in conflict with the Funi Lamenta principles of our system of government and i am villing to oppose my hand to it and await the time when there shall be a reaction in the Public sentiment As i Noav there Avill be. I want the gentlemen of this House to know that if they vote for this Bill they draw a distinction be Tareen the poor and the Rich and allow Only the latter class to come nor can they come except Avith a pass in their hands like a Negi o going from one Plantation to the reaction of Public sentiment which sir. Breckinridge s sagacity foresaw quickly came when Noav nothing ism vanished before the Liht of investigation like the mists of the morning before the rising . In general debate or. Breckinridge discussed in a philosophical and manner some of the i greatest questions of the Day and distinguish la d him i self by his Viand to Liand encounters Avith the most experienced gladiators of tie House. Thus in the i discussion Betavee him and or. H. Marshall the j real Issue avas so directly and vigorously theist Back j by the former that Nota withstanding or. Marshall s j great logical acumen and Fertility of resource the j equilibrium of the contest avas fully restored. Or. J Breckinridge in an encounter Avith or. Giddings so pressed him that the latter fiercely denied the to a or of the Federal Goveri intent to enact a fugitive slave lava or to employ the Force of the country to enforce it. But he particularly signalized his Fidelity to his friends and principles by his defence of the Gallant Soldier of Kentucky general William o. Butler j and of a Long array of Noble and experienced states-1 men attacked in the january and february number s of the democratic review 1852. The name of Gen. Butler avas presented to the democracy of Ken Tucky As a nominee for the presidency. Francis p. J Blair having in this event signified his intention to vote j for him Ien. Butler avas falsely charged Avith being infected with free soil sentiments and indeed Avith i having formed a coalition Avith the free spoilers. These i charges Avert repeated and grossly exam curated in the february number of the democratic Lle Ieav. An incident id allusion having been made on the floor of the House to the slander against Gen. Butler or. Breckinridge on the 3d of March 1852. Rose in his i a indication and that of the other statesmen vilified and slandered in the democratic Rea new. The letter of Gen. Butler on the subject which avas endorsed by j or. Breckinridge and Avrich the latter read to tiie j House avas so sound and National in its enunciation of constitutional rights and principles As to forever put to rest the infamous slander uttered against him. Taking the sentiments of this letter in regard to the territorial question a hich Avert endow sed and defended by or. Breckinridge in connection a Ith the several speeches of the latter and especially his speech in the House of representatives on the 23d of March 1854, on the Kansas Nebraska Bill it will be found that the question of the equal right of the sea eral states to participate in the enjoyment of the territories is placed on the precise grounds of the platform adopted in june last by a National democratic party Avrich put or. Breckinridge in nomination. At the risk of subjecting ourselves to the imputation of presenting this question out of the regular order we Avill now consider or. Breckinridge s Visaas in regard to the slavery question. General Butler in his letter to or. Breckinridge said Quot in a fear years More our wild territories Avill be j come prosperous states and each state Avill Settle j Avi thin its Oman Borders the question of slavery by con-1 Stith tonal enactments. That none can question. In j the mean time the right of the contending parties j whether real or imaginary will remain thus at that Early Day the Veteran hero and statesman of Kentucky and his Champion on the floor of the House clearly enunciated the great principle held i this Day by the National democracy that the ques j Tion of slavery in the territories was to be settled by constitutional enactments on their admission As states j into the Federal Union. In the speech of or. Breck-1 i Ridge on the Kansas and Nebraska Bill delivered in the House of representatives on the 23d of March 1854, the soundest and most enlarged views Are Given upon the subject of territorial Coaver. Not a sentence is to be found in this speech in conflict Avith the platform of the National democracy in june 1860, or Avith the s each of or. Breckinridge at Frankfort accepting the office of senator in Congress to Avrich he had just been elected by the legislature of Kentucky. This speech is remarkable for its Clear statement of i the legis action of Congi Ess at critical periods of our history and its powerful analysis of the motives and movements of parties. The Compromise of 1820 avast simply a plan of adjustment to Avard of threatened peril to our coup try. It abridged Southern rights. It gave to the North undue influence and yet or. Breckinridge shaved that it avas repeatedly violated by the parties under free soil and abolition influences and that in repeated epochs of our Histo Rye the admission of Missouri the annexation of Texas there had been exhibited on the part of the great democratic party of our country a fixed determination to abide by it. The great struggle came in 1850, Ashen that Compromise avas trampled under foot by the refusal to extend the line of 36 Deg. 30 the Pacific and the Issue was joined Betavee those who insisted upon Congress prohibiting slam Ery in the territories and those Avaio demanded that the question of slavery in the territories should be left to the people Avo inhabit them subject Only to the Federal Constitution. This latter principle prevailed. It avas deter Ned that All parties should aside by the decisions of the courts in the matter of the title of a Mas-1 ter to his slaves in the territories. Thus these com-1 Promise measures of 1850 practically repealed the alis Souri Compromise line and established the principles of the Kansas Nebraska act and of the platform of the National democracy of 1860. Referring to the Compromise of 1850, or. Breckinridge in the speech alluded to said Quot by the other construction that it was a permanent policy it was indeed a final settlement a settlement Avrich removes from the Federal theatre the Only question that can disturb our Domestic Tranquility and leaves Congress in the future nothing to do in connection Avith it except to apply the established principles As the occasions arise. No sir Avha Tever some gentlemen May say now the people Avert not guilty of the Folly imputed to them a the opponents of this Bill. To Weir patriotic acclamations Avent up to heaven Over an act of statesmanship not Over a political Job. They accepted those measures not As a truce to faction but a Bond of lasting again speaking of the compromises of 1820 and 1850 Quot they the abolitionists opposed both these settlements. They Avill adhere to neither in Good Faith but will Appeal to them or reject them As May Best suit their incendiary a Quot these Are the questions to be decided in Good Faith by those Avo recognize compromises m something More important and durable than Ordinary Acta of legislation. While for those who opposed them both and who spurn All settlements touching slavery the less that is said either of Compromise or of plighted Faith the better. A a a Quot such was not the sense in which that of great Compromise of 1850 was accepted by the american a a a Quot who then Are the agitators who Are faithful to the compromises of 1850?&Quot in discussing the principles of the Kansas and Nebraska Bill or. Breckin Ritie used the Fol leaving Quot the effect of the repeal Slis Souri Compromise line therefore is neither to establish nor to exclude a Lave but to leave the future condition of the territories dependent wholly on the action of the inhabitants subject Only to such b citations As the Federal Constitution May a Quot it will be observed that the right of the people to regulate in their own Way All their Domestic institutions is left wholly except that whatever is done must be in accordance with the constitutions the supreme Law for us All. And the right of property under the Constitution As Avell As legislative action is properly left to the decision of the Federal judiciary. Quot then sir neither the purpose nor effect of the Bill is to legislate slavery into Nebraska and Kansas but its effect is to Savee away this vestige of congressional dictation on this subject to Alloa the free citizens of this Union to enter the common ten Story with the Constitution and the Bill alone in their hands and to remit the decision of their rights under both to the courts of the country. Who can go before his constituents refusing to stand on the platform of the Constitution ? who can make a Case to them of refusing to abide the decision of the courts of the Union ? Quot after discussing the relations Betavee the general government and the territories he thus sets Tarth the principle Al Rich should govern and limit the Power of Contress to legislate for the territories o o Quot i have already said that the Constitution Noav Here expressly Grants political Coaver Over the territories. Let us Bear in mind then that it can Only be an implied Power to be exercised by a limited government Over a Region the common property of states Avrich created this limited government and the inference is irresistible that it must be exercised in the spirit of the political system out of a hich this limited government Springs. It Raould follow if the Coaver Avert expressly granted t but follows Avith greater Force since it is Only Deria Active. What then is the spirit of the system i ans ver he Equality of the states Quot a a the territories Quot Are a Region of country acquired by the common a flirts Anil treasure of All the states they belong therefore to the states for common use and enjoy ment. The citizens of the states Are to inhabit them and when the population shall be sufficient they Are to become equal members of the these extracts Are sufficient to show How in. Breckinridge Avent to the heart of the matter in 1854. The principle then avas both on the part of Congress and of the territorial legislature the Equality of the states. Questions of pro Erly under the Constitution a Here to be decided by the courts. Congress then had simply to see that the principle of Equality avas maintained inviolate and that the decisions of the courts Avert enforced. But to resume the Januar number of the Democrat in review attacked almost Ca cry Man in the democratic party a Hose name had been mentioned in connection Avith the presidency. The Veteran and experienced statesmen Avo had stood by Andrea Jackson and had in Vai ious Fields of duty advanced their country s Honor and renown Buchanan Marcy Houston Butler and Cassa Avert held up to Public odium and contempt As the Bissil remains of a past generation altogether antiquated unequal to the progressive tendencies of the age. It avas wildly asserted that the times demanded men Avith Quot not Only Young blood Quot but Quot Young ideas Quot to conduct the affairs of state. Or. Breckinridge after exposing the Gross misrepresentations of the lie View and declaring it had Traduce the most honoured names in the democratic party thus gave his own a ions of co Servatia e Progress Quot let me say a word Noav upon this question of Progress. I profess to be a Friend of rational Progress but i want no avid and visionary Progress that Avold Savee Wavay All the immortal principles of our forefathers Hunt up some imaginary Genius place him on a new policy give him Young America for a fulcrum and let him turn the world upside do Avn. This is not the pro Ess i a ant. I Avant to Progress in the line of the principles of our fathers i Avant a steady and rational advanced not beyond the limits of the Federal Constitution but i am afraid to at such Progress As is Noav talked about Avold carry us Clear Wavay from that sacred instrument. I want to Progress by ameliorating the condition of the people by fair just and Emiil Laws and by simplicity frugality and Justice marking the operations of the Federal government. Above All i Hope to Sec the democratic party adhere Avith immovable Fidelity to the ancient and distinguishing landmarks of its policy. These Are my opinions on Progress and i think the sooner ave can a ass and Winnoah and sift Wavay opposite opinions the the writer of these articles was known to be the Dea noted partisan of the Only prominent Man mentioned in connection Avith the presidency Avo had not been referred to by him in terms of disparagement. The review in fact assailed to use or. Breckinridge s avoids Quot All the candidates except the distinguished senator from Illinois or. Douglas who seems to be a particular Faa this called of or. Richardson of Illinois Avo protested that these articles were written Avit Hout the know pledge of judge Douglas and Avert against his vie avs and lavishes and also that or. Douglas having Learned that a violent attack avas to be made upon general Butler in the february number did All he could to prevent it but without effect. Or. Breckinridge concluded in these avoids Quot again i say let us be just let us be fair. Let no Man by himself or through his friends attempt to promote individual interests by to reducing others. If this course be continued we shall not succeed ave ought not to Ever the faithful advocate of the Reform of abuses in the government and Economy in its expenditures he boldly opposed All monopolies subsidies and extravagance. Amongst the various combinations a High were formed to fasten themselves Ujioka the government As perpetual stipend Aries during his service in Congress were Quot the Ocean steam steam lines had been built chiefly Avith Public Money to run to Liverpool California and Oregon and applications Avert made to admit other parties to participate in the National gratuity. Lines were asked to Anta Verp to the West indies to Brazil Venzuela Havana Hamburg Genoa Gibraltar Marseilles Toulon and China and Avith an expansive Enterprise not to be controlled by considerations of race or Region. This combination of Enterprise and capital appealed to All sections of the Union and to All interests of society appealing alike to the patriotism of the honest the aspirations of the ambitious and the interests of the sordid. The aggregate appropriations asked for this purpose Avith the sum already applied to a similar purpose amounted to More than six millions of dollars. The combination to carry this Gigantic monopoly was powerful and harmonious. In the language of or. Breckinridge the steam Bounty system commanded Quot the most powerful and determined outside pressure Ever brought to Bear upon and deliberative it was against this powerful monopoly that or. Breckinridge signalized his Stem integrity of character and Devotion to the Public veal by one of the most powerful Brilliant and successful assaults upon this monopoly Ever made in any deliberative Assem Bly. Upon an amendment made in the Senate to the House Bill to Supply deficiencies in the appropriations for the fiscal year ending june 30, 1852, granting additional compensation to the Collins line of steamers he made his great speech. He demonstrated that the no. 10. Proposed amendment of the Senate was to Supply no deficiency because it was not pretended that the government of the United states had failed to perform strictly its agreement with or. Collins and his associates he denounced it As the result of a practice becoming too common of requiring necessary appropriations to sustain others of doubtful propriety and regarded it As a fruitful source of mischievous legislation which he avas Ever ready to oppose. He said Quot heretofore the Money expended upon our Ocean mail system has been paid on the principle of a contract and the government was supposed to receive a valuable consideration. The two objects avowed were to obtain for a fair Price the transportation of the mails and the germ of an economical Marine. But the question now presented is wholly different. We Are urged to open the Federal Treasury for the purpose of sustaining certain com Merciai lines in a National Competition ave Are told they must go Down in the rude concepts of Commerce unless they Are sustained by the Public Money. The True question when stripped of All disguises is shall the government become the partner of ind a ideals and companies in commercial operations thus inflicting a double wrong by giving Peculiar advantages to a Small fraction of the Community and at the same time collecting the capital it subscribes by taxation from those who Are to be oppressed by the monopoly Quot a Quot if by the adoption of this amendment the principle is established that government Money shall be expended to support private Commerce. Arhat limit shall be assigned to the application of this Princis u ? the precedent if adj it Ted for the Benefit of the Collins line like every other bad precedent Avill be the fruitful Parent of a pernicious Brood of lavas. And will engraft a radically false policy upon the legislation of the country. Sir in my judge not the proposition before the committee involves the highest interests of Trade and the True policy of America. As ave shall decide it so Avill ave determine a Hether Commerce shall be free or fettered a Hether the carrying Trade of the country shall be fastened upon the Public Treasury whether the free Ocean shall be covered Avith the hulls of commercial monopolies Wiel led by the Power of the government and Lea eled against the Enterprise of its Avn having exhibited elaborate tables to show the present character and Cost of the Ocean postal service and of the additional expense of similar propositions pending before Congress he says Quot these lines Avill involve a yearly expenditure to the government above the present contracts of at least four and a half millions of dollars. This estimate is Sufka gently Yoav though not perhaps strictly accurate because All the applicants have not specified the compensation. If to this amount be added the present appropriations we have a total annual expenditure for this single Branch of the Public service of about six millions of dollars and after these Are established ave shall doubtless As heretofore have numerous applications for Nav lines pressed Avith great Industry and ability As Avell As for increased pay Tor those already in besides How a or exposing the vast expenditures Avrich the proposed system involved a system exceeding Quot both in the number of lines and amount of appropriations to them the Al Ole net Kaork of navigation Avith which we Are told England has encompassed the Globe Quot a in continuing his speech or. Breckinridge showed hoax the steam interest had escaped the responsibility of their first engagement to furnish an auxiliary steam Navy and he proved by official data that the a vessels built by Collins and Sion and others for naval service Avert unfit for that Pui pose. In the course of his Able argument Avrich exposed the unconstitutionality extravagance and i expediency of granting this gratuity he paid a Beauty us compliment to our Navy and commercial Marine. He said Quot i am a Friend to our Commerce and favourable to All proper facilities for extending our communications Avith foreign countries i am a Friend also of the Navy. The history of my country presents too Many pages adorned by its achievements to Alloa me to speak aught in its disparagement. I never can be false to the memories that connect it Avith the crisis of 177g and 1812, nor Caer forget that Ashen the Commerce of America retired from All the seas and hid itself under embargoes and acts of non Intercourse our Gallant Navy contended not i gloriously Avith the first i Ower in Christendom and avenged the a Rongs we lad Long suffered from England. O e Quot i am by no Means insensible to the National Honor and commercial Reno Avn a which the Collins steamers have co Fen cd a on our country. In common with others i have exulted Over the Victory in steam Navi ration Avon by them for America and should regret to earn that the enterprising capitalists to Akhom they have their existence had sustained losses from their princely adventure. My sympathies Are a vainly enlisted for those Avo have contended so nobly a Ith the first naval Power on Earth Lor the Mastery of the seas. But Are such sympathies a proper basis for legislation when too that legislation must impose still greater Burtrens upon the people ? admit the plea in one cases legislate Wavay five Hundred thousand dollars upon it from an almost exhausted Treasury in one instance and adhere Are you to Stop ? where is the builder and adhere Are the owners of the yacht America which lately Avon such Brilliant honors in English Waters ? with a Liat consistency could Congress deny financial Aid and Protection to them Ashen demanded upon the ground that they too had conferred National Honor and Naa Al glory upon our country ? tie Pride of Britain that she holds the Trident of the sea5, avas not More humbled by our Triumph in steam Navis ration than it was in August last by the Success of that Little american Craft built in Nav York by american ship rights and manned in England by american freemen. The British people have spent centuries in perfecting their sailing vessels and English supremacy on the Ocean has been the cherished object of National desire. One of her poets Sang in exulting strains Quot her March is o or the Mountain wave. Her Home is on the Quot but such a boast is now Idle Albion no longer rules the agave the last Plank to which she Dunn avas wrested from her by an american shipwright Ana by american individual Haa ing shown that All such payments from the Public Treasury As contemplated by the Ocean mail service Avert Mace Quot to private individuals for the construction of private ships for private gains Quot he continued Quot if any reference to the Constitution of the United states May be made in these Days of magnificent monopolies and wholesale plunder without calling up a smile of derision i would inquire where that instrument confers the Power to give such gratuities ? and i desire to be pointed to the clause Emp Havering us to tax one interest for the purpose of building up another. I put the question to republicans eager where and especially do i commend it to gentlemen of the democratic party a party whose Cardinal principles have Ever been in direct conflict Avith such heroically resisting the influences around him with an Eye single to his country s veal and renown the impassioned orator clo de his powerful speech on this occasion in the Fol leaving manner Quot or. Chairman this amendment May pass this House As it has passed the Senate. I Noav the Power of the influences at Kavork in its favor personal Friend ships local interests continued solicitations All these Are actively exerted and Are hard to resist. Yon May succeed in giving to the Collins Hue alone nearly one million of dollars a year you May succeed in maintaining a Little Lon a this Ocean aristocracy supported like the British no oilily by the sweat of the people but the Day of its destruction will come. Every step taken in continuation of this system increases the number to be retraced because a principle which is both false to our destiny and in just cannot find a Penna nent resting place in the american statute Book. When the Counti a comes to understand and realize the effects of this legislation it will demand its instant and final repeal

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