Indianapolis Indiana Journal in Indianapolis, Indiana
19 Aug 1846

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Indianapolis Indiana Journal in Indianapolis, Indiana
19 Aug 1846

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Indianapolis Indiana Journal (Newspaper) - August 19, 1846, Indianapolis, Indiana Vol. , wednesday aug. 19, 1846, no. 23. to published enry Utida mesday morning by Josiv d. Derbes at �2,00 per annul in Advance or �2,50 at the end of the year. Rates of Advertis info a nine lines or less for one insertion 50cts for three insertions $1,00 for each subsequent insertion 25cts. 25 a Liberal discount to those advertising by the year. Agents for this paper. My. V. B. Lausier is Auti ionized to receive Money on subscription and in payment for advertisements forwarded by him. His offices Are at n. W. Corner of 3d and Chesnut St., Philadelphia a Tribune buildings never York no. 20 state St., Boston and s. E. Corner of Baltimore and Calvert St., Baltimore. Vies sri. Mason amp Tuttle no. 23 William St., and or. George Pratt no. I��4, Nassau St., new York Are also authorized agents for the same purpose. A iric. Green of Cincinnati Ohio a authorized to receive Money on subscription and in payment for advertisements forwarded % him from that City. Theft a Lovvig gentlemen will please receive and Romard a Ascriptions for. This paper. Att Bush w. Park Andersontown r.,Williams, bt00miiigt0n,lb0nman, bowl big Green j. T. Karr Bro Toie j. H. Farquher Bloom held s. Fellows Biti us. B. Horn Chaux town j. Fer Aon Gonne Osville . Smith Covington to. S. Sloan cordon a a. Porter Crawford svelte to. Beat Centerville g. W. Julian Delphi. Allen Dan Yium j. S. Harvey Evansville j. N. Kirkendale Liberty j. Yaryan Muncie t. J. Sample Marion Brownlee Madison w. N. Jackson it. Pleasant Brown Martinsville a. S. Griggs Monticello d. M. Tilton new Albany j. S. Davis no so Castle e. Murphy Newport w. P. Dole Noble c.,w. C. Taylor Point Commerce j. Allison Princeton s. Hall Plymouth w. G. Pomeroy Peru j. M. Defrees Paoli t v. Thornton Eagle Village j. , Rochester a. Smith Frankfort j. Thompson Frakell f. M. Finch fort Watne. W. Jones Greensburg j. T. Gibson Goshen j. H. Defines Greencastle a. Stephenson Hararington e. Murray Kokomo t. A. Long Lebanon j. C. Hocker Logansport g. W. Blakemore Lima j. T. Hobbs Laporte d. G. Rose Tipton a. Brown. Rome j. B. Huckeby Rock Ville t. H. Nelson rising san s. Jelley Rockport j. Harvey Rush Ville g. Ting by Spencer C. Howe South Bend c. M. Heaton Salem Martin Terre haute j. H. Hager Vernon j. Vawter Vevay j. N. Martin Wabash j. D. Cassat Wiljam Short j. H. Buel the journal is sent free of postage to the following Post offices Viz Marion , Clennon Allisonville Germantown Cumberland new Bethel Bridgeport Augusta. Hendricks , Plainfield Bellville Stiles Ville Danville new Winchester Brownsburg Springtown North Salem. Hamilton ,, Royal ton. Straw town Cicero. Boone , Thomley Ville Royalton Jamestown Eagle Village Northfield. Morgan , Monrovia. Hancock , sugar Creek Charlottsville Philadelphia Eden. Johnson , Franklin far West. Shelby View Shelbyville Morristown. The life clock train slated from the German. There is a Little Mystic clock no human Eye hath seen that breath eth on and breath eth on from morning until e in. And when the soul is wrapped in sleep. And breath eth not a sound. It ticks and ticks the Livelong night. And never run Neth Down. Of wondrous is that work of Art which Kunelis the passing hour. But Art Neer formed nor mind conceived the use clock s magic Power. Nor set in Gold nor decked with gems. By wealth and Pride possessed but Rich or poor or High or Low. Each bears it in his breast. When life s deep Stream midst Beds of Flowers. All still and softly glides. Like the Waverlet s step with a gentle beat it warns of passing tides. When threatening darkness gathers o or. And Hope s Bright visions flee like the sullen stroke of t be muffled oar it breath eth heavily. When passion nerves the Warrior s Arm for deeds of hate and wrong though heeded not the fearful sound. The Knell is deep and Strong. When eyes for eyes Are gazing Oft and tender words Are spoken. Then fast and wild it rattles on. As if with love there broken. Such is the clock that measures life. Of flesh and spirit blended and thus twill run within the breast. Till that strange life is ended. Increase of the influence of that department in the last sixteen years must have been an inattentive observer of passing events. The Independence of the legislative department is already destroyed by its Blind and implicit Devotion to the will of the executive. The doctrine is boldly advanced that the people by electing a president have decided in favor of All his opinions and Congress is therefore bound to carry out ail the measures which he recommends. But we have witnessed during tiie present session of a new expedient resorted to for the purpose of i curing the legislative Sanction to an executive measure. Wien the exc Cutie recommendations in the annual message and the Long Dull prosy lectures in the columns of the Quot Organ seemed scarcely sufficient to carry through the House a favorite executive measure a when after a protracted struggle the friends and the opponents of the measure appeared to be in a state of equipoise we have seen the members of the president s Cabinet mingling with the members of the House upon this floor and exerting their influence to carry the doubtful measure. If no legislation is to be adopted e except such As accords with the views of the president we might As Well dispense with Congress and surrender at once tiie Wlizlo Powers of the government into the hands of the executive. But or. Chairman without consuming further time by enlarging upon this subject i wish to examine the question of the mexican War and the causes which have led to it and i shall Endeavor to do it fairly and candidly. The president in his War message communicated to Congress on the 12th of maj has attempted to explain the causes which produced the War and to furnish a justification for his own conduct. The causes assigned by the president in Liis message Are three and i propose to notice them in the order in which they Are set out. The first is a recital of the wrongs and injuries committed by the mexican government upon the persons and property of citizens of the United states which Are depicted in glowing terms apparently with a View of exciting feelings of hostility against Mexico. It is True sir that injuries to a considerable extent have been committed by Mexico upon citizens of the United states which remain Una toned for. Bat i deny that those injuries have produced this War. And i deny most emphatically that there is any thing in the relations of the two countries growing out of these injuries which would justify a declaration of War. It has not been contended and will not be contended the propriety As Well As the necessity of this step on the part of the president we Iii Lins been attended wit i such important . During the summer of 184,5, after Texas had Given her assent to the proposition of annexation made by the United states the president at her request ordered a portion of the army of the United states under the command of Gen. Taylor to be St Ito cd at Corpus Christi on the Western Bank of the nieces which was the extreme Western Frontier of Texas. Trio object in sending our troops to that Point As alleged by the Pri Sidcot was to resist any invasion of Texas by Mexico which was then threatened. The troops remained at that Point during the summer and fall and until the Winter following when by the order of the , made on the i3th january last they were removed from Corpus Christi to the East Bank of the Rio Grande it is important Here to notice the fact that the settlement at Cor jus Christi is the Only stat Lemont which Texas has West of the nieces River. The country Litween that Point and the Rio Grande is a vast uninhabited desert until to i approx acid the Banks of the River which is thickly settled with a mexican population. Tiie distance by tween the two Rivers upon a straight line is lint Little Short of one Miles. Near the Mouth of the Rio Grande is the town of Point Isabel a mexican town and which when on army went there had a Rustoni Honse with its Oft Icera a pointed by the mexican government. The army us incr that our troops should be sent to the Rio Grande Quot a for the in Fence of that portion of our country Quot Doe. The j president mean that there were american citizens upon the Rio Grande whom it was necessary to defend by sending i on troops there he Well know and every member of i this House knows that there were no american citizens there that the Only population there was a mexican population living under the Protection of the Laws and government of Mexico. The verge of the Frontier of were not that texan declaration and texan Law in ?t All the predecessors of the president Quot rom the Purchase of Loui Imus in ibo i could not have Quot i seemed the Bravo the. Boundary of Ticeen the United states and Mexico Quot because by the treaty with Spain in 1819, before Mexico became Independent Quot the Boundary was fixed at the Sabine. Rut the chairman says that the Texas declaration of Independence and a texan Law of Istle expressly asserted Quot the Boundary to he the Rio Grande. True they did and Texas and the utmost limits of its settlements had been re Riched by our troops when Uliey were stationed at Corpus Christi. Between them and the mexican settlements upon the Rio Grande intervened tie vist desert waste which occupies the greater part of tie Region Between the nieces and the Rio Grande. And yet our troops were ordered j to March across that desert and station themselves in the midst of a mexican population for the purpose of defending american citizens whom they Hud left one Hundred Miles in the rear. The president urges another reason for sending the troops to the Rio Grande in the assertion that they were sent there to an invasion of Texas Wlinich was threatened from that Quarter. Ever since the Battle of san Jacinto which occurred ton years ago Mexico has been continually threatening an inv Ision of Texas. Yet that invasion has never been made. If Mexico during a period of ten years the command of the president passed Over this desert and and while Texas was compelled to rely upon her own Means after taking Possession of Point Isabel Pitcan a their Camp i of do Fonce dare not attempt an in Vijo a Ion although Coli on the East Bank of the Rio Grande opposite Matamoras a j stantly threatening it can we be induced to believe that mexican town containing a population of several to Tousand. She would seriously attempt it when by the act of Annex the mexican army held its head quarters at Matar Noras. As Tion the whole Power of the United states was pledged for must have been foreseen a collision took place Between the her defence ? Why sir it is ridiculous and absurd to sup hostile forces and actual War was commenced. I pose it. These of invasion a Ere but the Idle Gas and now sir the question is Jin sorted by what aut Lio Conade which has characterized mexican warfare and mex Ity and for what purpose did the president Send our army a can diplomacy Ever since the existence of that nation from Corpus Christi to the Rio Grande this is a question however Inch they May have alarmed the president to which the american people w a ill demand an answer from produced no fears Quot elsewhere. The Reison alleged by the this administration. It was this which produced the War. President for this movement Are shown to be note Rev futile. Liat excuse can he Rende Reil for an act which has resulted in such serious consequences it is urged in justification of the administration that by the annexation of Texas we acquired a title to the country As far West As the Rio Grande. The ground upon which this proceedings of the president is the arbitrary and unlawful is made is. That the Congress of Texas Assed an Assumption of Power in to Settle the question of there was in no possible View of the Case any necessity for such a movement even if no question of title or Boundary existed. But the most extraordinary and alarming feature in the by any Friend of the administration Here that War would to a Jwj in a in which they defined tiie Western Boundary of. Boundary Between Texas and . I have shown that or. Caleb b. Smith s speech. The kill making appropriations for tie support of volunteers and others employed in the War with Mexico being under consideration in committee of the whole on the state of the Union or. Caleb b. Smith addressed the committee or. Chair Ian Ever since the commencement of the in Fortu uste and m my opinion unjustifiable War in which we Are now engaged with Mexico a studied Effort has Heen made by the majority in Liis House to prevent any discus sigh of the causes which have induced it. Every Effort which has been made to give to tie Coli try Cori act information in regard to the cause War has been met by violent denunciation from the other Side of the House. To doubt the Justice of the War or to question the conduct of the president is denounced As treason to the country. The patriotism of members of this House is measured by the Zeal and vehemence with which they support the acts of the executive and he who doubts or questions the propriety of his con Actis assailed As an enemy of the country. This course if successful might accomplish the object which the friends of the administration desire. If tie represent Ives of the people can be Weiby menace and denunciation into a tacit acquiescence and support of All the opinions and recommendations of tiie president his conduct May escape censure and the people May be kept in ignorance of his flagrant abuse of the Powers which they have confided to him i shall Avail myself or. Chairman of this Opportunity of expressing my opinions of the mexican War and the manner in which it was commenced. My constituents desire information in relation to this interesting subject. They desire to know How and for what purpose this War was commenced. They wish to be informed of the objects which Are to be attained by its prosecution. They wish to learn what advantage is to result to tie country As a return for the vast expense of blood and treasure at which the War is prosecuted. So far As it is in my Power 1 intend to give them this information even though i do it at the Hazard of incurring a portion of that vituperation which has been so liberally heaped upon others. I recognize in its full Force the obligation which patriotism imposes upon every citizen to defend his when a foreign foe shall invade our soil it will be tie duty of every citizen to Rush to the Rescue without stopping to inquire into the Justice of the invasion. But sir this is not our condition now. No foreign armies Are seen upon our soil. No hostile fleets Are hovering upon our coasts. Within our Borders All is peace and Tranquility. And yet sir we Are engaged in War but it is a War of invasion and not of defence. The armies of tie United states Are at this time playing the stars and stripes in a fore land. And what too is most remarkable is the fact Liat this invasion of a sister Republic has been made by the president upon his own responsibility without the consent or Sanction. Of Congress and without the knowledge of the people. If the president in violation of the Constitution makes War justifiable upon this ground. Let us for a few moments examine the history of these claims and the negotiations which i have taken place in relation to them. On the 11th april 1839, a treaty was concluded Between the United states and Mexico by which it was stipulated that a Board of commissioners should be appointed by tie two governments to investigate the claims of american citizens against the government of where the commissioners could not agree the final decision was to be made by a disinterested Umpire. Under this commission claims were established and allowed in favor of american citizens to the amount of $2,026, 139 g8. By the terms of the original treaty Mexico was bound to pay the amount awarded by the commissioners in Cash or Treasury notes at her option. But a subsequent agreement was made Between the two governments by which it was provided Liat the amount should be paid in Twenty quarterly instalments in Cash. The first three instalments were paid in specie which was brought to this country and decided among the claimants. For the next two instalments an agent of the United states in the City of Mexico authorized by our government to receive the Money and receipt for it gave to the government of Mexico a full acquit Tance in which the receipt of the two instalments by him was acknowledged. The government of Mexico contends that those two instalments have been paid and produces the receipt of our authorized agent As evidence of the the agent although he admits the receipt denies the payment of the Money but alleges that he received from the mexican government drafts upon her custom houses which have not been paid. Thus stands the matter in relation to the first five instalments of the indemnities due from Mexico. The residue of the instalments remain unpaid. After the annexation of Texas Mexico withdrew her minister and suspended All diplomatic Intercourse with us. And now sir i ask the question which i would be pleased to hear any Friend of the administration answer is the non payment of those instalments thus provided for by treaty a cause of War will gentlemen attempt to find an excuse or an apology for this War in the refusal of Mexico to pay this Money sir if the refusal of a government to pay Money which it owes should at All times be regarded As a cause of War there Are several of the Sovereign states of this confederacy which i fear would be in eminent danger of War. How Many states of this Union with resources much beyond those which Mexico can control have for Many years past refused to pay even the interest which has accused upon Bonds by them for Money which they have borrowed this should at least admonish us of the necessity of exercising forbearance towards a government indebted to us. But much stress is Laid by the president in his message upon the fact that there Are numerous claims of american citizens which were not examined under the commission provided for by the convention of 1839, and which the government of Mexico has not since paid. If the president had seen proper to furnish us with a history of the negotiations upon this subject it would be found that there is nothing in this matter to furnish any cause of War. On the 20th november 1843, a third convention Between the two governments was executed which was designed to make a full settlement of All claims held by american citizens against the government of Mexico. By this convention it was provided that a Board of commissioners to consist of persons to be appointed by the two governments respectively should sit at the City of Mexico for the purpose of examining and deciding upon Toliese claims. Where a majority of the commissioners could not agree the final decision was to be made by an Umpire. The privilege of selecting the a Micire was conceded to the United states and in return for that Concession the Board was to hold its meetings in the City of Mexico. This convention was submitted to the Senate of the United states and that body amended it in two important and essential particulars. The first amendment required the Board to sit at the City of Washington in the United states instead of the City of Mexico As provided in the convention. The second amendment struck from the convention a provision which authorized the government of Mexico to present to the Board any claims which she might have against the government of the United states. The convention was returned to Mexico with those amendments and that government has hitherto failed to ratify it. It is unnecessary to discuss the propriety of tie amendments which were made by the Senate. I will Only observe that they seem to have been made in the spirit of requiring every Point in the contract to be in our favor. The important privilege of selecting the Umpire who would in effect have the decision of the claims which was conceded to us was certainly a pretty fair equivalent for allowing the Hoard to hold its meetings in the City of Mexico. Besides the fact that the evidence upon we Iii the claims of our citizens could alone be decided was All in Mexico furnished no inconsiderable argument in favor of the propriety of the Board holding its sessions there. I do that Rejin Blic to be the Rio Grange. This proves Only that in the compact of annexation the right of adjusting the a claim was set up by Texas to the territory but it proves Quot Boundary was expressly reserved to the govern nent of the i no title. As Well might we contend that we could acquire United states. Texas yielded All control Over the question 1 a title to the Canadas by passing a legislative act declaring and bound herself to submit to any Boundary which the them to be ours. While Texas was a province of Mexico United to fetes might agree upon by treaty with Western Boundary was the nieces River. This is so. This is so Clear that no one will deny it. It has not been de universally known to be True that no one will deny it. Be a a eds it will not be denied. How should this Boundary tween the nieces and the Rio Grande is a tract of country have been adjusted ? by negotiation with Mexico. The some Hundred Miles in extent. With the exception of the president in Ivo vember last sent a minister to Mexico but settlement at Corpus Christi upon the Western Bank of the without waiting to know the result of that Mission without ence eighteen months ago when the honorable chair Ian declared that Texas did not extend beyond a he Sii Pendious deserts which lie Between the nieces and the Rio Grande Quot these assertions then in the opinion of the chairman furnish no evidence of title to the Rio Grande. They certainly furnish no better evidence now. But As the last and finishing stroke the honorable chairman says that Quot treaties Between Texas and Mexico As expressly Quot established the Boundary at the Rio Grande. This statement As remarkable As it is can scarcely excite More than what precedes it in the report. The country will doubtless be surprised when they learn through the report of the committee of foreign affairs Liat this question of Boundary has been expressly settled by treaties Between Mexico and Texas. But they will doubtless be More surprised when they learn that this statement is made without any foundation in fact. I Call upon the chairman to state when and where those treaties were made and where they Are to be found. No such treaty much less Quot treaties Quot Ever had an existence. The Only agreement which it has Ever Heen pretended by any Friend of the president was made Between Texas and Mexico in relation to this matter was tie agreement entered into Between Santa ann�., while a prisoner of War after the Battle of san Jacinto and Gen. Houston president of Texas. Santa Anna then agreed to remove his army West of the Rio Grande As a consideration for his restoration to Liberty and also agreed to use his influence with the mexican government to procure a a cognition of the Independence of Texas. Whatever agreement to might have made could have had no binding effect upon the government of Mexico. The agreement which to made was never ratified and of course settled nothing. To dignify such an agreement As this by the appellation of a treaty is a Gross perversion of language. I have pointed out or. Chairman some of the Groa inaccuracies with which Liis report from the Conn tree on foreign affairs abounds. It is a something like an excuse for the conduct of the administration. He who relies upon its conclusions will be As far from the truth As Are Many of the statements Wirich it contains. The cause must be bad which its friends find necessary to defend by such Means. I have endeavoured to show the manner in which this War was commenced and the causes which led to it. The question now becomes what purpose and with what View was it commenced ? this is a question upon which the people will yet demand an answer from those nieces and those upon the Eastern Banks of the Rio Grande even waiting until it was certainly known whether the Miu j who administer the government. The friends of the and the whole country is unsettled a vast desert waste Unap i ister sent by him would be received by tie government Propri ated to the purposes of civilization. When Texas sep of Mexico lie assumes to fix a Boundary upon the Rio rated from the mexican Republic and declared Herindeen j Grande and sends an army to take forcible military posses Dence she could by no possibility acquire a title to any More Sion of the country As if with the deliberate purpose of at territory than was in her actual Possession. She had no set once putting a Stop to ail negotiation and of preventing elements beyond the nieces we Iii was her Western Boun any amicable adjustment of this irritating question he sent Dary. She exercised no authority or control Over the people an army into the mexican territory into the very heart of living upon the Eastern Side of the Rio grand. The Settle i a mexican population. This was itself an act of War. Nientsu and the towns Thero were mexican settlements and and yet at the very time that this War was thus commenced mexican towns. Some of them contain a population of Sev a Congress tie Only Power under the which is eral thousands. The entire population was made up of mex authorized to declare War was in session but was not even ican citizens acknowledging tiie authority of the mexican advised of what the president was doing. Government and living under mexican Laws. might this War then or. Chairman does not exist As is stated As easily have acquired a right to the City of Mexico by an by the president a by the act of it exists by the act of her legislature As to thus acquire a right to the coun Lawless and uncut lionized act of the president of the try washed by the Rio Grande. So Clear and palpable was United states. He has made War upon Mexico by sending All this and so Well was it understood in this country that _ a hostile army into her territories into the midst of her in All the efforts which have been made for the annexation. People. He has done this in utter disregard of the compact of Texas it has been expressly stipulated that the Western of annexation Between this government and Texas in the Boundary should remain open and undefined to be settled i face of an act of Congress expressly recognizing the Terri by negotiation with Mexico. When or. Tyler in 1844, a tory he has invaded As a part of Mexico and in open and negotiated a treaty for the annexation of Texas the Boun shameless violation of the Constitution which he has sworn Bary was left with out specification. Liis was done for the i to support. Very purpose of avoiding a collision with Mexico. I beg. The friends of the president have Laboured assiduously to leave hereto quote an extract Roui the letter of , find some excuse Fortis conduct and to shield him from Eon who was then Secretary of slate and negotiated the treaty damnation. But in doing this they Are Only a be to make of annexation written to or. Green charge of the United the Broad assertion that the territory into which our troops states at Mexico dated 19ui Ajril 1844. This letter was. Were sent belonged to the United states. They furnished written for tiie of dispelling any fears which might no a of to sustain their assertion for they know that none Quot have been entertained that it. Was the intention of our gov exists. Ern ment to claim the country to the Rio Grande follows it is As but the most extraordinary Effort in defence of the course of the president is to be found in a voluminous re Quot Yogi Are enjoined , by the president to the mex from the committee on foreign affairs of this House inn government that it is ii Quot is desire to Settle All questions be i this report was drawn and presented to the House by the i tween the two countries which Mav grow out of tins treaty or gentleman from Pennsylvania or. C. J. Ingersoll who any other cause on the most Liberal and satisfactory terms in is the chairman of that committee. As i have the Honor of Clu Dinar that of Boundary. Being a member of that committee i wish to refer to the re has taken every precaution to make the of the treat port for the purpose of noticing some of its statements in p Litt e object mutable As possible and among others has left the the honorable chairman has drawn quite largely u Pon bound Aryus i without ,.,n i0 that wha to ,.api�?ztion for his facts As Well As for thi purpose of Boundary Frh Ould Bennatt be an Opin qty Eston lobe Tair Ivl f7tiki a t. And i ully discussed and suied a ording to the rights of Ach 1 i Quot Quot. The report was made without my Sanction not suppose that it was possible for Mexico to establish any j would inevitably involve us in a War with Mexico. To 1 a. A 1___. ____11 1____________i Tirol Fri i flirt in Yuri it qui i of Avni Hirr thic Hisiu and the Imi Lual interests and Sec Ivity of the two the treaty of annexation was not ratified. At the next session of Congress the friends of the Mea ure succeeded in carrying through both houses a joint Resolution proposing to the Republic of Texas annexation upon terms which Are specified in the Resolution. It is important to examine this j Resolution As it has an important bearing upon this question j i will Here quote so much of it As relates to the question of Boundary of Texas Quot joint Resolution for annexing Texas to tiie United suates. Lio sni Atland of of Chr United s Ait s in Congress Assisi did. That Congo =.h doth consent that the territory properly Iii louled within and 1 i it filly belonging to the Republic of Tex As maybe erect re into a now stale. A be called the slate of Texas with a rep Halican form of government to be adopted Liv the people of the Taid Republic by deputies in convention assembled with the consent of the existing government in order that the same May be admitted As one of tie states nit his i Nion. 2. And he it further . I dial the foregoing consent of Congress is Given Jvon the of Quot Lov ing condition i and with thi following guarantees to wit first said slate to be formed subject to the adjustment by this govern Vieni of All questions of Boundary that Inay arise with other governments approved it Larch isl 1845. From this Resolution it is shown that when Congress proposed to Annex Texas to this country the proposition was made upon the express condition that the Boundary of Texas should be adjusted by this government. To what Boundary did that stipulation api by Why sir to the Boundary Between Texas and Mexico. Every other Boundary line of Texas was clearly defined and could by no possibility give Rise to any controversy. The act of the texan , fixing the Western Boundary of Texas at the Rio Grande had been passed Many years before that and was Well understood in this country. It was Well known however by the Congress which the resolutions of annexation that Tex is had no right to the country upon the Rio it was Well known that an assertion of title on our part or an attempt to take Possession of that portion of the country. And it and that i dissent from it in Toto. The report purports to present to the country a history of the causes of the mexican War but is in fact a laborious Effort to White Wash the administration and to furnish some apology or for its invasion of Mexico. The chair Ian in his report asserts that the territory in Wlinich hostilities commenced was Ainer ican i will detain the committee to read a Short extract from it. He says Quot to the the world la futurity and to our own countrymen we Are Able to show that a these odious have not been i of Okosi by on Jovern Niento or people so neither were they begun where our Force had in right to be. Norbeit Tunby them anywhere hut that i Xico struck the first blow and struck it on american ground Quot i wish now to compare the opinion of the honorable chairman expressed in the above extract from his report with an opinion expressed by the same gentleman about eighteen Mouths ago. In february 184.5, the joint Resolution for the annexation of Texas was pending in this House. The gentleman from Pennsylvania or. C. J. , was then As he now is the chair Ian of the committee on foreign affairs. He made a speech in favor of annexation. In the course of that speech he used the following language in relation to the Boundary Between Texas and Mexico Quot the Siu Pendious Deseri Between the nieces and Bravo Rio Grande Rivers Are the natural boundaries bet Yeii the Anglo Saxon and Manrill Aixian races. There ends the Valley of the St. Sherii Mexico la gins. While peace is , that Boim Ilary lie sacred. Not till the spirit of Conquest rages will the people on i flier Lide Nio Lesl or mix with each but eighteen Mont Lis have elapsed since the gentleman assured House and the country t at Quot the Sti Pendious deserts Between the isue Ces awl the Rio Grande Quot constituted the Boundary Between Texas and a Mexico. Then we were assured by him that that Boundary would be sacred until the spirit of Quot of Conquest should rage. Now the same gentleman has transferred that Boundary far Over those a a Siu Pendious deserts Quot and established it in the midst of the mexican set ministration by withholding the supplies necessary to bring the War to a close. Wanton and unjustifiable As they View the War still we Are engaged in if and our army must be sustained. But or. Chairman the administration has been furnished with All the supplies and Means for which it has asked. The president has commenced the War and the manner and extent of its prosecution rests with him. How far and How Long does he intend to prosecute it ? this is an important inquiry and one which is now upon every Tongue. And yet sir we get no answer to it extensive preparations Are in Progress for its prosecution. Of army has already penetrated into he Interior of Mexico and circumstances indicate an intention to March upon the Capitol. Sir i do not believe that the people of the United states desire this War to be prosecuted with ambitious views of Conquest. I do not believe that the it Iblis mind sympathizes with the administration in its ambitious designs. The moment of excitement occasioned by the outbreak of hostilities will be succeeded by Cool reflection which will result in condemnation of the executive. The fair Fame of the country has already received a stain which All the glory of Palo Alto and Resaca Delia Palma cannot remove. The desire for peace is extending with every Day. The interest and Honor of the country demands that these odious hostilities with a neighbouring Republic should cease and that peace should be restored. Ministration disclaim any intention of Dis remembering or conquering Mexico. I would not wish to judge the administration uncharitable and yet i am forced to the belief that the War has been commenced with the deliberate design of acquiring California and perhaps other provinces of Mexico. The president professes a willingness to make a treaty of peace with Mexico As soon As she Manifest a willingness to treat. At the same time the ground is assumed by the friends of the president that when we do make Pence Mexico must pay the expenses of the War which will very shortly reach forty or fifty millions of dollars and if it is protracted much longer it will greatly exceed that amount. How is Mexico to pay this sum ? that she can not pay it in Money is perfectly Clear. When the War shall be ended California and other Northern provinces will be in the Possession of our armies. If she cannot pay the Money government will demand a cession of her territory As an equivalent and the Possession will be retained by Force until she shall agree by treaty to cede it. Thus will the government while Discoli timing All intention of Conquest become possessed of some of the Best provinces of Mexico by coercing her into a surrender of them. I ask gentlemen to Mark the result and see if it does not justify the prediction i make. I will ask attention to a letter from the Secretary of War written in june and which has just been published upon a Call of the Senate. This letter foreshadows the course of the administration and conclusively that designs of Conquest lie at the Bottom of the War Quot sir the i resident having Detent inc to Send a regiment of a a a ind care Horn a Tho pm of Iii to be employed in prosecuting hostilities in some province of Mexico probably in upper California has authorized me to say that if you will organize one on the conditions hereinafter Sii edified and tender its Seiv Iees it will be act opted. Quot it is proper it should be done with the approbation of the governor of new York. Quot the president , and indeed requires that great care should be taken to have it composed of suitable persons. I moan persons of Good habits As far 113 practicable of various pursuits and such As would be Likely to desire to remain at the end of the War either in Oregon or am territory in that Region of the Globe which Xiy he then a part of the United states. The act of 13th May Lasi Audi Orizes the Quot acceptance of volunteers for twelve Mouths or during the War with Mexico. The condition of the acceptance in ibis care must be a tender of services during the War and in must be explicitly understood that they May be discharged without a claim for returning Home wherever they Inay be serving at the termination of the Wai non vivid it is in the then territory of the United states or May be taken to the nearest or most convenient territory belong in to the United states and then discharged. A a Quot the men must be apprised expressly that their term of service is for the War thai they Are to be discharged As above specified and that they Are to be employed on a Distant service it is however a cry desirable that it should not he publicly Komi or proclaimed that thei Jare to go to a particular province of Mexico. L n this Point i real caution is enjoined. The communications 10 officers and men must to so far As to remove All just ground of complaint that they have Heen deceived in the nature and place of the service. Quot it is Exi acted that the Rei Zinent will be in readiness to embark As Early As ii Quot 1st of August next if practicable. Step will be immediately taken to provide for transportation amp a. Quot very respectfully. Your obedient servant. Quot col. J. D. n air . I this letter authorizes col. to raise a regiment of volunteers to be of such men Quot As would be Likely to desire to remain at the end of the tear either in Oregon or any territory in that Region of the Globe which Way be then a part of the United the Only inference a hich can he drawn from this language is that it is the design and the of the administration to attach to the United states territory in the Region of Oregon to which we have now no claim. In other words they intend and expect to conquer California. The truth is Quot then that we Are engaged in a War of conquests a War prosecuted for the purpose of dismembering a sister Republic and stripping her of a portion of her territory. The country cannot be deceived by the shallow pretence which has been set up by the administration that the War is one of defence on our part. The administration is a Southern one. Its partiality for claims Quot against the United states. And yet it could have resulted in no injury to allow her the poor privilege of presenting any claim she might have supposed herself to possess for tie decision of a Board the decision of which was in the persons to be appointed by our own government. This sir i believe is a fair history of the negotiations Between the two governments in relation to the claims of our citizens for injuries done them by Mexico and such is the present position of those claims. Surely this presents nothing which would justify a resort to War or which can be urged As a pretext or excuse for the War in which we Are engaged was for the express purpose of avoiding this difficulty that the Resolution of annexation reserved to this government the right of adjusting the Boundary. The debates which occurred upon tiie Resolution in both branches of Congress prove that such was the United opinion of members. Had it then been understood that by annexing i exas we should have been committed to take of the whole country up to the Rio Grande the project would have been voted Down. Well sir Texas through her Congress agreed to annexation upon the terms and conditions of the Resolution of the Congress of the United states. This their constituted a Clear the second Point urged by the president in his array of and express compact Between the two governments that the the causes of the War is the fact that the government refused to receive or. Slidell who was sent there in november last As a minister plenipotentiary and envoy extraordinary. However discourteous and against the usage of civilized nations might have been the conduct of Mexico in refusing to receive our minister it is very Clear that it furnished no cause of War. Mexico was a Sovereign and Independent nation. She had a right to keep up diplomatic relations with our government or not As she chose. This is a right belonging to every nation. Had the wish expressed by the mexican government that a commissioner specially authorized to Settle the difficulties growing out of the annexation of Texas should be sent there instead of a minister with full diplomatic Powers been gratified it is very probable the this War might have been avoided and the difficulties Between elements. The 0/ro/if/he.si,&Quot which in the opinion of Southern men and Southern interests has already been udon a foreign country does patriotism require that the peo. A a a i r a pie or their representatives shall with hold any expression of to governments have been amicably adjusted. Re or rebuke until he May see proper to bring the War but i come now or. Chairman to consider the last and ,to a close i think not sir. The president is not tie coun try. There is a vast distinction Between the country and most important ground presented by the president As the reason of the War. He Caps the Climax in his recital of mex those who Are entrusted with the administration of the gov ican wrongs and outran by the assertion that Mexico has Ern ment. Patriotism requires us to cherish and defend out passed the Boundary of the United states has invaded our Tern a it nil a in it Vir til 1ta\n-n fix in a a a a a >0i/ tails Rio Grande country while at the same time it imposes upon us the duty of exposing and denouncing the wickedness of her rulers. Statement is made upon the Assumption Liat la the highest duty of a representative is to expose and re a is the Boundary Between the United states and Mexico. It Eist the encroachments of Power and he who shrinks from was upon the left Bank of that River that Quot american blood was the discharge of Liat duty is Recreant to his High Trust and shed Quot in the collision Between american and mexican troops unfit to be the representative of a free people. The Patri and the president asserts that to be Quot american Otis of those who fearlessly discharge this duty is More to this collision of the armies of the two countries upon the be relied upon than that of the cringing fawning sycophants Rio Grande was in fact the commencement of the of Power who can see no wrong in any thing which is done the president by sending our army there brought on the by an executive who has patronage to dispense. Collision. This no one will deny. Had our troops been the Power and influence of the executive department of suffered to remain at Corpus Christi on the Western Frontier the government has become the greatest evil in our political of Texas the peace of the two countries would have remain system. He who has not witnessed the rapid and alarming de undisturbed. It becomes then important to inquire into Boundary Between Texas and Mexico should be adjusted by the government of the United states. Adjusted How Why by fair and honorable negotiation with Mexico. As an additional evidence that it was Well u that the country upon the Rio Grande belonged to Mexico i would ask gentlemen to look at an act passed by the same i Congress which resolutions to Annex Texas which i recognised it As mexican territory. The act to which i refer 1 was approved 3d March 1845, after the passage of the res i solution of annexation and bears the following title i Quot an act All icing drawbacks upon foreign merchandise exported in the original packages to Chihuahua and Santa be in Mexico and to the British North american provinces adjoining the United Santa be is within the country now claimed by the United states upon the East Side of the Rio Grande. It contains a mexican population of some six thousand souls. The mexican Laws Are regularly administered there. All the officers Are appointed by the mexican government. Texas never had any More control Over it than great Britain has. And yet the president tells us it is ours because Texas in 1836 Quot passed a Law which declared it to belong 10 that Republic. The president in his message of the 13th of May attempts to assign reasons for sending the army to the Rio Grande. Let us hear what those reasons Are. He says Quot it became therefore of Virgint Necef Sily to provide for the defence of that portion of our country. Accordingly on the 13th of january last instructions were to the general in command of these Roopi to the left Bank of the Del Norte Rio Grande i his River which is the Bolin Ary Quot of the stale of Texas is an exposed Frontier. From this Quarter invasion was it seems then from the president s message that it was the gentleman could Alon it induce us to pass Boundary and molest the people upon the other Side of it has seized upon the country sooner than he anticipated. The same s Irit seems to have seized upon him for he is now willing to lend the influence of his name Anil official station to excuse and justify the for doing that which he says could Only be done under the int Ienco of the Quot spirit of i leave it sir for the committee and thi country to determine How much Reliance should be placed i on the assertion contained in that report that the country upon the Rio Grande where hostilities wore first commenced is Quot Raineri can ground Quot when the assertion stands expressly denied in a speech made on this Ihor Only eighteen months ago by the same gentleman that wrote the report. But i must ass to another portion of this most extraordinary report in another part of it he says a a a Luther the ice Mitory bet i n like and the Bravo was american ground the president had no right or Power to sir this is the very Point in which we Clarge the president with a usurpation of Power. I admit that he Quot had no rigid or Power to determine Quot this question of Boundary and it is because he did without Quot right of Power Quot determine it and involve the country in War that he deserves the severest reprehension of every american citizen. The honorable chair in seemed determined to prove the country upon the Rio Grande to be Quot american ground at least so far As Broad and general assertions will prove it. It is necessary to prove this to make out a justification for the president. But As he has not attempted to furnish any evidence to sustain the position i presume he expects his own assertions to be taken As evidence of the fact. He says Quot several acts of co Cress had made it his the s duly to consider in a Inezie i. Ail his predecessors from the Purchase of Louisiana in 1803, deemed the Brav the Boundary Betwenik the United Stales and Mexico. The Texas Declara Tio i of incl Pendency and a texan Law in , As Soru d it. Treaties Beau on Texas and Mexico like wisc As sir 1 deny in positive terms the statement Here made that Quot several acts of Coris Russ had made it his duty in consider it if any act of Congress exists which Recognises the claim now set up to the country upon the Rio Grande i Call upon the chairman of the conic Wittco on foreign affairs who has made this assertion to produce it. It cannot be produced for no such act of Congress is in existence. On the contrary i have shown the act of Congress which was passed after the Resolution to Annex Texas which expressly Recognises that country As a part of Mexico. So strongly , As to excite loud and open murmurs from Many of its friends. The acquisition of California is desired As a Means of extending and perpetuating the Power and influence of the South. The successful manner in which the Nuqui situs scheme of annexing Texas has been consummated has sharpened the appetite of those who desire the acquisition of Southern territory. While we see the administration with a degree of and submission somewhat Rena Kabli when we remember their vainglorious boast that Quot our title to the whole of Oregon was Clear and unquestionable Quot surrendering one half of that territory to great Britain we see them on the other hand grasping at territory in a More Southern latitude to which we have no title in violation of every principle of right. When the Bill which appropriated ten millions of dollars and authorized the president to Call volunteers to prosecute the War was under consideration i was confined to my room by indisposition and was therefore unable to vote upon it. Had i been present i should have voted for the Bill. However much i respect the motives of the fourteen gentlemen who voted against it i could not have concurred with them in the votes which they gave. At that time our Little army was in a hostile country surrounded by an enemy of greatly Superior numbers. Every mail was looked for with intense anxiety Ami intelligence of defeat and disaster was feared by Many. It was not then the time to Stop to inquire whether our army was there right fully or not ? they were there exposed to the most imminent peril and it was the imperative duty of Congress to adopt the Means necessary to extricate them from that danger. If the president by an unauthorized act had sent our troops into a foreign country and involved us in a War it was still our duty to adopt the necessary Means to secure their safety. It is True the majority in this House by an act of unexampled party tyranny attached to the Hill the assertions that the War existed by the act of . This was done for the purpose of compelling the whigs to Sanction this statement by their votes and thus furnish some excuse for the administration or try voting against the Bill Render themselves obnoxious to the charge of voting against granting the supplies necessary to extricate our army from their dangerous position. I believe the statement contained in the Bill that the War existed by the act of Mexico was . Still i should have voted for the Bill protesting at the same time As did whigs who voted for it against this falsehood and protesting against the tyranny of Quot the majority which refused to us the privilege of voting upon the two propositions separately. It a not the desire of the whigs of Liis House to Embarrass the and fro7n the colonies pianist. Objections to colonization. We find the following statement of objections to colonization and answers in the appendix of the report of the Massachusetts colonization society which we commend to the candid and impartial consideration of every objector to our cause 1. Quot the colonization society rivets the chains of the a7istver. The society has nothing to do with slaves or slavery except when it finds masters who wish to emancipate and then it aids them by settling the emancipated on a Fertile soil in a congenial climate. Sometimes the master Bequeaths Freedom to his slaves and his heirs attempt to break the will and then the society has to maintain a lawsuit in defence of their Freedom. It has expended Many thousand dollars in such lawsuits. In these ways it has secured the emancipation of nearly 3,000 slaves and is still going on with this Good work. How does this Quot rivet the chains of slavery Quot 2. Quot the society opposes immediate emancipation on the Anster. The society does a of oppose immediate emancipation on the soil. A Tew of its friends have expressed their opinion that emancipation ought to he Ota dual and Accomma a Nied with colonization and m som of its earlier reports the society spoke of Quot the gradual and utter abolition of Slavey Quot As the Best thing of which they had any hop. But the society has never exerted nor attempted to exert any influence at verse to emancipation on the soil. If any wish to emancipate for colonization the society can Aid them but if they wish to emancipate in any other Way its Constitution re Strans it from inter meddling one Way or the other. 3. Quot the society has opposed the anti slavery Ai Ishwer. It has opposed the attempts of anti slavery men to destroy it. The controversy was begun by certain anti slavery men who without provocation commenced a War upon the society with the avowed purpose not of reforming the society but of destroying it. There has been no contest Between them which did not grow out of that attack. 4. Quot the society shows two faces one at the South and another at the answer. The society refutes the objections which Are made in various parts of the country. Some men a the North say that the society Quot rivets the chains of the we reply that we do no such thing that on the contrary our labors Render emancipation easier and More frequent. Southern men accuse us of intending to interfere with their rights of property. We deny this charge too. We Tell them that we have nothing to do with slaves so Long As they use slaves that we shall neither emancipate their slaves nor compel them to do it that emancipation is their work and not ours and that when they Are ready to do it and desire our help we shall be glad to help them. And we show both these Quot faces Quot in the same publication which is sent All Over the country so that All who choose to read either at the North or South see both of them. 5. Quot the society must be bad because slave holders Are in favor of afis Tver. There Are two classes of slave holders. Some of them profess to Rega Delavery As an evil and to desire its termin Fatiori. Quot a part of these see our fiends which oof against us. Others say that slavery is a Good institution and ought to be perpetual. These Are All against us. From the beginning they ave been among our bitterest most decided and most unchanging opposes because they say our operations tend to promote emancipation. We May As Well consider their objection next. It is 6. Quot colonization is a sly plan of Northern fanatics to undermine answer. Whose plan it was first is a question not easily answered. The society was not formed till after it had become the plan of Many of the Best men both at the North and the South. The Northern men who then engaged in it considered the approbation and co operation of Good men at the South an indispensable condition of Success. And there was nothing sly about it. All its intended and All its desired bearings on slavery were openly proclaimed to the world from the very first. The accusation May mean however that we proceed with such cautious regard for the rights the feeling and the wishes of All concerned that no occasion can he found for getting up an excitement against us. If this is the meaning we demur to the indictment without denying the fact we deny that it a a crime. 7. Quot the society encourages prejudice against Aniver. This accusation is exactly the reverse of the society finds that prejudice already existing and fruitful in in Ischie. It finds the Whites violently prejudiced against the coloured and unwilling to associate with them on terms of Equality. As the Whites Are an immense majority and possess nearly All the wealth intelligence and responsibility in the country this exclusion a depressing influence on its victims. It also finds the coloured people violently prejudiced against their own color unable to endure the thought of associating exclusively with each other and feeling therefore that their inability to with the Whites ruins them and renders All exertions to become respectable nearly or quite hopeless. To remedy this evil the society proposes to place coloured people in More favourable circumstances to make a nation of them where All stations of profit Trust and Honor shall be open to them and to them alone and where having free scope tor the exercise of their Powers they May show themselves capable of responsibility. The society assumes that they Are capable in favourable circumstances of managing the affairs of a nation respectably and that if a fair Chance is Given them they will do it and that when they have done it prejudice against color will be broken Down. Ail its Hopes of Success Are based upon this Assumption for if they have not that capacity. Colonization must of necessity prove a miserable failure. The society therefore instead of encouraging that prejudice is bearing the most decided Lesii Mony against it and taking the most effectual Way to abolish it. 8 Quot the society can never remove the whole coloured population of this Cou Witry. The whole commercial Marine of the United states is not sufficient to take away even their annual answer. This is an old objection and was fully answered in the annual report for 1820. In the first place t be society has never undertaken to remove the whole coloured population. It has indeed avowed the belief that the entire separation of the White and coloured races if practicable by proper Means would be highly beneficial to both and is therefore a proper object of an Quot Earnest wish Quot but it openly professes its own ability Quot unassisted by the resources of individual states or of the Union to provide for colonizing Quot t Ven Quot to Weir annual it has undertaken to found a Colony to which coloured people will find it advantageous to Fri ten ii and when thi. Is done and the coloured people Are convinced of it it expects that thousands will find their Way there just of thousands every year find their Way from Europe to America. The assertion concerning our Quot whole commercial Marine Quot though made by intelligent men with evident Confidence in its Trulli is a most enormous Blunder. The annual increase of the coloured population Bond and free from 1830 to 1840, was 54,356. A vessel is allowed by Law to carry three passengers for every five tons of measurement. At this rate and allowing each vessel to make three trips a year the conveyance of the whole annual increase would require a Little less than 30,197 tons of ship a no. The tonnage of the Quot whole commercial Marine of the United states Quot As officially reported at the commencement of the present year was 2,416,999 tens or More than Iii hey times the amount required. It is sufficient at the rat above stated to convey to afric i 4.360,597 emigrants in a sin Gle year. The coloured population Bond and tree in t840. Was 2.873,590. Add the increase for six years at the rate i above mentioned and we have 3,199,716 As their present Nonni i her. The whole of these would not be enough by More than a j million to employ our Quot whole commercial Marine Quot twelve months. The annual increase is far less than the annual Enid i Gration from Europe to the United states i 9. Quot the society s Colony has driven away the missionaries of the american j answer the american Board never had a in our col i ony. None of its missionaries were Ever there except for a i few Days at a time As i amp Milors of Ever had an Opportunity to i know much about it except by ii Arsay. The Mission of the Board in Western Africa v. As commenced at Cape Palmas Yahoni it 0 Miles beyond the extreme Southeastern limit of our Jurisi Littian. Their Difili were not with us but with the Maryland colonization society and its Colony with which we have no coi merlion. Of to to Weir Btung driven away they did not go till they by ii Ved they Hud found a better location and the n Mission which was involved in the same Difini bullies there still and does rot intend to remove. 10. Quot tic society is not doing All that ought to be done for the coloured Ansier. Very True and we shall be very Grid to see others a do the rest and As individuals so far As we like their plans i we will help them

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