Page 2 of 9 Jun 1830 Issue of Indianapolis Indiana Journal in Indianapolis, Indiana

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Indianapolis Indiana Journal (Newspaper) - June 9, 1830, Indianapolis, Indiana Quot to Trust stand or fall before Quot our own Ile spectrally your s this. Chilton. April 21,1830. Washington City april 24, 1830. Messes. Gales amp seated i ii ill Bank you to Correct a typographical error in your publication of my address of tie 21st boat near the top of the thirty column. As printed it reads Quot that the present executive had appropriated Quot it ought to read Quot that the prese it Congress had appropriated Quot amp a. There is another inadvertent error though not very Raatz rial following the above. The pay outfits amp a. Should have been put at �184,600, and contingent expenses of foreign Intercourse so Jolo making 14,500, in the whole appropriated by Congress for those objects this year. While on this subject 1 will inform you that i have obtained from the Regis ter a Joice since my last letter was sent to press a statement showing the expenditures for the months of january february and March 1830. This statement confirms what 1 had before said that a Large part of the expenses accruing in the months of january and february the last of the series of what Are called Gen. Jackson s months in the March to March statements were postponed till after the is of March by which operation the january and february expenses were made to appear very a mall on paper a great saving As claimed. I now exhibit the sums exclusive of Public debt drawn from the Treasury in these months. They were in january 1830, $ 478,667 35 feb. 1830, 1,264,423 40 March 1830, 2,104,535 10 the bulk of the expenditure it will be Weeo is thrown upon March after the year had expired i will Here also sub join be expenses of the executive departments for five years past. These Are test expenditures adore so perhaps than any others because a great part of their amounts consists of contingencies depending on the Economy and discretion of the Heads of departments. These expenses Are As follows four years of the last administration for 1825 478,330 58 1826 489,776 07 1827 501,793 05 1828 506.873 33 first year of this administration 1829 530,122 84 making Ati excess of 23 349 31, of the first year of this administration Over the last of or. Adamss and an excess of 851,792 26 Over the first year 1825, of or. Adamss in the executive departments alone. Facts like these speak volumes. Your obedient servant Thos. . Washington City May 13,1830. Dear sir heretofore it has been my. Practice at the close of every session to address a Tetter to the people of the state. This has been done As on the a present occasion with a View of communicating a Short history of the most import it business of the session ii is my purpose to give his letter a be oeral circulation and i Hope to succeed in sending it into every settlement and neighbourhood of the state that every citizen who May think Worth while to hear or examine its contents May have an Opportunity of so doing. It is often pleasant to take a retrospect of by gone Days and in political affairs As Well As every thing else Prosperity is Well calculated to please. In no portion of our political history since the close of the revolution is this retrospect More agreeable than in that which has transpired since the close of the late War. During the whole period of that War a War of Brilliant achievements on the land the a Ocean and the lakes. Indiana though not a bordered of the principal enemy was a Frontier state and suffered much from the Tordea of Savages on her Northern Frontier. In Many Pla Ces the settlements had extended but a Short distance from the Ohio River and pickets Block houses and forts there to be seen As the nucleus of every neighbourhood from the great Miami to the Wabash. In 1810, the census of Indiana territory amounted to 25,000 souls. The disturbances which led to the Campaign on the Wabash bad for some time been brooding and a state of i quietude and alarm existed on the Frontier. In 1811, the Battle of Tippecanoe was fought and a More bloody Field was neither lost nor won during the War. Victory was in deed achieved and the enemy driven into the More Remote Forest yet panic and consternation pervaded thee Ettle ments Many settlements were entirely broken up and the territory no doubt for some time after diminished in population. This state of things however was not of Long duration for in 1815, a census was taken with a View to a state govern sent and the population was found to be up wards of 60,000. In 1820j it was upwards of u7,000, and in 1830, there is Good reason to expect it will approach 400,000. In june 1816, the convention met a and the Constitution was formed i and in the december following Indiana was admitted into the Union. Since that period the Indian title has been extinguished to 7 millions of acres much of which has been brought into Market and such has been our natural advantages the Sal Brity of our climate the Fertility of our soil and the great value of our navigable Rivers that a tide of emigration and Prosperity has rolled in upon us probably unknown to any other portion of the Union. Since that period to Sohie of the primary interests of the cd wintry have experienced much change. The Price of the Public lands has been reduced and a system of internal improvements created of incalculable advantage to the Union and especially to the Western states. In 1820, the Price was reduced from two dollars per acre to 6ne Dollar and Twenty five cents and the credit repealed. The odious relation of debtor and creditor Between the government and the citizens was prospectively done away the debt had already swollen to More than f22,000,000. It had become alarming and in 1821, the Relief system was adopted. Time was Given from two to eight years according to the various classes for the Payn Rient of this debt. A deduction of 37 per cent was allowed on Cash payments and a relinquishment of land at their original Price was also authorized. Various amendatory Laws have since been enacted in pursuance of this system until the debt is chiefly extinguished. For the cases which yet remain another jaw has been enacted during the present session the first Section of that Law is the one which most interests our country. It is As follows Quot that All purchasers their heirs or Aisi goes of such of the Public lands of the United states As were sold on a credit and on which a further credit has been taken under any of the Laws passed for the Relief of purchasers of Public lands and which lands have reverted to the United states on account of the balance due thereon not having been paid or discharged agreeably to said Relief Laws such persons May Avail themselves of any of the three following provisions contained in this Section Viz first they shall have a right of Preemption of the same lands until the fourth Day of july one thousand eight Hundred and thirty one upon their paying into the proper office the sum per acre therefor which shall at the time of payment be the minimum Price per acre of the Public lands of the u. S. In addition to the amount heretofore paid thereon and forfeited proc it dec that the Price including what has already been paid and the amount to be paid shall not in any Case exceed three dollars and fifty cents per acre. Second they shall have the right of completing the payment of said lands by paying the balance of the principal debt due thereon in Cash subject to a deduction of thirty seven and a half per centum As heretofore at any time previous to the fourth Day of july one thousand eight Hundred and thirty one. Third they shall have the right within nine months from the passage of this act in All cases where the Price for which said lands were sold did not exceed two dollars and fifty cents per acre to draw scrip for the amount paid thereon in the manner prescribed in the act approved the Twenty third Day of May one thousand eight Hundred and Twenty eight entitled Quot an act for the Relief of purchasers of Public lands that have reverted for non payment of the Purchase Money and which scrip shall be receivable in the same manner As directed by said act except Only that it shall not be taken in payment for ands hereafter bought at Public a Bill Hasi passed the Senate reducing the Price of lands which have been in Market since the 30th Day of june 1827, to one Dollar per acre and in favor of actual settles on one Quarter Section each to seventy five cents per acre. This should it come a Law will give accelerated motion to the settlement of the new states will give great advantages beyond what has e ver been Given before to actual settlers and will put the Public lands More than heretofore within the Means and Power of the poor. Bills to Vest in the state of Indiana certain lands within the limits of the canal Grant and to establish a land office in he St. Josephs and Elkhart country including the Northwestern portion of the state have also passed the Senate. A Bill has passed the Senate Grant ing townships of land in Aid of seminaries of learning for education of the deaf and dumb to such states As have not heretofore received them. Those granted to the old states Are to be selected in the territories those to the new states within the new states. If fortunately for our Ili Ite no such Semi nary shall be fou Iid recess sly the assent of Congress will be readily of Mwai for us application to outlier objects of education. The township for Indiana and none other will be selected in our state. On the subject of the pubic lands generally my opinion is Well known and remains unchanged. T believe that they constitutionally and of right belong to the several states in which they lie and that this disposition of them is not Only reasonable and just towards the new states but essentially necessary to the Union. They Are a Bone of Contention in the councils of the nation. The old states cling to Beoni in the spirit of colonial monopoly and Power and the new states Are contending for them As a necessary appendage of their sovereignty and Independence. The peace and safety of the Union require that they should not be held by the Federal government for in the hands of the Union they Are the Apple of discord a Mong the states. The re solution of or. Foot of which the Public lands happened to be the subject and which has been the basis of a protracted discussion is not to be regretted. It has shown and will show to the american people More clearly than any thing which has gone before it the i expediency of the present condition of the Public lands. If shows How Little the representatives of the old states know about the new states and Bow incompetent they Are to manage the Public lands. That Resolution indirectly assumes the ground that the Public surveys ought not to be extended till All the Surv Yod lands shall be sold. It will not be adopted. The discussion which it has elicited is fortunate for the thew states. It will spread the question More broadly before the people and Shew to Congress More and More the difficulty and impropriety of continuing to legislate on the subject. Such too will be the Fate in the House of representatives of the wild scheme of distributing their proceeds among the several states according to the present representation. This is very much like the proposition strenuously advocated in Congress some eight or ten years ago of giving to the old states school lands equivalent to that Given to the new states. Since the year 1816, a system of internal improvements has been matured beneficial to the Union and of which the state of Indiana is reaping already Tiuch advantage. The Cumberland Road has been completed to Wheeling and located West of the Ohio River to the state of Missouri. It is almost finished to Columbus Ohio. An appropriation of 50,000 was made at the last session to commence its construction in Indiana. Of this sum $36,000 was expended during the last year. At the present session a further appropriation for this Road has already passed the Senate. It proposes $100,000 to be expended in the state of Ohio $60,000 in Indiana $40,000 in Illinois and $32,000 for that portion of it which lies Between St. Louis and the City of Jefferson in the state of Missouri. These appropriations judiciously expended will ensure the establishment of mail stages upon the whole line from this City to St. Louis during the ensuing year. An appropriation of $36,000, for the mail Road Between Louisville and St. Louis has also passed the Senate. The one half of this sum is to be expended East of Vincennes and the other West of that place so that should these appropriations pass the House upwards of $90,000 including the unexpended balance of last year will be expended during the present year on roads within the state of Indiana. This will give life and activity to internal improvements in our state and must also have some considerable influence on the circulating medium. In addition to this there is of the 3 per cent fund for disburse ment the present year $14,226 83. A Survey of the White Rivers by a skilful Engineer of the United states is also authorized and the sum of $500 appropriated for that object. This is done As in the Case of a similar recon nuisance of the Wabash last year with a View of other appropriations for the improvement of the navigation of those Rivers. The report of the Survey of the Wabash was not made in time to procure at the present session any appropriation for removing the obstructions to the navigation of that River. A further appropriation of $100,000 has passed the Senate to Complete the Louisville and Portland canal and Little doubt can be entertained of the entire completion of that work the prestent year. An appropriation has if of been made for a Survey of the North Western passage of the Falls of the Ohio with a View of improving the navigation on our Side of the River so As to admit of the passage of boats in the Low water Channel at lower stages of water than that at which they now pass. $50,000 have been appropriated for the improvement of the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers. In �zb24, an a privation of $30,000 was made and placed under the direct t Ion of the Secretary of War for the Pur pose 6f my King and surveys for roads and canals. These appropriations have been continued from year to year Ever since and a valuable mass of topographical information is collecting in the Engineer department developing the natural advantages of the country and designating National a works of internal improvement. Under these appropriations the route of the Wabash canal has already been designated and other surveys made one to test the practicability of uniting by canal navigation the Waters of Lake Michigan with those of the Wabash and a Survey is contemplated the present year to test the practicability of uniting by canal the Wabash with the Western Branch of White River. The value of internal improvements to a country like ours so Large in geographical extent cannot at once be calculated or seen. Good roads and canals uniting by cheap and speedy communications Distant Points of the Union Are More valuable to its permanency than All the fortifications which can be placed on the Seaboard or Inland Frontier. Such too is the position of Indiana in the Union that she must necessarily be As much advantaged by works of this description As any other state. We have the Ohio River forming the Southern Boundary of the state the navigation of which has of late been greatly improved. The Cumberland Road is already located through the Centre of the state. A Road from the Atlantic Seaboard to the upper Mississippi which will at no Distant Day be one of great importance must necessarily pass through the Northern portion of our state. And the Wabash and Erie canal is so situated As to unite by the most direct line of Crater communication the two greatest cities in the Union new York and new Orleans and two of the largest Rivers on the continent and of the world the Mississippi and the St. Lawrence. This is a work pre eminently National in its character and one which the Federal government ought to accomplish itself. This however can better be done by the states through the Aid of the general government and that Aid has already been liberally Given to the state of Indiana in the Grant of lands for that purpose authorized by the act of March 1827. This Grant judiciously managed will no doubt go far towards completing the work hot if it should fail of that object and even fail to a greater extent than the state of Indiana shall be Able to Supply it cannot be that the government of the Union will hesitate in making further appropriations for the completion of this great National work. To this the Federal government May be considered As pledged As Early As the year 1787, by the Quot articles of compact Between the original states and the people and states Quot of the territory Northwest of the River Ohio. In that ordinance it is stipulated that Quot the navigable Waters leading into the Mississippi and St. Lawrence and the carrying places Between the same shall be common High ways and forever a Bill has been reported but will not probably become a Law during the present session giving to the state a Grant of lands to Aid in the construction of a Road from Lawrence Burgh by the Way of fort Wayne and the Southern Bend of the St. Josephs of Lake Michigan to the state line in the direction of Chicago. A great portion of this Road must necessarily located through the Public lands and it proposes to give one Section for every mile. This will enhance the value of the Public lands beyond the value of the donation and open one of the most important roads in the Northwestern portion of he Union. That portion of it West of fort Wayne will be on the line of the nearest possible route from the Eastern cities to the Mineral regions of the Mississippi a route which must be travelled in the Winter season in preference of that through the Northern Rivers and lakes. This route has already attracted the attention of some portions of the Atlantic Seaboard and its importance must become More and More apparent. Its advantages Over any other route in Point of distance from any Given Point East of our state is great and obvious. Take Pittsburgh for example. From Pittsburgh by the Way of Colimbus fort Wayne the Southern Bend of the St. Josephs and Chicago to the nearest mines on the Mississippi the distance is 610 Miles. From the same place by water through the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers the distance is 1860 Miles and from the same Point by Way of the lakes and the Fox and Wisconsin Rivers it is 1110 Miles. Time cannot be Long till this will be one of the most important roads in the Northwest. With it too the Michigan Road will be intersected at the Southern Bend of the St. Josephs and the Western portion of our own state will no doubt soon be connected with it by a Road from the Vermillion country in the Dii Clio n of Chicago. I an appropriation for the further sex tin Guisment of Indian title in Indiana has passed the Senate and a treaty will in All probability be held with the miamis and Ottaw Ottamies the present year. This is a subject of great importance to us but one which has excited no solicitude in the Public mind. Not so with the Indian question in the South. On this subject much of the Benevolence of the country is excited in a misapprehension of the policy of the government towards the Indian. But nothing coercive on the subject of their removal has. On the part of the government Ever been proposed and the proposition now before Congress is an Exchange of the country where they now live for another country West of the Mississippi. The Bill now pending secures to them the country so Given in Exchange and if they so desire a Patent to Issue for it. It further authorizes payment for their improvements where they now Are gives them Aid and assistance in removing West of the Mississippi and support and subsistence for the first year after their Ren Oval. It also guarantees to them Protection in the new residence against the hostilities of other tribes. All this is submitted to their free acceptance or refusal. It is believed that they cannot Long remain where they Are. They Are surrounded by the settlements of Georgia Alabama and Mississippi and these states have extended Over them their Laws. Already collisions and bloodshed have taken place be tween them and the Whites. They cannot for Many generations to come be amalgamated with the Whites. They have not adopted to any considerable degree the employments of agriculture their game is destroyed and they cannot live by the Chase. Humanity requires that their condition should be changed and it is believed that this is the opinion of Many of themselves. Already have a Large number of the cherokees removed to he West of the Mississippi. The policy now pursued is that which was adopted by president Monroe and which has been under Matingly followed Ever since. It is the policy of settling them West of the organized states and territories assigning to each tribe a separate District of country giving them a permanent title to it and protecting them against wars among themselves As Well As encroachments of the Whites. The fifth census of the United state amp will be taken the ensuing summer and fall. A Bill too has been reported to fix the ratio of representation for the ensuing ten years. The present ratio is 40,000 to each member in the House of representatives and a the House now consists of 213 members. That number will not in All probability be increased and the ratio will a fixed with the View of keeping it at least where it is. This May raise the ratio to 50,000. The old states will be much reduced of their present representation while the new slates will be greatly advanced and perhaps none More so than Indiana. A Bill for the organization of the territory of Huron has for several sessions past been reported to the House of representatives. At the last session it passed that body but was sent too late to the Senate. It is again Befu re the House but there is Little probability of its becoming a Law during the present session. It is intended to include All our territory West of Lake Michigan a country fast rising into notice in which the Indian title to Large quantities of lands has lately been Region a bounding As is believed not Only with Lead but with Copper and Iron oars. The value of the Mineral regions of the Mississippi is from year to year More rapidly developing. The Lead made at the United states mines in the Vicinity of fever River and in Missouri amounted on the 30th sep Tenn ber last to 36,840,310 pounds More than 26,000,000 of which have been made within the last two years. This Bill should it not pass at the present session will have a prominent place in the orders of the Day for next session and at an Early period become a Law. Such is the Enterprise of our citizens that this country is settling with great rapidity and has probably at the present moment a greater population than Indiana had when her territorial government was formed. No territorial government or military Post will at present be organized or established on the Columbia River it though great solicitude on that subject is found to exist. A Large company is formed in the Eastern Stales chief of in Boston for the purpose of emigrating there. They propose to take ii Colony of 3,000 men most of a boy have families to go chiefly by Watt Landing in the Bay of Ca peachy Jin the Gulf of Mexico passing Over the isthmus of Darien to a Point on Thuc Pacific where transports will Roget them and take them to the place of heir Istina Tion they prey for a Small Laval outfit to Aid them in Gold and the military Arm of the govern mud Ohrn

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