Indianapolis Indiana Journal in Indianapolis, Indiana
30 Sep 1846

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Indianapolis Indiana Journal in Indianapolis, Indiana
30 Sep 1846

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Indianapolis Indiana Journal (Newspaper) - September 30, 1846, Indianapolis, IndianaVol. , wednesday sept. 30, 1846, no. 29 rub shed every wednesday morning by John d. Defrees ats2,00pernnnumin Advance or $2,50 it the end of the year. Rails of advertising a nine Unes or less for one insertion 50cts for three insertions 81,00 for each subsequent insertion 25cts. A Liberal discount to those advertising by the for this paper. Or. V. B. Palmer is authorized to receive Money on subscription and in payment for advertisements forwarded by him. H is offices Are at n. W. Corner of 3d and Chesnut St., Philadelphia a Tribune buildings new York no. 20 state St., Boston and s. E. Comer of Baltimore and Calvert St., Baltimore. Messes. Mason amp Tuttle no. 33 William St., and or. George Pratt no. 164, Nassau St. New York Are also authorized agents for the same purpose. Or. R. C. Green of Cincinnati Ohio is authorized to receive Money on subscription and in payment for advertisements forwarded by Liim from that City. The following gentlemen will please receive and Forward ubic Rillions for this paper. At Burn w. Park Liberty j. Yaryan Andersontown r. Williams a Muncie t. J. Sample Bloomington l. Bollman Marion j. Brownlee Bowling Green j. T. Karr Madison w. A Jackson Brookville j. Farquher Bloomfield s. Fellows Columbus h. B. Horn Charlestown j. Ferguson new Albany j. Davis Connersville w. If Smith new Castle e. Murphy it. Pleasant r. Brown Martinsville a. Griggs Monticello d. M. Tilton Covington j. Sloan Corydon w. A. Porter Crawfordsville j. Beard Centerville g. W. Julian Delphi h. Allen Danville j. Harvey Evansville j. N. Kirkendale a Newport w. P. Dole Noble H., w. C. Taylor Point Commerce j. Allison Princeton s. Hall Plymouth w. G. Pomeroy Peru j. M. Defrees Paoli t v. Thornton eague Village j. F. Daugherty Rochester a. Smith Fra to fort j. Thompson Franklin f. M. Finch fort Wayne h. W. Jones Greensburg j. T. Gibson Groshen j. Defrees Greencastle a. Stephenson Huntington r Murray Kokomo t. A Long Lebanon j. C. Hocker Logansport g. W. Blakemore Lima j. T. Hobbs Laporte d. G. Rose Tipton a. Brown. Rome j. B. Huckeby Rockville t. Nelson rising Sun s. Jelley Rockport j. Harvey re Seville g. Tingley Spencer r. C. Howe soon h Bend M. Heaton Salem r. Martin Terre haute j. Hager Vernon j. Vawter Vevay j. N. Martin Wabash j. D. Cassat Williamsport j. Buel the journal is sent free of postage to the following Post offices Viz Marion , Lei Root Allisonville Germantown Cumberland new Bethel Bridgeport Augusta. Hendricks , Plainfield Bellville Stiles Ville Danville new Winchester Brownsburg Springtown North Salem. Hamilton , Noblesville Royalton Straw town Cicero. Boone , Thomley Ville Royalton Jamestown Eagle Village Northfield. Morgan , Monrovia. Hancock , sugar Creek Charlottsville Philadelphia Eden. Johnson , Franklin far West. Shelby View Shelbyville song of the teutonic on still on the worlds Are speeding g through the heavens with step Sublime on still on the nations leading March we through the deeps of time i through tie Shadow of the Ages Onward upward lies our Way till we reach the coming edges. Climbing to the climbing Day round us piled in desolation. Ghostly apes of ruin Rise gloomy terrors hoary errors tombs of hurried centuries. Press we on with hearts undaunted leaving All that time hath won through the Dusky Pha Tomed haunted passes of oblivion. Night is o or us Heights before us human footsteps never trod still ascending we Are wending on beneath the stars and god Long the night that Halh no breaking a darkness Dies upon our Way courage 1 to the world is waking stirred with boding of the Day. Truth is dawning see the morning kindling Over sea and land and the gilded Hills Are Werning that the Day Spring May not stand far Adown it flows and widens souls Are lighted by the Blaze and the Distant Mountain summits stand transfigured with its rays. Listen to the Accra ration borne along from Steep to Steep nation calling unto nation like the surges of the deep. Brothers will be faint and loiter while the acclaim around you Roll ? see the glory deepening future a Onward to the beckoning goal Brothers Onward to our Standard soaring in in moral youth we re the Van guard of the nations girded with the might of truth Plank roads. Good roads greatly Advance the Prosperity of a they Are much needed in every portion of our state. In the Spring and fall the most important portions of the year they become almost impassable. In the absence of suitable material to Mcada Mize them the Best Mode for their improvement should be adopted. It is the opinion of those who have examined the subject that Plank answers the purpose. The last Logansport pharos contains a letter addressed by a gentleman in Michigan to Carter esq., in relation to roads thus constructed from which we make the following extract Quot myself and or. George Geddes were deputed a committee last fall after our company was organized to proceed to Canada and examine into and report the most practicable and economical Way of building our Road and upon the result of our labors As embodied in my report we have built our Road. We found the Canada roads made of three Inch Plank of All widths and varying lengths that is some roads were built of 24, some 20, 18, 16,10, and 8 feet length of Plank. We adopted Hemlock As our lumber 4 inches our thickness of Plank Width not less than 6 or More than 12 inches length 8 feet. Hemlock was selected because of its greater durability in the matter of Wear. We think that the situation of the Plank forbids the idea of their wasting by rot before they Wear out by use. Another and Strong inducement with us was the expense which is not Over 70 per cent of that of Pine. We made our Plank 4 inches thick believing that the Strain on a 3 Inch Plank from heavy loads would cause it to Wear out sooner than a 4 Inch Plank by More than the difference in Cost. We made them not less than 6 nor More than 12 inches wide because of the greater facility of repairing without too much waste of lumber. 8 feet is the Width of our truck. Any greater Width than that is a loss of lumber inasmuch As the Centre is the Road Way and All the Plank which projects beyond the wheels receives no Wear. I saw them taking up a 16 feet Road in Canada which had been Down 7i years. Four feet at each end was As thick and sound As when Laid while the Centre Section of 8 feet was worn through to the ground. They have there in All their recent roads and in relaying old ones adopted the eight feet length. Another reason in favor of an 8 feet track is this the bearing surface in it is greater than in any other length. Your Load running Over it presses the Plank equally from end to end to the ground whereas in a greater Width or length i should say of Plank the Middle is depressed and the ends lifted admitting air rendering the Road uneven and producing from the jostling motion quicker Wear. We Lay our Road crossway upon sleepers or joists 4 by 4 inches running Lengthwise of the Road. Now As to the manner of laying Down the Road. Our location is such running Over a nearly even surface of country that we have paid no attention to Lengthwise grading beyond filling up Quick hollows and cutting Down Short rises. We have followed the natural surface of the country. We commence by blowing the Road bed beam deep. We then imbed in that after staking out our line one string piece leveling it to the pitch or Grade which we wish to run by the we then imbed the other 7i feet from it that is so As to have the distance from inside to inside of sleepers 6 10-12 feet the last Sleeper is levelled by Means of a level with a plumb one leg of which level rests on each Sleeper. We then use what we term a Plank Road scraper to scrape from the Road bed All Earth that lays above the top of these sleepers. We then Lay our Plank being careful to have the Plank touch at All Points on the ground and sleepers. Otue tidies our sleepers May run above the level of the natural surface a we then scrape in with this same scraper Earth from some convenient Point. We Grade with a rolling Grade 15 feet on one Side of our track As a dirt track to turn out upon the other Side the dirt Only wets to be banked up to the upper surface of the Plank without any great Width of offset otherwise the water which strikes your Plank will be unable to Drain off. Above All Lay your Road High and see to Ita being Well drained with Side ditches and wherever there is a dish at least have Good culverts across for the Only fear there can be in reference to these roads is that heavy Rains May raise the Plank unless the water is carried off immediately and effectually. I will give you a rude sketch at the end of this communication of our level Road scraper and Road. Now As to the Cost of construction. We have built 12i Miles of Road and three Gate houses and purchased the land for the Gate houses at an expense of $18 000, or not quite $1,500 per mile. Our Gate houses Cost Laud and All �575 each. Our lumber averaged delivered say $5 25 per thousand feet Board measure and the Cost of laying our Road including engineering grading ditching and laying Down in fact All else say about $450 per mile. Now sir i May be enthusiastic in regard to this matter but i have travelled extensively on All sorts of roads and in All manner of vehicles but give me a common Wagon on a Plank Road in preference to a rail Road car on a Flat rail for ease and pleasure. It is ahead in fact of All roads and must of necessity come extensively into use wherever the nature of the ground is such As to forbid permanency in a dirt Road and the Price of lumber is not too great. In order to guard against misapprehension although no mention has been made of confining the Plank i would say that we do not pin or fasten it in any Way. It is not necessary their own weight keeping them in their place. Another thing a great objection was made to an 8 feet track on the ground that there is no Chance to turn out or that heavily loaded teams would Cut Down in the dirt. Public opinion has Given Way to experience on that subject. We pass from 125 to 150 teams per Day and the grass for the great share of the distance is literally growing on both sides up to the Plank. The Road being kept drained the dirt part of it merely used for turning out does not Cut up with the heaviest loads. Our teamsters who thought with the old Road that 75 barrels or Cord of Wood was Load enough now draw 125 barrels or in cords of Wood with All ease. In fact the strength and build of the Wagon is the Only Guage of the size or weight of the Load. Our Road is a Stock Road. Our receipts have been for the 44 Days that we have been receiving toll $813 but for the last week of that time Over $22 per Day. We charge 14 cts. Per mile for a double team and 1 cent for a single the Law of draw Back. We noticed on tuesday the recent extraordinary circular of the Secretary of the Treasury upon the subject of drawbacks. The matter has created a very great excitement in commercial circles and we understand the remonstrances against the circular both verbal and written Are almost daily made at the department in Washington. The new York express of tuesday has the following remarks upon it great excitement was occasioned yesterday by the receipt of another circular at the custom House it will be found in our columns. The question which arises under the Law is simply this whether our merchants shall have the right to Export goods imported under the existing Tariff with a View of re importing them under the new act and at lower rates of duty. The portion of the Law under which the Secretary acts was passed in 1799 Sec. 76. And reads As follows Quot and the said exporter or exporters shall likewise make oath that the said goods so noticed for exportation and Laden on Board such ship or vessel previous to the clearance thereof or within ten Days Twenty Davs allowed by the 2d Section of the act of 18th april 1820 after such clearance Are truly intended to be exported to the place of whereof notice shall have been Given and not intended to be re landed Wiltin the United All Liat part of the circular that consisted of the instructions of the department is without any binding Force. All that the merchant has to do is with Law. What then is intended by the word Quot remanded Quot in the United states ? what is the Quot intent Quot of the merchant when he swears that he does not ship his goods with a View of remanding them in the United states ? goods imported into this country and afterwards re shipped to a foreign country and there unleaded Are the Law is then complied with. If sent Back to the United states they cannot be said in any sense of the term to be re landed again Here. They May be said to be re shipped or re imported Here but they cannot be said to be Quot re landed Quot in the Plain obvious sense of the language. If the goods of i a or i a ii i i from the n. Y. Express. The abolition party in Vermont. That Beautiful party so Quot Penny Wise and Pound foolish Quot has again mustered just votes enough in Vermont to forbid the Choice of governor by an abolition majority of All the Voles. This is not of much consequence there because the whig legislature will elect the whig candidate for governor but Nevert lifeless the disposition of the beauties is not less Manifest than when they threw the vote of this state into he hands of Polk electors by abstracting enough Bir Ney votes from the whig party to give Polk the plurality. We Are sometimes asked Why the express is less abolition in the expression of its sentiments than it once was. We answer a Quot see Here the conduct of these beauties shall we fan any flame for such political Dri Vellers As these 1�? shall we get up a Hobby for such mount Ebanks to ride a can we stir the subject profitably equitably or justly when such canting hypocrites Only turn it to account to try to turn themselves into office Quot it is of no use to Tell us these men Are honest unless at the same time it is confessed they Are deplorable ignorant. They May not know what they Are doing a and so be honest men. The mass of them no doubt Are ignorant and honest a but their leaders use ride drive prick Vliem up and rein them in All for the Sake of office. Their party leaders indeed Are generally the off casts and outcasts of both whig and Loco Foco caucuses and primary meetings. Now nothing Cau be done with such men by reason. Reason never made them act As they do Only a wicked selfish grovelling ambition. Strip the sheep s clothing off and let the wolves be seen this is the Only Way to Deal with them. Confession that their aim is right Only gives them Power Over the ignorance and honest prejudice of those they dupe. Nothing is right in a realy bad Man. A bad motive is like a bad Fountain Stream it pollutes and stains every thing that flows from it. The whig party can never taste touch or handle any thing in or from such a Fountain without detriment. Association with it even in profession is breathing the same bad air. No political abolitionism in these Northern states can Ever succeed in crippling slavery or its Progress in the South. Political abolitionism in the North it is indeed that were shipped from England for instance Quot and landed Quot in Quot the maintained slavery in the states where it is and extended United states and then re shipped to England again they a Georgia to the Rio Grande with More than a fair might be said to be Quot re landed Quot there but if shipped to this Prospect of its Extension All Over Mexico. Whenever slav country they must in order to be re landed according 1 moral question becomes absorbed in politics to common parlance be shipped from our ports and then re Mere parly it is strengthened rather than weakened landed from the same vessel. J a absorption that is by thus being mingled with the such has been the construction of the Law Ever since its questions of t Riff sub Treasury &,c., Mere financial and passage More than 46 years since. Such too has been the temporary or local questions at the most it is overwhelmed practice both of the government and the importer. But passing agitation they create. It is too great too Dif this is not All the evidence which we have of the correctness Quot cult too interesting too solemn a question to be made a of both the construction and the practice hitherto. By the a i to question of. The first effect of political abolitionism 81 Section of the act of 1799 it is made the duty of Quot the i the South in solid column not for its de exporter or exporters to produce within the time herein Lim i a society where once it had its adversaries As item the proofs and certificates required of the said goods defenders but for its Extension too in Texas in wares and merchandise having been delivered within the \ California and throughout Mexico. This solid column limits of the u. A and the Bond Given by the fourteen states of our Union is never to be broken exporter is to the same effect Sec. 8l which is declared void Quot dispersed by any Northern or Western party that if the importer brings proof that the goods have Heen Deli in Semi voiced reprobation. When the whole ered at the place for which they have been cleared. I North when the whole free West can speak again in one another Section of the act of 1799 82 declares that if Universal tone As in the recent instance of Wilmot s an goods exported for the Benefit of drawback shall be lauded Resolution the tide is turned and slavery will stand Only within any port or place of the United states they shall be stands in and by the comprises of the Constitution subject to the forfeiture Quot together with the ship Quot or vessel slavery is not Only not to be checked but to from which such goods &c., shall be landed or boats used in i by extended by every Northern political abolition Wriz. Landing the this shows clearly that the re Landing j annexation of Texas demonstrates this intended to be prohibited was from the vessel on Board i. The express therefore feeling the Force of these reflect of which the goods were originally shipped for the Benefit of taught the history of the past has yielded in Noth drawback. For How absurd it would be for a Law to con i regret for the existence and its opposition to the sex Dean a vessel which innocently took on Board in Liverpool of slavery but has Only resolved not to add any fuel a Case of goods re shipped in another packet from the uni of the flame of any abolition party a to set no fire it cannot Ted states which had there been landed according to Law and the acts of abolitionists consummated the re shipped again to this country. The act also makes Quot All i of Texas we can look upon them Only As ene persons concerned therein liable to six months imprison i Freedom and bettors of slavery a and nothing so that a Captain Crew and All hands might be so a know now is to be gained but everything lost imprisoned and the vessel and cargo forfeited while they i a any connection or association with them. When they were As innocent As Angels. This penalty which the circus ease to agitate emancipation will begin never before Lar Calls for shows that the Secretary has misconstrued the every party vote they have Given every Dollar they have Law which after All is its own Best interpreter. Spent since they began their wicked career has told against that the merchants will submit to any such construction the cause they profess to have at heart. They Are a party is of course not to be expected. They will have the decks ii out twelve years old. See the Progress backwards of ions of courts and juries in the matter and the result will slavery since they Trust themselves on the stage not be such As they fear. In the meantime the collector now the Ocean swells and rises like the Thunder of the sea hark the chorus bursting o or us Quot god the truth and Liberty Quot the Angel s Wing. By Samuel loiter. There is a German superstition that when a sudden silence takes place in a company an Angel at that moment makes a circuit around them and the first person who Breaks the silence is supposed to have been touched by the Wing of the for uie purpose of poetry i thought two persons preferable to Many in illustrating this very Beautiful superstition. When by the evening s quiet Light there sit two silent lovers. They say while in such tranquil blight. An Angel round them hovers and further still old legend s Tell the first who Breaks the silent spell to say a soft and pleasing thing. Hath Felt the passing Angel s Wing. Thus a musing minstrel stray d by the summer Ocean. Gazing on a Lovely maid. With a Bard s Devotion a yet his love he never spoke. Till now the silent spell he spoke. The hidden fire of flame did Spring Fann d by the passing Angel s Wing i have loved thee Well and Long with love of heaven s own making this is not a poet s song. But a True heart s speaking i will love thee still untied he Felt he spoke As one inspired the words Dij from truth s Fountain Spring in wakened by the Angel s Wing l silence o or the Maiden fell. Her Beauty lovelier making and by her Blush he knew full Well the Dawn of love was breaking. It came like Sunshine o or his heart he Felt that they should never part. He spoke and of a the Lovely thing had Felt the passing Angel s Wing. To shake off about doing Good to somebody put on your hat and go and visit the sick and the poor inquire into their wants and administer unto them seek out the desolate and oppress a and Tell them of the Consolation of religion. I have often tried this method and have always found it the Best Medicine for a heavy . Emigration of Hawks. On saturday last the i9th inst., some thousands of Hawks sailing very High passed near this place in a direction bearing from the North East to the South West. In the rear of this flight were several Hundred which seemed to have fallen behind by having stopped for food or other cause and had evidently lost sight of the main body. In this dilemma they wheeled in a Majestic and close Circle ascended to a great Elevation and then took the direction of those which had pre needed them. These Birds seemed to be of the largest class of Hawks and Are supposed to be the Blue Hawk or Hen harrier described by Buonaparte and other ornithologists and Are said to be migratory what is remarkable on the 17th of september 1841, two Days earlier in the season a flight of the same species passed precisely Over the same place about two hours earlier in the Day. The number then is supposed to have been somewhat larger. It is ascertained in High Northern latitudes that Many of the migratory Birds which annually Wing their Way from North to South have a fixed identified Highway in their airy course and there is a probability that this place has been for a Long period of time beneath the pathway of these Hawks and that for years they have flown by in the night or in Cloudy weather unobserved. Mysterious Are the instincts which govern the beasts of the Field the fishes of the sea and the fowls of the air will have to stand the Brunt for damages in refusing drawbacks to the merchants As Well As for the amount of the drawbacks themselves. Army of invasion. According to the latest accounts from the Rio Grande it we believe the Law makes no pro expected that Gen. Taylor would leave Camargo for vision for indemnifying a Public officer. He must look to Monterey some time in the Early part of the present month Congress. Between the penalties of the sub Treasury act i As now by Means of the River the req i and the suits to grow out of this circular the collector is to f facilities for drawing abundant supplies and it is Proba be congratulated in having a pleasant berth in Prospect. From the Baltimore american. A Royal letter to an american citizen. We find in the courier Des Tais Unis of the i5th inst. A letter from the King of Sweden to the Hon. Christopher Hughes of Liis City formerly the american representative at the court of Stockholm. The occasion which called Forth a. W i. Ltd. This handsome tribute so honourable both to the giver and j f ble that he is availing himself of these facilities prior to an Advance into the Interior of the country where provisions and stores will not be so easily obtained. The Progress of tie Campaign thus far has Given evidence of Sterling substantial qualities in Gen. Taylor. The country has great Confidence in him in his prudence discretion and foresight As Well As in his indomitable courage. The difficulties through which to has had to Strule have been enough to dishearten a less determined Man. I the inc Lem Talleyrand Ever made it a Rule to forget his past misfortunes. Quot Providence Quot he was accustomed to observe Quot has Given us our eyes in front in order that we May look before and not a Good haul. The Schooner Sophia Parker capt. Parker arrived it Gloucester on wednesday from the Bay of Fundy with 250 barrels of Mackerel. Something for married lady died suddenly at Syracuse new York on the 4th instant aged 15 years but whose appearance indicated no More than 12 or 13. The verdict of the inquest upon Posl Portem examination was Quot death by premature though sudden death from such cause be rare yet a lingering death from consumption or dropsy or even death from some acute disease is in our country a frequent result of premature marriage. In the Interior especially in the new states marriage is common among women at 16, 17, 18 and in the majority of such cases the result is premature old age if nothing More violent. We rarely meet with women married under 20, with three or four children who do not exhibit at 30. All the Marks of age common to 45 or 50, and who Are not the victims of chronic disease. American women should not marry under 20, and Are still better prepared for that relation physically intellectually and morally at 25. American women Are less Able to endure pro mature marriage than europeans for As they Are As a race More intellectual and More educated than the europeans nature in them expends More vital Power on the mental and therefore has less for the physical system. As a general Rule English women at 50, Are younger than american women at 30, the difference is much less in climate than in More intellectual organization and culture More neglect of invigorating physical habits and earlier marriage. In a state of inactivity. It is not surprising therefore that the volunteers became discontented. They were undisciplined unaccustomed to the hardships of military service they were not trained to subordination. If they had found a foe to encounter or could have been put at once upon the March of invasion in search of an enemy we should not have to lament the excesses and disorders of which we have had recently such deplorable accounts. But the March of invasion is by this time our standards Are advancing they will soon flutter in the Mountain breezes of Mexico. The excitements of the March the Prospect of new scenes the anticipations of Battles and victories will no doubt give buoyancy to tie feelings of the troops and assuage the rising elements of discontent. Gen. Taylor s Advance however from the Banks of the Rio Grande will take him farther and farther from his sources of Supply. If he should fail of finding forage and subsistence in the enemy s country his position will be full of Embarrass ment when he shall have gone too far to keep up communications with the Rio Grande. It has been said that Gen. Taylor himself did not think that the route % Monterey was the proper one by which to move upon tie City of Mexico. His judgment pointed to Tampico or Vera Cruz. That he will do the Best however that circumstances admit of we May have All Confidence. Baltimore american. To the receiver May be briefly referred to in explanation of devastating floods and exec Ive heat there were added More annoying troubles still. Crowds of volunteers were poured upon him in Advance of the Means either of a com swedish Corvette the Quot Carls Crona Quot was struck by a Squall Madation on the Banks of the Rio Grande or of transp Tion in the West Indian seas and went to the Bottom carrying the higher regions of the Interior in Advance of sufficient Down the Captain and All the Crew except such As succeeded i a Quot up a a a subsistence in a Campaign without efficient a in clinging to Loose spars or other objects which floated off Plances for Active service or the requisite Means of Comfort from the sinking ship. These the first lieutenant ters Meden two younger lieutenants and fourteen sailors after a painful and perilous exposure of sixty hours were picked up by an american merchantman the barque Swan capt. Snell and brought into Philadelphia. Upon Reading an account of this disaster in the american or. Hughes wrote immediately to Lieut. offering to him and his fellow sufferers his House his purse his services and informing him that six hours travel on the rail Road would bring him under the roof of a Gaz countryman and Friend. The letter of the King will Tell the rest of the Story. The Royal communication it will be seen is something More than a Mere official acknowledgement of a Courtesy shown to distressed swedes in a foreign land. It bears the impress of kind feeling and personal regard and evidences in a marked manner the High estimation in which or. Hughes is held in Sweden where he spent Many years As his country s ambassador. In such High estimation indeed he must be held in every place where the character of an Able Diplomatist and an accomplished gentleman is appreciated and where his amiable qualities Are known. Translation from the Courrier Des stats Unis i5th sept., 1846. A letter of the King of Sweden to an american minister. The following letter of King Oscar was brought and delivered by the charge d affaires of Sweden to Christopher Hughes who for Many years represented the u. States at Stockholm and who left at that court the most honorable souvenirs. This letter written in French the Universal language of diplomacy is we believe the first document of the kind signed by the son and successor of Bernadotte that has been made de. Of Courrier Des e. A Malmo 10th july 1846. Monsieur Hughes i have been informed by capt. Ters Meden whom 1 have seen since his return to Sweden and during my present journey of your generous conduct to him and to his companions in misfortune when after the disaster of which my Corvette the Carls Crona was the victim they arrived on the soil of the u. States having been rescued by the humanity of a Brave Mariner of your great nation. I could expect nothing less from you Monsieur Hughes knowing As i Well know your ancient and constant attachment for Sweden where you have left such Hono Rabic souvenirs. Every proof of interest that you May give for one of my subjects seems to me but a natural consequence of the general Friendship and esteem that Are Felt for you in this country. I am persuaded that this Way of appreciating your Noble conduct will be tie most agreeable to you and it will also show that i know How to Honor sentiments like those that animate you. I could not deny to myself the pleasure of testifying to you my satisfaction and at the same time of renewing to you the Assurance of the perfect esteem with which i am your affectionate Oscar. The ancient greek colonies towards refinement wealth and greatness seems to have been extremely rapid. In the course of a Century or two several of them appear to have rivalled and even to have surpassed their Parer it states. Though posterior in their establishment yet All the arts of refinement philosophy poetry and elegance seem to have been cultivated As Early and to have been improved As highly in them As in any part of the Mother country. The schools of the two oldest greek philosophers those of thales and Pythagoras were established it is remarkable not in ancient Greece but in Miletus and Croton the former an Asiatic the latter an italian Colony. All these colonies had established themselves in countries inhabited by Savage and Barba rotis nations who easily gave place to the new settlers. Thus they had As much land As they chose a benign climate and a Fertile soil for these circumstances must have determined the Choice of their place of establishment. The were Independent of their Mother country and at Liberty to conduct themselves in any Way they should judge most suitable to their Quot it was no wonder Quot says Tytler from whose history we quote the above Quot they should soon become great and powerful and if Greece was celebrated for colonies Rome in a subsequent age was no less so. Quot wheresoever the roman conquers he inhabits Quot said Seneca a and the truth of the remark is Abunda Nuy confirmed by history throughout the roman Empire but More particularly in the Western parts the most Fertile districts and the most convenient situations were reserved for the establishment of Colo jibes some of which were of a civil and others of a military nature Quot in their manners and internal policy Quot says Gibbon Quot the colonies formed a perfect representation of their great Parent and they were soon endeared to the natives by the ties of Friendship and Alliance they effectually diffused a reverence for the roman name and a desire which was Seldom disappointed of sharing in due time its honors and Twenty five colonies were settled in Spain and nine in Britain. But we need not Trace their history. Let us come a Little nearer Home. Colonization did not die with the roman Empire As every american versed in the records of his own country is Well aware. For what is the history of that country but the history of one of the most daring difficult and successful colonization struggles the world has Ever seen ? the foundations of that glorious Republic under whose Protection we live and in whose advancing greatness we rejoice a where were they Laid ? in the efforts the privations the tears and the blood of a few despised and persecuted colonies. They struggled Long with the hardships and difficulties incident to All new establishments on barbarous shores Remote from civilized society and from the Means of procuring Aid in supplying their wants and in protecting themselves against the hostilities to which they were exposed. They were at times reduced to the greatest extremities by sickness and want and by the attacks and depredations of the indians Insomuch that in some instances it was resolved to abandon the settlement of the country As impracticable. But by the dint of unyielding perseverance Industry Enterprise and Faith in god All these impediments were gradually overcome. At last the night of sorrow was broken the Day dawned the darkness fled the colonies began to flourish and the decisive crisis once Over from that time in spite of All opposition their course was Onward till they Shook off the galling Yoke imposed upon them by the Mother country said in the hearing of the world Quot these United colonies Are and of right ought to be. Free and Independent states a and for the support of that declaration with a firm Reliance on the Protection of divine Providence mutually pledged to each other their lives their fortunes and their sacred Honor. Colonization then is no new thing in the history of our world. It is As old As civilization and has Ever been one of the main instruments of its Extension. Its triumphs Over barbarism fill Many Bright pages in the chronicles of the past a and occupying As it does the first if not the largest and most interesting space in our own National records it would seem As if every truly american heart would thrill with patriotic enthusiasm at the very name. How Many stirring memories touching the infancy of our beloved country Are blended with the word Quot colonies Quot a and surely if any people on Earth ought to be the first to sympathise with feeble colonists on a dark continent struggling to rear the fair fabric of republicanism and to scatter far and near the mingled rays of christianity civilization and useful science the americans Are that people. With Confidence therefore we Lay before them the claims of african colonization. The subject when fairly understood must strike powerfully upon the Public mind and heart of this country because we Are the defendants of colonists who far from their native land amidst unexampled trials and privations sowed the seeds of Liberty that their More highly favored descendants might reap and enjoy the fruit. That fruit we reap we enjoy and therefore we Are living witnesses of the truth that though the first efforts of colonization on a barbarous Shore May be embarrassed and for a time unsuccessful yet the ultimate Issue with the blessings of god May be Surpas singly glorious. As to the colonies of Liberia we believe they have already passed the Forest crisis of trial and have already entered with glowing prospects upon a career of Prosperity which is to meet no serious hindrance till the entire african continent is overshadowed christianize and redeemed gathering encouragement then from the teachings of the past and especially from the history of our own country let the friends of african colonization go Forward. The Enterprise in which they Are engaged like every colonization Enterprise is arduous in its incipient by but in prosecuting it they Are applying to that barbarous and blood stained continent a lever of prodigious strength by which she shall yet be lifted from her degradation her slavery her darkness into the Clear Light and glorious Liberty of the children of god. Eating by the Green in from Orange county determined to spend a few weeks in new York for the a it or pose of seeing All the sights and in order to strike his acquaintance at Home with a proper idea of the greatness of his visit he took up lodgings at the Astor . When he was ushered into dinner the first Day he was surprised at the number of people who sat Down As Well As at the vastness of the dining room. He was equally surprised to see that each Man had a printed account of his dinner before him and that each one As he thought ate according to the directions. He was quite hungry and Well he might be after waiting three hours Over his usual time so he attacked the head of the Bill with vigor and ate Down As far As he could but he soon came to a stand. Just then the gentleman on his right requested the waiter to bring him some of Ster pie which our Green Horn heard and instantly referred to the list to see where it was. Quot what Quot exclaimed he with astonishment turning to his neighbors Quot Are you All the Way Down there Why i have Only got to roast beef and i feel already As if i would est darkness and the most degrading superstitions that Ever cursed any portion of our fallen humanity. much has been done and if this were All it would be enough to vindicate colonization As a successful scheme of practical Benevolence and commend it to the Hearty approbation of All candid and Well disposed men. But suppose we retort the demand and ask abolitionists to show us results. Quot turn about a fair we will therefore question those who question us. What has abolitionism done ? As we do not wish gentle Reader that you should be held Long in suspense respecting an inquiry of so much moment we will give you some of the achievements of abolitionism. 1. It has made a great noise. 2. It has produced considerable excitement and that excitement so far As we can see has been attended with Quot evil Only evil and that 3. It has run into fanatical extravagances of various kinds which have shocked sensible men and thereby Cut its own sinews and prostrated its own strength. 4. It has excited by harsh denunciation the prejudices of the South against the North and done More to endanger the perpetuity of the Union than All other causes combined. 5. It has tightened the Bonds of the slave and put Back the cause of emancipation in some states for at least fifty years. And finally it has smuggled a few Hundred Blacks from a Southern latitude and transported then to the congenial climate of Canada. These Are the leading achievements of abolitionism so far As we Are informed. If any have escaped our notice the Quot Freeman Quot or some other abolition print can Point them out and we shall stand not exactly corrected but better informed. If we have failed in any Point we think it must be As to the smuggling. That May have been far More extensive than we have supposed. If so let some one give us authentic statistics and we will make the Quot amende honorable Quot in our next it strikes us that such achievements Are glory enough for one cause and that the abolitionists May now As Well retire from the scene of conflict and rest on their laurels. From the colonization St. Colonization. Colonization is no new thing in the history of the human race. In every age of the world different nations have extended their influence their civilization their learning their Laws and their arts through its benign and powerful Agency. The phoenicians if not the inventors of navigation were certainly the earliest among the nations of Antiquity who made voyages for the Sake of Commerce a and no sooner did they reach any considerable degree of advanced Zient As a commercial people than they began to Send colonies to Distant quarters and to form settlements for Trade both on the european and Asiatic coasts. Amoni their first settlements were those of Cyprus and Rhodes. They then passed into Greece Sicily and Sardinia and thence into the Southern parts of Spain. Carthage at one time the most formidable rival of Rome and the greatest maritime Power in the world was to bunked by a Colony of syrians. Every student of history knows that the aboriginal inhabitants of Greece were a race of Savages and that the first rudiments of civilization were introduced among them by colonies lion abroad a one from Egypt under Cecrope and another from Phoenecia under and Ennis. Cecrope instituted marriage among them gave them Laws and divided them into tribes. Cadmus made them acquainted with the Art of Alp diabetic writing and with All those arts and Faience which were Practised and cultivated at that time in his own native country. Here dates the origin of grecian civilization. It came from abroad. Its first seeds were sown and its first fruits gathered under the fostering care of a few adventurous colonists. Afterwards Greece la Ricly became a great radiating Centre of co Ali a influence. Ai first War and Domestic oppression gave Rise to Many grecian colonies which in process of time grew into great and powerful states. But in the More advanced and Flouri Shinji periods of that renowned country the narrow territory possessed by each of the states and the increased population compelled Eliom to Send off the inhabitants in quest of new settlements. Thus some went to Italy and founded the cities of Tarentum and Locri a others to Sicily and founded Syracuse and Agrigento in. Subsequently colonies Betook Inci selves to the islands of Crete Rhodes and cos and others passing into Asia where Many of their countrymen were already established founded several cities whose reputation As seats of Power and learning has Given them a prominent place in the records of history and will doubtless be perpetuated through Many coming generations. Or. Adam Smith in his Quot wealth of nations Quot remarks that Quot the Progress of Many of from the journal of Commerce. From Are permitted to publish the following extracts of letters from we. C. Cornish to his father the Rev. Samuel e. Cornish of this City. The value of the writer s testimony is enhanced by the fact that till recently he was an abolitionist and with his father and other family friends has regarded the efforts of the colonization society with distrust. Monrovia Africa june 25th, 1846. The Good bark Chatham arrived safely at Monrovia in thirty six Days. We anchored a mile from the Shore Between two american vessels of War. We were becalmed five Days within 150 Miles of the coast also by night had tremendous squalls which Are common on Liis coast. Independently of the Calm and squalls we had delightful passage. As soon As we anchored the natives came out to us irom All directions in their canoes. If it were not for these natives or Quot Kroo men Quot As they Are called it would be very difficult getting anything on Shore from vessels coming to this port. We arrived in the morning and in the afternoon the Captain or. Roye and myself went on Shore and proceeded directly to the government House where we were very kindly received by gov. Roberts judge Benedict and the principal gentlemen in the place. I presented my letters of introduction to or. Roberts and or. Benedict. They seemed somewhat surprised at my coming Here. Or. Roberts leaves in the Chatham for your City with a View to Complete his medical education. Captain Bearse deserves our thanks for his kindness to us during the passage. Prospects. Never were the prospects of the colonization cause More encouraging than at the present time. It has seen a dark Day but that Day is past. Like every Good cause it has been fiercely assailed and misrepresented. Its friends have been denounced its policy has been belied and its objects have been misstated and misunderstood. But falsehood and calumny having exhausted their malice and been signally Defeated by the Force o stubborn facts truth is again in the ascendant. Colonization is now most manifestly taking a deep and Strong hold upon the Public mind. Its claims Are beginning to be understood its glorious results stand out in bold Relief upon the coast of Africa in the form of a prosperous and growing Republic a living demonstration of the feasibility of its plans and the far seeing Wisdom of its founders. The stale of the colonies in Africa and the state of Public sentiment in this country seem clearly to indicate that henceforth the career of colonization is to be steadily Onward till it has opened an Asylum in Africa so vast and so attractive that tens of thousands of the african race shall be seen flocking to it with Joy from All the places of their dispersion and degrading servitude. Who does not desire to share in the toils and efforts of an Enterprise so full of Promise to the coloured race and of Blessing to a dark Downtrodden oppressed and bleeding continent ? it would be Well for us to remember that v. Hat we do for this or any other benevolent Enterprise must be done quickly. Death is at the door and his Resistless summons will soon put a period to All our labors for the Relief of the suffering and the uplifting of the depressed. That they enacted and were governed by their own Laws and when i considered that i was for the first time in my life breathing a free atmosphere and in a country where the White Man does not hold Sway and an individual however Humble if he qualifies himself May attain to Eminence and distinction i really Felt surprised that i could have remained contended so Long in America. I sincerely think that if the coloured people of the u. Could Only see what a Fine country this is and might be made by a Little portion their prejudices against the colonization society and the Colony would be entirely removed. From hearing the Captain a sailors conversing concerning the Malignity of the african fever and of the Many deaths that has been occasioned by it i was frequently discouraged for it seemed almost certain death for a person to Stop on Shore even for one night. 1 have conversed with several of the colonial physicians upon the subject they informed me that the change from the tem berate to the torrid zone is so great that most people coming Lere necessarily have to pass through the acclimating process but there is not the least danger to be apprehended from it providing you take care of yourself a if you get wet change your clothes m soon As possible and not expose yourself to the night Dews. They say that it has a great resemblance to the fever and Agua that you have in the u. S., Only that it is not half so severe. On the first settlement of this country a great Many died but this was owing no doubt More to the suffering they experienced in their passage by being too much crowded while on ship Board and living upon the coarsest food and their going Down into the other settlements where there had been no accommodations provided for them. There Are persons that have been Here 18 or 20 years and have never been afflicted in the least by the fever so you see that it is greatly exaggerated. The Colony is about declaring its Independence. This is their Rainy or Winter season. It generally continues three months Seldom raining except in the or. Roye has taken a store and will soon commence business. Monrova june 27th, 1846. This is really a Beautiful country. From the situation of this place it might be supposed to suffer from intense heat during at least one half the year but this is provided against by the sea Breeze which blows with great regularity and refreshes what would otherwise prove a sultry and oppressive the thermometer Seldom ranges above 90 Deg. The air is temperate in the Day Lime and the nights Are Cool the same clothing is worn Here that is worn in thu u. S., flannels not excepted. The population of Monrovia is estimated at one thousand. Wood Ana Ivory Ana they receive goods in return it tie people Here Only had the Yankee Enterprise and Industry they might make this one of the richest and most Beautiful countries in the world. Vessels come Here from All parts of the world for the purpose of traffic. They Trade with the natives up and Down the coasts and in a few years the captains of them become independently Rich. Our govenor is considered As being very wealthy and lives in grand style does a great Deal of trading and has charge of the Public stores. I now see the importance of having a Good character for if it had not been for your name and reputation perhaps i should not have been so Well received. You would be astonished if you could Only see How readily goods of every description sell Here especially provisions such As flour pork beef hams butter choose sugar lard Mackerel raisins Sala Eratus and groceries of All kinds Are in great demand. The women dress As finely Here As they do in the u. They do not pretend to Wear domestics All their finery must be imported. This makes an excellent Market for Fine goods of All sorts such As Calico muslims linens shawls stockings amp a. If or. Roye had brought out ten times As much a he did he would have come somewhere near the Mark. I really wish you would make up your mind to visit this country. The whole continent is one depository of curiosities. Mechanics Are very much needed. Clothing is very scarce Here there is not a tailor in the place. Please Send me what clothing you can obtain. Flannel is considered As being a great Protection in this climate your affectionate son we. C. Cornish. Rev. Samuel e. Cornish Corner of 4th and Wooster its. New York City. Results. Abolitionists Are sometimes heard to say with a sneer Quot what has colonization done it has been in operation now for something More than Twenty years what fruits can it show As the Reward of its toils and expenditures away with dead theorizing show us results living practical when this demand is made we have Only to Point to Liberia. There it stands the fruit of colonization on the Western coast of Africa the Only Bright spot of any considerable magnitude save one on the whole of that dark continent. There a Little Constellation of flourishing colonies has Arisen Star by Star to shed its benign and saving Light upon thousands who sit in darkness and Are ready to perish. There is a Republican government modelled after our own. There Are schools and churches and Temperance societies and news apers and agriculture and the death of the Christian. The eloquent chateaubriand in his Quot Genie do Christian isme Quot thus describes the death of the Christian and the last rites of the roman Catholic Church. Quot come and behold the most touching spectacle which can be presented on Earth come and behold the death of the faithful the dying Christian is no longer a Man of this world he belongs no longer to his country All his relations with society have ceased. For him the calculations of time have closed and the great Era of eternity has commenced. A priest is seated beside his bed he pours into his ear the consolations of his religion he converses with him on the immortality of the soul and that Sublime scene which Antiquity presented but once in the greatest of her dying philosophers that scene which is every Day renewed where the humblest Christian expires. At length the last moment arrives one sacrament opened to the just the Gates of the world another is about to close them religion rocked in the Cradle of existence its Sweet strains and maternal hand will Lull it to sleep in the Cradle of Creath. She prepares the baptism of Titis second birth but it is not with water but with Oil the Emblem of incorruption. The liberating sacrament Breaks one by one the cords which attach the faithful to life his soul half half escaped from his body becomes almost visible on his countenance. Now he hears the concerts of the Seraphis mechanical arts and a legitimate Commerce and wholesome Laws and courts of Justice and legislative assemblies and All i now he is ready to take his flight towards those regions where the elements of National growth and Prosperity. There Are Hope divine daughter of virtue and death invites. At some 3 or 4,000 persons removed from this country organized the Angel of peace descending touches with his gol., j i Den sceptre his worried eyes and closes them to the Light into thriving communities holding the slave Trade m Check pm a a a a one hears his sigh he Dies and Long after for some five or six Hundred Miles along the coast for mag is no More his friends keep silence round his Couch for treaties of Amity with thousands of the natives and thus paving they believe he yet sleeps so calmly does the Christian Pasa the Way for the redemption of a whole continent from the deep from life unto

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