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Indianapolis Indiana State Guard (Newspaper) - December 8, 1860, Indianapolis, Indiana Quot he Ous quest ibo to the peace of the two co Andries which has existed since tie War of 1812. Whilst it remained open they might at any inocent have been precipitated into a or. This was rendered Manifest by the exasperated state of Public feeling Tsirou ghost our whole country produced by to get forcible search of american merchant vessels by British cruisers on the coast of Cuba in the Spring of 1858. The american people hailed with general acclaim the orders of the Secretary of the Navy to our naval Force in the Gulf of Mexico to protect ail vessels of the United states on the High seas from search or detention by the vessels of War of any other nation. These orders might have produced an unfortunate collision Between the naval forces of the two countries. This was most fortunately prevented by an Appeal to the Justice of great Britain and to the Law of nations As expounded by her most eminent jurists. The Only question of any importance which still remains open is the disputed title Between the two governments to the Island of san Juan in the Vicinity of Washington territory. As this question is still under negotiation it is not deemed advisable at the present moment to make any other allusion to the subject. The recent visit of the Prince of Wales in appropriate character to tie people of this country has proved to be a most auspicious event in its consequences. It cannot fail to increase the Kindred and kindly feelings of both countries in their political and social Intercourse with each other. France. With France our ancient and powerful ally our relations continue to be of the most Friendly character. A decision has recently been made by a French judicial tribunal with tie approbation of the Imperial government which cannot fail to Foster the sentiments of Mutual regard that has so Long existed Between the two countries. Under the French Law no person can serve in the armies of France unless lie be a French citizen. The Law of France recognizing the natural right of expatriation it fou own As a necessary consequence thai a Frei Linian. By the f let of having become a citizen of the United states has changed his alleging nor and has lost his native character. He cannot tiie refuse be compelled to serve in tiie Frenchi armies in Case lie should return to his iia Iive country. These principles were anti Ouncie in 1852 by the French minister of War and in two late Caes have been conf Nii de by the French judiciary. In these two natives of France have been disc Luu de from the French army because they iad become american citizens. To employ the Kanyua be of our present minister to France who has rendered Good service on this occasion Quot i to not think stir French naturalized fellow citizens will hereafter experience much annoyance on this subject. I venture to predict Liat the time is not far Distant alien the other Continental Powers will adopt the same Wise and Jusi policy Wlinich has done so much Honor to the Kiili glistened g n Ern Niento of tiie in any event our government bound to protect the rights of her naturalized citizens everywhere to the same extent As though they Hail drawn Iligir first breath in this country. Vve can recognize no distinction Between our native and naturalized citizens. Russia. Between the great Empire of Russia and the United states the Mutual Friendship and regard which has so Long existed still continues to prevail and if possible to increase. Indeed our relations with that Empire Are All that we could desire. Spain. Our relations with Spain Are now of a More complicated though less dangerous character than they have been for Many years. Our citizens have Long held and continue to hold numerous claims against the Spanish government. These have been ably urged a r a series of years by our diplomatic representatives at Madrid but without obtaining redress. The Spanish government anally agreed to inst Lite a joint commission for the adjustment of claims and on the 5th Day of March 1860, concluded a convention for that purpose with our present minister at Madrid. Under this convention what have been denominated the cuban claims amounting to �128.635,54, in Wlinich More than one Hundred t f our fellow citizens Are interested were recognized and the Spanish government agreed to pay one Hundred thousand dollars of this amount within three months following tie Exchange of ratifications. The payment of the remaining �.28,635.54 was to await the decision of the commissioners for or against the a Nis Ead claim but in an event the balance was to be paid to the claimants either by Spain or the United states. Tii Ose terms i have every Rea Soti to know Are highly satisfactory to the Liol Ders of the cuban claims. Indeed they have made a formal offer authorizing the state department to Settle their claims and to deduct the amount of tie Amistead claims from the suns we iii they Are entitled to receive from Spain. This Oiler of course can not l e accepted. All other claims of citizens of the United states including the Amistead Laim. Were by this convention referred to a Board of commis Moners in the usual form. Not Richer tile Validity of the Amistead claim nor any other claim against either party with the single exception of the cuban claims was recon a a d by the convention indeed the Spanish government did not insist that the Validity of the Amstead claim should be thus recognized not with St ind iii its payment had been recommended to Congress by two of my predecessors As Well As by myself and an appropriation for that purpose had passed the Senate of the United states. They were Content that it should be submitted to tiie Board for examination and decision like the other claims. Both governments were bound respectively to pay the amounts awarded to tie several claimants at such times and places As May be fixed by and according to the Tenor of such awards and i transmitted this convention to the Senate tor their action on 3d May 186j, and on the 27th of the succeeding june they determined that they would not advise and consent to its ratification. These proceedings place our relations with Spain in an awkward and embarrassing position. It is More than probable that the final adjustment of these claims will devolve upon my successor. I reiterate the recommendation contained in my of december 1058, and repeat that of december 1859, in favor of the acquisition of Cuba from Spain by fair . 1 firmly believe that Sulci an acquisition would contribute essentially to the Well being and Prosperity of of the , in All future Lime As Well As prove the certain Means of immediately abolishing the african slave Trade throw it shout the world. I would not repeat this recommendation upon the occasion if i believed that the Transfer of Cuba to the United states upon conditions highly favourable to Spain could justly tarnish the National Honor of the proud and ancient Spanish monarchy surely no person Ever attributed to the first Napoleon a disregard of the National Honor of France for transferring Louisiana to the United states for a fair equivalent both in Money and in commercial advantages. Aids Tia it to. With the Empire of Austria and the remaining Continental Powers of Europe including that of the Sultan our relations continue t be of the most Friendly character. China. The Friendly and Peai Pefuhl policy pursued by the govern Niento of the United states towards the Empire of China has produced the most satisfactory results. Tie treaty of tientsin of the 18th of june 1858, has been faithfully observed by the chinese authorities. The convention of the 8th of november 1858, supplementary to this treaty for the adjustment and satisfaction of the claims of our citizens in China referred to in my last annual message has already been carried into effect so far As this was practicable. Under this convention the sum of 600,000 tales equal to about �700,000, was stipulated to be paid in satisfaction of the claims of american citizens out of the one fifth of the receipts for tonnage import and Export duties on american vessels at the ports of Canton Shanghai and Fuzhou and it was agreed that this amount shall be in full liquidation of All claims of american citizens at the various ports to this debentures for this amount to wit 300,000 tales for Canton 100,000 for Shanghai and 100,000 for Fuzhou were delivered according to the terms of the convention by the respective chinese collectors of the customs of these ports to the agent selected by our minister to receive the same. Since that time the claims of our citizens have been adjusted by the Board of commissioners appointed for that purpose under the act of March 3d, 1859 and their awards which proved satisfactory to the claimants have been approved by our minister. In the aggregate they amount to the sum of $498,684 78. The claimants have already received a Large proportion of the sums awarded to them out of the fund provided and it is confidently expected that the remainder will Ere Long be entirely paid. After the awards shall have been satisfied there will remain a surplus of More than �200,000, at the disposition of Congress. As this will in equity belong to the chinese government would not Justice require its appropriation to some benevolent object in which the chinese May be specially interested our minister to China in obedience to his instructions has remained perfectly Neutral in the War Between great Britain and France and the chinese Empire although in conjunction with the russian minister lie was Ever ready and willing Iliad the Opportunity Oil ered to employ his a Rood of Ces in Restori iii peace Between the a 1 a a u i parties. It is but an act of simple Justice Bot ii to our minister and his predecessor to state that Uliey have both proved fully equal to the delicate trying and responsible positions in which they have on different occasions been placed. Japan. The ratifications of the treaty with Japan concluded at Yeddo on the 29ih of july. 1858, were exchanged at Washington on the 22d of May last and the treaty was proclaimed on the succeeding Day. There is Good Rea on to expect that under its Protection and influence our Trade and Intercourse with that Distant and interesting people will rapidly increase. The ratifications of t he treaty were exchanged Widi unusual solemnity. For this Pur Jjose the tycoon had accredited three of his most distinguished minis ers who were received and treated with marked distinction and kindness Bot i by tiie government and people of the United states. There is every reason to believe that they have returned to their native land entirely satisfied with their visit and inspired by the most Friendly feelings for our country. Let us fervently Hope in the language of the treaty itself that there shall henceforward be perpetual peace and Between the United states of America and his majesty the tycoon of Japan and his successors. Brazil. With the Wise conservative and Liberal government of the Empire of Brazil our relations continue to be of the most amicable character. New ski Naua. The Exchange of the ratifications of the convention with the Republic of new Grenada signed at Washington on the Loti of september 1858, has been Long delayed for accidental causes for which neither party is a insurable. These ratifications were duly exchanged in this City on the 5 h of november last. Thus has a controversy been amicably terminated which had become so serious at the period of my inauguration As to require me. On the 17ih april 1857, to direct our minister to demand his passports and return to the United states. Under this condition the government of new Grenada has specially acknowledged itself to he responsible to our citizens for damages which were cars it d b like riot at Panama on the 1 5lli april 1856.�? these claims together with other claims of our citizens which had been Long urged in vain Are n feared for adjust int o a Board of commissioners. I submit a copy of the convention to Congress and recommend the legislation necessary to carry it into effect. Costa Rica and Nicaragua. Persevering i Al Quot Orts have been made for the adjustment of the claims of american citizens against the government of Cosia Rica and 1 am Happy to inform you that these have finally prevailed a convention was signed at the City of san Jose on the 2d of july last Between the minister resident of the United states in Costa Rica and the plenipotentiaries of that Republic referring these claims to a Board of commissioners and providing for payment of their awards. This convention will be submitted to the Senate for their constitutional action. The claims of our citizens upon the Republic of Nicaragua have not yet been provided Lor by treaty although diligent efforts for this purpose have been made by our minister resident in that Republic. These Are still continued with a fair Prospect of Success. Mexico. Our relations with Mexico remain in a most unsatisfactory condition. In my two last annual Messa it fes 1 discussed exp naive la the subject of o Quot a to Lite relations and do not now propose to repeat at length the facts and arguments then . They proved conclusively that our citizens residing in mexi of and our in chants trading thereto had suffered a series of wrongs and outrages such As we have never patiently borne from any nation. For triese our successive ministers invoking the Faith of treaties had in the name of their country persistently demanded redress and indemnification but without the slightest , so confident had the mexican authorities been because of our patient endurance that they universally believed they might commit their outrages upon american citizens with absolute impunity. Thus wrote our minister in 1856, and expressed the opinion that nothing but a manifestation of the Powers of the government and of its to punish these wrongs will Avail. Afterwards in 1857, came tie adoption of a new Constitution for Mexico the Union of a president and a Congress in her its provisions and the inauguration of a president within one Short month. However. This president was expelled from the capital by a rebellion in the army and the supreme Power of the government was assigned to general Zuloaga. This usurper was in his turn soon comp lied to retire from his place by general Miramon. Under the Constitution which had thus been adopted general Juarez,.As chief Justice of the supreme court became the lawful president of the Republic and it was for the maintenance of the Constitution and his authority derived from it that the civil War commenced and still Conti Mies to be prosecuted. Throux shout the year 1858, the constitutional party grew stronger and stronger. In the previous history of Mexico a successful military revolution at the capital had most universally been the signal for submission throughout the Republic. Not so on the present a majority of the citizens persistently sustained the constitutional government. When this was recommended in 1869, by the government of the United states to authority extended Over a Large majority of the mexican states and people including Vera Cruz and ail the important seaports of the Republic. From that period our Commerce with Mexico began to revive and the constitutional government has afforded it All the Protection in their Power. Meanwhile the government of Miramon still held Sway at the capital and Over the surrounding country and continued its outrages against the few american citizens who still had the courage to remain within its Power. To Cap the Climax after the Battle of Tacu Baya in april 1859, Gen. Marques ordered three citizens of the United Stales two of them physicians to be seized in the Hospital at that place and shot without trial. This was done notwithstanding our unfortunate countryman was at the moment engaged in the holy cause of offering Relief to the soldiers of both parties who had been wounded in the Battle without making any distinction Between them. The time had arrived in my opinion when the government was bound to exert its Power to avenge and redress the wrongs of our citizens and to afford them Protection in Mexico. The interposing obstacle was that the country under the Sway of Miramon could not be reached without passing Over territory under the jurisdiction of the constitutional government. Under these circumstances 1 deemed it my duty to recommend to Congress in my last annual message the employment of a sufficient military Force to penetrate into the Interior where the government of Miramon was to be found with or if need be without the consent of the Juarez government though it was not doubted that this consent could be obtained. Never have i had a clearer conviction on any subject than i have of the Justice As Well As Wisdom of such a policy. No other alternative was left except the entire aban it Loument of our fellow citizens who had gone to Mexico under the Faith of treaties to the systematic injustice cruelty and oppression of Ira Mon s government. Besides it is certain that a simple authority to employ this Force would of itself have accomplished All our objects Avit Hout striking a single blow. The constitutional government would have then been established at the City of Mexico and would have been ready and willing to the extent of its ability to do us Justice. In addition and 1 deem this a most important consideration foreign governments would have been deprived of All pretext to interfere in the territorial and Domestic concerns of Mexico. We should have thus been relieved from the of libration of Resi Linit even by Force should this id become necessary any attempt of these governments to deprive our neighbouring Republic of portions of her territory a duty from which we could not shrink without abandoning the traditional and established policy of the american people. 1 am Happy to learn that firmly relying upon the Justice and Good Faith of these governments there is no present danger that such a contingency will happen. Having discovered that my recommendations would not be sustained by Congress the next alternative was to accomplish in some degree if possible the same objects by treaty stipulations with the constitutional government. Such treaties were accordingly concluded by our late Able and minister to Mexico and on the 4th of january last were submitted to the Senate for Ualifi Calion. As they have not received the final action of that body it would be improper for me to present a detailed statement of their provisions. Still i May be permitted to express the opinion in Advance that they Are calculated to promote the a Ltd cultural manufacturing and commercial interests of the country and to secure our just influence wit ii an adjoining Republic As to whose Foj tunes and Fate we can never feel indifferent whilst at the same Lime they provide for the payment of a considerable amount towards the satisfaction of the claims of our injured fellow citizens. Kansas and Utah. At the period of my inauguration i was con fronted in Kansas by a revolutionary govern ment existing under what was called the Tope a a Constitution. The avowed object was to sub due the territorial government by Force and to inaugurate what was called the Topeka government in its Stead. To accomplish this object an. Extensive military organization was formed and its command entrusted to the most violent revolutionary leaders. I under these circumstances it became my im-1 operative duty to exert the whole constitutional Power of the executive to prevent the flames of civil War from raging in Kansas which the excited state of the Public mind both North and South might have extended into the neighbouring slates. I the hostile parties in Kansas had been inflamed i against each other by emissaries both from the North and South to a degree of Malignity without parallel in our history. To prevent eventual i collision and to assist the civil magistrates in en-1 Forcin Quot the Laws a Strons detachment of the a i o o j my was stationed in the territory ready Loaid the marshal and his deputies when officially Cal-1 led upon As a posse comi Tatus in the execution i of civil and criminal process. Still the troubles a in Kansas could not have been permanently set a lied without an election by the people the ballot boxes being the surest arbitrator of disputes among freemen. Under this conviction every proper Effort was employed to induce the hostile parties to vote at the election of delegates la Frame a state Constitution and afterwards at the election to decide whether Kansas should be a free or slave state. The insurgent party refused to vote at a Ither lest this might be considered As a recognition on their part of the territorial gov a Ern ment establish died by Congress. A better spirit however seemed soon after to prevail and the j two parties met face to face in the election held i the first monday of january 1858, for members i of the legislature and state officers under the Lecompton Constitution. The result was the Triumph of the anti slavery party at the polls. decision of the ballot Box proved clearly that this party were in the majority and removed the danger of civil War. From that time we have heard nothing of the Topeka government and All serious danger of revolutionary troubles in Kansas was then at an end. The Lecompton Constitution which had thus been recognized at this state election by the Voles of both political parties in Kansas was transmitted with the request that i should present it to Congress. This i could not have refused to do without violating my clearest and strongest convictions of duty. The Laws and All the proceedings which preceded and followed its formation were fair and regular on their face and what i then believed and expressed has pro in True the interests of the people of Kansas would have been consulted by its admission As a state into the Union especially As a majority within a Brief period could have amended the Constitution according to Ihei r will and pleasure. If fraud existed in any or All of these proceedings it was not for the president but for Congress to investigate and determine the question of fraud and what ought to be the consequences. If at the two first elections the majority refused to vote it cannot be pretended that this refusal to exercise the electoral franchise could invalidate an election fairly held under lawful authority even if they had not subsequently voted at the third election. It is True that the whole Constitution had not been submitted to the people As i always desired but the precedents Are numerous of the admission of states into the Union without such . It would not comport with my present purpose to review the proceedings of Congress upon the Lecompton Constitution. It is sufficient to observe that their final action has removed the last vestige of serious revolutionary troubles. The desperate band recently assembled under a notorious outlaw in the Southern portion of the territory to resist the execution of the Laws and to plunder peaceable citizens will i doubt not be speedily brought to Justice. Had i treated the Lecompton Constitution As a nullity and refused to transmit it to Congress it is not difficult to imagine whilst recalling the position of the country at that moment what would have been the disastrous consequences both in and out of the territory from such Deri Lection of duty on the part of the executive. Peace has also been restored within the territory of Utah which at the commencement of my administration was in a state of open rebellion. This was the More dangerous As the people animated by a fanatical spirit and entrenched within their Mountain fastnesses might have made a Long and formidable resistance. Cost what it might it was necessary to bring them into subjection to the Constitution and Laws. Sound policy therefore As Well As humanity required that this object should be accomplished if possible without the effusion of blood. This could Only be effected by sending a military Force into the territory sufficiently Strong to convince the people that resistance would be hopeless and at the same time to offer them a Pardon for past offences on condition of immediate submission to the government. This polic was pursued with eminent Success and the Only cause for regret is the heavy exp Wendi Ture required to March a Large detachment of the Arm to that Remote Region and to furnish it subsistence. Utah is now comparatively peaceful and quiet and the military Force has been withdrawn except that portion of it necessary to keep the indians in Check and to protect the Emigrant trains on their Way to our Pacific possessions. Finances. In my first annual Messare i promised to employ my Best exertions in co operation with Congress to reduce the expenditures of the government Witlin the limits of a Wise and judicious Economy. An overflowing Treasury has produced habits of prodigality and extravagance which could Only be gradually corrected. The work rec tired both time and patience. I applied myself diligently to this task from the be Gnu info and was aide Ltd by the Able and energetic efforts of the Heads of the different executive departments. The of our labors in this Good cause did not appear in the sum total of our expenditures for the first two , mainly in of the extraordinary i Pendi tires acc essay ily incurred in the Utah expedition and the very Large amount of the contingent expenses of Congress during this period. These greatly exceeded the pay and mileage of the members. For the year ending 3i the june 1858, whilst the Ziy and mileage amounted to s 1,490,214, the contingent expenses Rose to s2, �9� .i09 79 and for the year ending june 1859, Ali list the pay and mileage amounted to �859,1 93 go the contingent expenses amounted to ,4.31,565 78. I am Happy Iio Wever to be Able to info m you that during the last fiscal year ending on the both june 1860, the total expenditures of tie government in All its branches legislative executive and judicial of Public debt were reduced to the sum of �55,402,456 46. This conclusively appears from the books of the Treasury. In the year ending on the 30th june 1858, the total , of the Public debt amounted to $71,901,129 77 and that for the year ending 30th june 1859, to $06,346,226 13 whilst the books of the Treasury show an actual expenditure of s59,845,474 72 tor the year ending 30th june 1860, including ,040,667 7rfbr the contingent expenses of Congress. There must be deducted from this amount the sum of a 1,296,009 26, with the interest upon it of 8150,000, appropriated by the act of 15th february 1860, for the purpose of supplying the deficiency in the revenues and defraying the expenses of the Post office department for the year ending 30th of june 1859. This sum therefore justly chargeable to the year 1859, must be deducted from the sum of �59,848,474 72, in order to ascertain the expenditure for the year ending 30th june 1860, which leaves a balance for the expenditures of that year of �55,402,465 46. The interest on the Public debt including Treasury notes for the same fiscal year ending on the 30th june 186, amounted to �3,177,-314 62 which added to the above sum of .�55,402,-465 46, makes the aggregate of �58,579,780 08. It ought in Justice to be observed that several of the estimates Fiorin All the departments for the year ending 30th june 1860, were reduced by Congress below what was and still is deemed compatible with the Public interest. Allowing a Liberal margin of �250,000 for Liis reduction and for other causes it Mav be safely asserted that the sum of �61,000,000, or at the most �62,000,000, is amply sufficient to administer the government and to pay the interest on the Public debt unless contingent events Sli Ouhl hereafter Render extraordinary expenditures necessary this result has Heen attained in a considerable degree by the care exercised by the appropriate departments in entering into Public contracts. I have myself never interfered with the award of any such contracts except in a single ease that of the colonization society. I deemed it advisable to leave the responsibility in each Case to the proper head of the department with tie general instruction that these contracts should always be Given to the lowest and Best bidder it has Ever been so Given. It is my opinion that Public contracts Are not a legitimate source of patronage to be conferred upon personal or political favourites but that in All such eases a Public officer is bound to act for the government As a prudent individual would act for himself. African slave Trade. It is with great satisfaction i communicate the fact that since the Date of my last annual message not a single slave has been imported into the United seites in violation of the Laws prohibiting the african slave Trade. This statement is founded upon a thorough examination and investigation of the subject. Indeed the spin it which prevailed some tune since among a portion of our fellow citizens in favor of this Trade seems to have entirely subsided. I also congratulate you upon tie Public sentiment which now exists against the crime of setting on foot military expeditions within the limits of the United states to proceed from thence to and make War u on the people of an Uno fending state wit ii whom we Are at peace. In this respect a Happy change has been effected since the commencement of my administration. It surely ought to be the prayer of every Christian and Patriot that Sulci expeditions May never receive countenance in our country or depart from our Siores. It Touhl be a useless repetition to do More than refer with Earnest commendation to my former recommendations in favor of the Pacific Railroad and of the Grant of Power to the president to employ the naval Force or Force in the Vicinity for the Protection of the fives and property of our fellow citizens passing in transit Over the different Central american routes against sudden and Lawless outbreaks and depredations and also to protect american merchant vessels their Crews and cargoes against violent and unlawful seizure and confiscation in the ports of Mexico and the South american republics when these May be in a disturbed and revolutionary condition. It is my settled conviction that without such a Jhu wer we cannot Ait Ord that Protection to those engaged in the Commerce of the country Avrich they have a right to demand election of members of Congress. I again recommend to Congress the passage of a Law in pursuance of the provisions of the Constitution appointing a certain Day previous to the 4th of March in each year of an Odd number for the election of representatives throughout All the states. My attention was earnestly directed to this subject from the fact that the 35th Congress terminated on the 3d of March 1859, without making the necessary appropriation for the Post office department and i was then forced to consider the Best remedy for this omission and an immediate Call of the present Congress a. The usual resort. Upon inquiry however i ascertained that fifteen out of the thirty be states can posing the confederacy were without representatives and Liat consequently fifteen states would be disfranchised by such a Call. These fifteen states will be in the same condition on the 4th of March next. Two of them cannot elect representatives a conling to state Laws until different periods extending from the beginning of August next until the 9th of november and you remember in my last message i gave warning that in a time of sudden and alarming danger the salvation of our institutions might depend upon the Power of the president immediately to assemble a full Congress to meet the emergency. Tariff. It is now quite evident that the financial necessities of the government will require a modification of the Tariff during your present session for purpose of increasing the Revenue. In this respect i desire to reiterate the recommendation contained in my last two annual messages in favor of imposing specific instead of and Valorme duties on All imported artices to which these can properly be applied. From Long observation and experience i am convinced that specific duties Are necessary both to protect the Revenue and to secure to our Man fac tuning interests that amount of incidental encouragement which unavoidably results from a Revenue Tariff. As an abstract proposition it May be admitted that and Valorme duties Avold in theory be the most just and equal but if the experience of this and other commercial nations has demonstrated that such duties cannot be asked and collected without great frauds upon the Revenue then it is the part of Wisdom to resort to specific duties. Indeed from the very nature of an olt Valorme duty this must be the result under it. The inevitable consequence is that foreign goods will be entered at less than their True value. The Treasury will therefore lose the duty on the difference Between their real and fictitious value and to this extent we Are defrauded. The temptation which and Valorme duties present to a dishonest importer Are irresistible. His object is to Niass his goods through the custom House at the very lowest valuation necessary to save them from confiscation. In this he too often succeeds in spite of the vigilance of the Revenue officers. Hence the resort to false invoices one for purchasers another for the custom House and to other expedients to defraud the government. The honest importer produces his invoice to the collector stating the actual Price at which he pure biased the articles abroad. Not so the dishonest importer and the agent of tie foreign . And Here it May be observed that a very Large proportion of the foreign manufactures imported from abroad Are consigned tor Sale to merchants who Are Mere agents employed by the manufacturers. In such eases where no actual Sale has been made to fix their value the foreign manufacturer if he be dishonest prepares an invoice of the goods not at their actual value but at the very lowest rate necessary to escape detection. In Thi s manner the dishonest importer and the foreign manufacturer enjoy a decided advantage Over the honest merchant. They Are thus enabled to undersell the fair trader and drive him from the in fact the operation of this system has already driven from the Pursuit of honorable Commerce Many of that class of regular and conscientious merchants whose character throughout the world is the Pride of our country. The remedy for these evils is to be found in specific duties so far As this May be practicable. They h Spense with any inquiry at the custom House into the actual Cost or value of the article and it pays the precise amount of duty previously fixed by Law. They present no tempt it it ions to the appraisers of foreign goods who receive but Small salaries and might by undervaluation in a few , Render themselves Independent. Besides specific duties Best cont Brm to the requisition in the Constitution that no preference shall be Given by any regulation of Commerce or Revenue to the ports of one state Over those of another. Under our and Valorme system such preferences Are to some extent inevitable and complaints have often been made that tiie spirit of Liis provision Lias been violated by a lower appraisement of the same articles at one port than another. An impression strangely enough prevails to some , Liat Suje Effic duties Are necessarily protective duties. Nothing can be More fallacious. Great Britain glories in free Trade and yet her whole Revenue from imports is at the present moment collected under a system of specific duties. It is a striking fact in this connection that in the commercial treaty of 23d january 1860, Between France and England one of tie articles provides that the and Valorme duties which it imposes shall be converted into specific duties within six months of its Date and Are to be ascertained by making an average of the prices for six months previous to that time. The reverse of the proposition would be nearer the truth because a much larger amount of Revenue would be collected by merely converting the and Valorme duties of a Tariff Quot into general Etc divalent specific duties. To this extent the Revenue would be increased and in the same proportion the specific duty might be diminished. Specific duties would secure to the american manufacturer the incidental Protection to which he is fairly entitled under a Revenue Tariff and to this surely no person would object. The framers of the Tarifi Quot have gone further and in a Liberal spirit have discriminated in favor of Large and useful branches of our manufactures not by raising the rate of duties us it a the Imja rotation of similar articles from abroad but what is the same in effect by admitting articles free of duty which enter into the composition of their fabrics. Under the present system it has been often truly remarked that this incidental Protection decreases when the manufacturer needs it most and increases when he needs it least and constitutes a siding scale which always operates against him. The revenues of the country Are subject to similar fluctuation instead of approaching a steady staudi Das would be the ease under a system of specific duties. They sink and Rise with the sinking and rising prices of the articles in foreign countries. It would not be difficult for Congress to arrange a system of specific duties which would afford additional stability both to our Revenue and our manufactures and without injury or injustice to any interest of the country. This might be accomplished by ascertaining the average value of any Given article for a series of years at the place of exportation and by simply converting the state of Cul Valorme duty upon it which might be deemed necessary for Revenue purposes in the form of a specific duty. Such an arrangement could not injure the consumer if he should pay a greater amount of duty one year this would be counter alced by a lesser amount the next and in the end the aggregate would be the same. I desire to Call your immediate attention to the present condition of the Treasury so ably and clearly presented by the Secretary in his re Wrt to Congress and to recommend that measures be promptly adopted to enable it to discharge its pressing obligations. The other recommendations of the report Are Well worthy of your favourable consideration. A herewith transmit to Congress the reports of the Secretary of War of the Navy of the Interior and of the postmaster general. The recommendations and suggestions which they contain Are highly valuable and deserve your careful attention. The report of the postmaster general details the circumstances under Wlinich Cornelius Vanderbilt on my request agreed in the month of july last to carry the Ocean mails Between our Atlantic and Pacific coasts. Had he not thus acted this Impi Tant intercommunication must have been suspended at least for a season. The p. M. A neral had no Power to make him any other compensation than the postage on mail matter which he might carry. It was known at the time these postage would fall far Short of an adequate compensation As Well As of the sum which the same service had previously Cost the government. Or. Vanderbilt in a commendable spirit was Wilfing to rely upon the Justice of Congress to make up the deficiency and i therefore recommend that an appropriation be granted for this purpose. I should do great injustice to the attorney general were i to omit the mention of his distinguished services in the measure adopted and prosecuted by him for the defence of the government against numerous and unfounded claims to land in Califon iia purporting to have been made by the mexican Jov emment previous to the treaty of cession. The successful oppo Ilion to these claims has saved to the United states Public property Worth Many millions of dollars and to individuals holding title under them at least an equal amount. Famine in Kansas. It has been represented to me from sources which i deem reliable thy the inhabitants in several portions of Kansas have been reduced nearly to a state of starvation on account of the almost total failure of i their crops whilst the harvests in every other portion of the noun try have been abundant. The Prospect before them for the approaching Winter is Well calculated to enlist the sympathies of every heart the destitution appears to be so general that it cannot be i relieved by private contributions and they Are in such indigent Circum stances As to be unable to Purchase the necessities of life for themselves. I refer the subject to Congress. If any constitutional measure for their Relief can be devised i would recommend its adoption. District of col Tombia. I cordially commend to your favourable regard the interests of the people of this District. They Are eminently entitle to to your consideration especially As unlike the people of the states they can Appeal to no government except that of the Union. James Indiana state guard. William ,.editor.satubday,.deoembee 8.democratic National executive committee. The following named gentlemen compose this committee Hon. I. I. Stevens of Oregon chairman. Hon. R. W. Johnson of Arkansas. Hon. Jefferson , of Mississippi. Hon. Jesse d. Bright of Indiana. Hon. Tons. B. Florence of Pennsylvania. Hon. John w. Stevenson of Kentucky. Hon. . W. Hughes of Maryland. Hon. John r. Thomson of new Jersey. Hon. A. B. Meek of Alabama. Augustus Schnell esq., of new York. Isaac h. Wright of Massachusetts. Abraham Hunter esq., of Benton Missouri. Hon. Jas. G. Barrett of Washington d. We. Flinn esq., of Washington d. Walter Lenox. Esq., of Washington d. M. W. Clusky Washington d. C., resident Secretary. G. W. Riggs Washington d. C., president s message. We give up our columns almost exclusively to the message of president Buchanan to both houses of Congress. It is taken altogether a document of commanding interest of great ability which reflects much credit upon its author. It exhibits our relations with foreign countries to be of a prosperous peaceful and Friendly character except with Spain Mexico and Peru. It shows a vast reduction in the expenses of the government at the present Lime from those incurred in former years a reduction of some i went millions which will be duly appreciated by the country during the present revulsion in the Money Market. While however the message exhibits everything As it should be on the part of the general government everything Over which the president has a control it presents As every one Anli ciliated a gloomy picture of the attitude of the sever in s ates in which disunion has become the order of the Day. The president administers a rebuke to the slates occupying this attitude but it is Given in language As conciliatory As the nature of the Case will admit. The president thinks that there Are faults on both sides of Mason and Dixon s line and he deals with the offending Stales in both sections As a father would with a set. Of intemperate sons quarrelling and threatening destruction to each other. He cuts right and left with an impartial hand and does not spare the Rod upon any one deserving it. But although he Speaks daggers he uses none bearing in mind As he does that however unruly they All Are yet they Are All of his own flesh and blood. He begins with the Northern anti slavery agitators and nullifies who commenced the quarrel and finishes with the South with the Southern secessionists. Quot the Long continued and intemperate interference of tie Northern people with slavery in the Southern states has produced Quot he says Quot its natural effects Quot a created apprehensions of negro insurrection and promoted fraternal discord and strife in that Quarter. Is not this True have not Northern editors and orators of the abolition school carried on for a Quarter of a Century bitter and unrelenting warfare against the institution of slavery until As the president says scarcely Quot a Matron in the South meaning such of the Southern states As Are overcrowded with slaves retires at night without dread of what May befall herself and Lier children before morning Quot have not pictorial representations of negroes under the lash of negroes in chains been sent by abolitionists through the Post offices of the South with a View of exciting the slaves to excesses aija inst their Mas i it o ters is not the John Brown raid in Virginia exciting As it did panic throughout the whole South from the apprehension that it would be followed up by similar outrages elsewhere still fresh in the Public mind have not such outrages done As much to alienate the affy cimons of the Southern people As the passage of the personal Liberty Bills in opposition to the fugitive slave Law find the denial of the equal rights of Southern people to carry their property with them into the territories Bui while the president condemns the conduct of the anti slavery agitators of the North while he censures such of the Northern states As have sanctioned the nullification of the fugitive slave Law he censures with equal Force the disunion its of South Carolina who threaten whatever May have been the provocation Given the Southern people by the Northern agitators and nullifies still he says nothing has been done by the general government to warrant any stale in seceding from the Union. Nothing he thinks will warrant the secession of a single stale but Jan overt act on the part of the government against the constitutional rights of such stale. Secession he says ought to be the last desperate Effort of a despairing people after every other constitutional Means of conciliation has been exhausted. The president however does not oppose the right of resistance on the part of the governed against the oppression of their government against tyranny and usurpation but this resistance he says would constitute revolution such As the american colonies of 76 entered into against the King of England. But no such tyranny or usurpation has yet been manifested by the Federal government towards any state and therefore it would be wrong for any state to resort to revolution. The president however does not a link that if a stale should actually secede the Constitution gives Congress the Power to Force Lier to return to the Union to Force her to submission. Such a Power was expressly refused to the general government in the convention which framed the Constitution and this being the a there is

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