Indianapolis Indiana Journal in Indianapolis, Indiana
1 Apr 1837

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Indianapolis Indiana Journal in Indianapolis, Indiana
1 Apr 1837

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Indianapolis Indiana Journal (Newspaper) - April 1, 1837, Indianapolis, Indiana J of Quot Quot j vol Xiv Indianapolis saturday april 1, 1837. Published by Douglass a Noel. per annul ii Advance for 52 numbers�?$3 of at 6 months�?$3 50 at the end of the volume. No paper will be discontinued unless at the option of the publishers until arrearage Are paid. Price for advertise a twelve Lino a or less three insertions 00 for each additional iti.?firtion,25 cents. Longer advertisements charged in proportion. A Liberal discount made to those who advertise by the year. Chancery a Otic a and pct Tiam for divorce will be inserted the requisite number of times for $2 00 and to insure their publication tie must accompany the notices. Complaints of insolvency $3 00. All orders for advertising Irum a distance must be accompanied by the Money or they will not receive attention. The postage must be paid on All letters to the publishers or they will not be taken out of the Post office. From Hood s comic almanac. A parental ode to my son aged three years and five months. Thou Happy Happy Elf but Stop first let me kiss away that tear thou tiny image of myself my love he s poking peas into his ear thou merry laughing sprite Quot with spirits Feather Light unt ouch d by sorrow and unspoiled by sin Good heavens the child is swallowing a pin thou Little tricks puck with Antic toys so funnily be struck Light As the sinking Bird that wings the air the door the door hell Tumble Down the Stair i thou Darling of thy sire Why Jane hell set his Pinafore a fire i thou Imp of mirth and Joy in love s dear Chain so Strong and Bright a link thou idol of thy parents drat the boy there goes Ray in thou Cherub but of Earth fit play fellow for fays by Moonlight Pale in Harn Iless sport and a North that dog will bite him if he pulls his Tail thou humming Bee extracting Honey i rom every Blossom in the world that blows. Singing in youth s Elysium Ever sunny another Tumble that s his precious nose thy father s Pride and Hope hell break the Mirror with that skipping rope with pure Liepart newly stamped from nature s where did he learn that squint mint thou Young Domestic Dove hell have that Jug off with another shove dear Nursling of the Hymen Al nest Are those torn clothes his Best Little epitome of Man hell climb upon the table that s his plan touched with the beauteous tints of dawning he s got a knife life thou enviable being no storms no Clouds in thy Blue sky foreseeing play on play on. My elfin John toss the Light balls bestrides the Slick i knew so Many cakes would make him sick with fancies buoyant As the Thisbe domn prompting the face grotesque and Antic brisk with Many a Lamb like frisk he s got the scissors snipping at your gown thou pretty opening Rose go to your Mother child and wipe your nose Balmy and breathing music like the South he really brings my heart into my Mouth fresh As the morn and Brilliant As the Star a i wish that window had an Iron a bold As the Hawk yet gentle As the Dove a i la Tell you what my love i cannot write unless he s sent above y Farewell address of Andrew Jackson to the people of the Una Teit states fellow citizens a being about to retire finally from Public life i beg leave to offer you my grateful thanks for the Many proofs of kindness and Confidence which i have received at your hands. It has been my Fortune in the discharge of Public duties civil and military frequently to have found myself in difficult and trying situations where prompt decision and energetic a Tiomi were necessary and where the interest of the country required that High responsibilities should be fearlessly encountered and it is with the deepest emotions of gratitude that i a knowl Edge the continued Confidence with which you have sustained me in every my Public life has been a Long one and i cannot Hope that it has at All times been free from or tors. But i have the Consolation of knowing that if mistakes have been committed they have not seriously injured the country i so anxiously Elidea ored to serve and at the moment when i set Render my last Public Trust i leave this great pm of be prosperous and Happy in the full enjoy itis Iii of Liberty and peace and honoured and respected by every nation of the my Humble efforts have in any degree con i buted to preserve to you these blessings i have been More than rewarded by the honors you have leaped upon me and above All by the generous Confidence with which you have supported me in every peril and with which you have continued to animate and cheer my path to the closing hour of my political life. The time has now cd me >7hen advanced age and a broken Frame warn me to retire from Public concerns but the recollection the Many favors you have Best Weil upon me is engraved upon my heart and 1 have Felt Liat l could not part from your service without making this Public acknowledgement of the gratitude i of a you. And if i use the occasion to offer you the counsels of age and experience you will i Trust receive them with the same indulgent kindness which you have so often extended to me and will at least see in them an Earnest desire to perpetuate in this favored land the blessings of lib a try and equal Laws. We have now lived almost fifty years undid a the Constitution framed by the sages and patriots of the revolution. The conflicts in which the nations of Europe were engaged during a great a Art of this period the spirit in which they waged War against each other and our i vitiate commercial Connexions with every part of the civilized world rendered it a time of much difficulty or the government of the United states. We have had our seasons of peace and War with All t up evils which precede or follow a state of hostility with powerful i lations. We encountered these trials with our Constitution its inf Aii by and under the disadvantages which a new and untried government must always feel when it is. Called upon to put Forth it whole strength without the lights of a Peri Isicc to guide it or the weight of precedents to. Justify its measures. But we have passed triumphantly through All these difficulties. Our Constitution is to longer a doubtful Experiment and at the end of nearly half a Century we find that it has preserved unimpaired the liberties of the people secured the rights of property and that our country has improved and is flourishing beyond any former example in to la a history of nations. In our Domestic concerns there is every thing to encourage us and if you Are True to yourselves nothing can impede your March to the highest Point of National Prosperity. The states which had so Long been retarded in their improvement by the Indian tribes residing in the midst of them Are at length relieved from the evil and this unhappy race the original dwellers in our land Are now placed in a situation where we May Well Hope that they a ill share in the blessings of civilization and be saved from that Deg relation and destruction to which they were rapidly hastening while they remained in the states and while the safety and Comfort of our own citizens have been greatly promoted by their removal the philanthropist will rejoice that the remnant of that ill fated race has been at length placed beyond the reach of injury or oppression and that the paternal care of the general government will hereafter watch Over them and protect them. If we turn to our relations with foreign Powers we find our condition equally Gratifying. Actuated by the sincere desire to do Justice to every nation and to preserve the blessings of peace our Intercourse with them has been conducted on the part of this government in the spirit of frankness and i take pleasure in saying that ii has generally been met in a corresponding difficulties of old standing have been surmounted by Friendly discussion and the Mutual desire to be just and the claims of our citizens which had Long been withheld have at length been acknowledged and adjusted and satisfactory arrangements made for their final payment and with a limited and i Trust temporary exception our relations with every foreign Power Are now of the most Friendly character our Commerce continually expanding and our Flag respected in every Quarter of the world. These cheering and grateful prospects and these multiplied favors we owe under Providence to the adoption of the Federal Constitution. It is no longer a question whether this great country can remain happily United and flourish under our present form of government. Experience the unerring test of All human undertakings has showed the Wisdom and foresight of those who formed it and has proved that in the Union of these states there a a sure foundation for the brightest Hopes of Freedom and for the happiness of the people. At every Hazard and by every sacrifice this Union must be preserved. The necessity of watching with jealous anxiety for the preservation of the Union was earnestly pressed upon his fellow citizens by the father of his country in his Farewell he has there told us that Quot while experience shall not have demonstrated its impracticability there will always be reason to distrust the patriotism of those who in any Quarter May Endeavor to weaken its Bonds Quot and he has cautioned us in the strongest terms against the formation of parties on geographical discrimination As one of the Means which might disturb our Union and to which designing men would be Likely to resort. The lessons contained in this invaluable legacy of Washington to his countrymen should be cherished in the heart of every citizen to the latest generation and perhaps at no period of time could they be More usefully remembered than at the present moment. For when we look upon the scenes that Are passing around us and dwell upon the pages of his parting address his paternal counsels would seem to be not merely the offspring of Wisdom and foresight but the voice of prophecy foretelling events and warning us of the evil to come. Forty years have passed since this imperishable document was Given to his countrymen. The Federal Constitution was Thon regarded by him As an Experiment and he so Speaks of it in his address but As an Experiment upon the Success of which the Best Hope of his country depended and we All know that he was prepared to Lay Down his life if necessary of secure to it a full and a fair trial. The trial has been made. It has succeed beyond the proudest Hopes of those who framed it. E very Quarter of this widely extended nation has Felt its blessings and shared in the general Prosperity produced by its adoption. But amid this general Prosperity and splendid Success the dangers of which he warned us Are becoming every Day More evident and the signs of evil Are sufficiently apparent to awaken the deepest anxiety in the bosom of the Patriot. We behold systematic efforts publicly made to sow the seeds of discord Between different parts of the United states and to place party divisions directly upon Geo Phi cd distinctions to excite the South against the North and the North against the South and to Force into the controversy the most delicate and exciting topics a topics upon which it is impossible that a Large portion of the Union can Ever speak without Strong emotion. Appeals too Quot Aie Constantin made to sectional interests in order to influence the election of the chief magistrate As if it were desired that he should favor a particular Quarter of the country instead of fulfilling the duties of his Static a Witler impartial Justice to All the pm Ible dissolution of the Union has at length become an Ordinary and familiar subject of discussion. Has Tjie warning voice of Washington been forgotten or have designs already been formed to sever the it nigh t let it not be supposed that i impute to All of those who have tak a an Active part in these unwise and unprofitable discussions a want of patriotism or of Public Virtu b. The Honor ble feeling of state Pirtle and local attachments find a place in the bosoms of the most enlightened and pure. But a Hile such men Are conscious of their own integrity and honesty of purpose they ought never to forget that the citizens of other states Are their political Brethren and that however mistaken they May be in their views the great body of them Are equally honest and up baht with themselves. Mutual suspicions and reproaches May in time create Mutual hostility and artful and designing Ipen will always be found who Are ready to Focient these fatal divisions and to inflame the. Nay no. 773. Such examples and especially the history of republics. What have you to gain by division and dissension delude not yourselves with the belief that a breach once made May be afterwards repaired. If the Union is once severed the time of separation will grow wider and wider and the controversies which Are now debated and settled in the Halls of legislation will then be tried in Fields of Battle and determined by the neither should you deceive yourselves with the Hope Liat the first line of separation would be the permanent one and that nothing but Harmony and Concord would be found in the new associations formed upon the dissolution of this Union local interests would still be found there and unchaste cd ambition. And if the recollection of common dangers in which the people of these United states stood Side by Side against the common foe the memory of victories won by their United valor the Prosperity and happiness Thev have enjoyed under the present Constitution the proud name they Bear As citizens of this great Republic if All these recollections and proofs of common interest Are not Al neg enough to bind us tog theras one people what tie a ill Hohl United the View divisions of Empire when these Bonds have been broken and this Union Dis severed the first line of separation would not last for a single generation new fragments would be torn of Quot new leaders would Spring up and this great and glorious Republic would soon be broken into a multitude of Petty states without Commerce without credit jealous of one another armed for Mutual aggression loaded with taxes to pay armies and leaders seeking Aid against each other from foreign Powers insulted and trampled upon by tie nations of Europe until harassed with conflicts and humbled and debased in spirit they would be ready to submit to the absolute Dominion of any military adventurer and to surrender their Liberty for the Sake of repose. It is impossible to look on the consequences that would inevitably follow the destruction of this government and not feel indignant when we linear cold calculations about the value of the Union and have so constantly before us a line of Coli dict so a Ell calculated to weaken its ties. There is too much at stake to allow Ivile or passion to decision. Never for a moment believe that tie great body of the citizens of any state or states can deliberately intend to do wrong. They May under the influence of temporary excite tent or misguided opinions commit mistakes they May be misled for a time by the suggestions of self interest but in a Community so enlightened and patriotic As the people of the United states argument will soon make them sensible of their errors and when convinced they will be ready to repair Vliem. If they have no higher or better motives to govern them they will at least perceive that their own interest requires them to be just to others As they Hope to receive Justice at their hands. But in order to maintain the Union unimpaired it is absolutely necessary that the Laws passed by the constituted authorities should be faithfully executed in every part of the country and that every Good citizen should at All times stand ready to put Down with the combined Force of the nation every attempt at Bujila wiil resistance under whatever pretext it May be made or whatever shape it May assume. Unconstitutional or oppressive Laws May no doubt be passed by Congress either from erroneous views or tie Waul of duo consideration if they arc within the reach of judicial authority the remedy is easy and peaceful and if from the character of the Law it is an abuse of Power not within like control of the judiciary to in free discussion and Calm appeals to reason and to the Jusi Ioc of the people will not fail to redress the wrong. Lout until the Law shall be declared void i y the courts or repealed by Congress no individual or combination of individuals can be justified in forcibly secure the safety of its citizens and promote their happiness and All a flirts on the part of the people of other states to cast odium upon their institutions and All measures calculated to disturb their rights of property or to but in jeopardy their peace and internal Tranquility Are in direct opposition to the spirit in which the Union was formed and must endanger its safety motives of philanthropy May be assigned for this unwarrantable interference and weak men May persuade themselves for a moment that they Are Labouring in the cause of humanity and asserting the rights of tie human race but every one upon sober reflection will see that nothing but mischief can come from these improper assaults upon the feelings and rights of others. Kest assured that the men found Busy in this work of discord Are not worthy of your Confidence and deserve your strongest reprobation. In the legislation of Congress also and in every measure of the general government Justice to every portion of the United states should be faithfully observed. No free government can stand without virtue in the people and a loft spirit of patriotism and if tie sordid feelings of Mere selfishness shall Nisi re the a lace which be filled by Public s Iii the legislation of con refs will soon be converted into a scramble for a personal and sectional advantages. Under our free institutions the citizens of every Quarter of our country Are capable of attaining a High degree of Prosperity and happiness without seeking to profit themselves at the expense of others and every such attempt must in the end fail to succeed for the peo Jde in every part of the United Stales Are too Enli glistened not to understand their own rights and interests and to detect and defeat every Clifort to gain undue advantages Over them and when such designs Are discovered it naturally provokes resentments which cannot always be easily allayed. Justice full and ample Justice to every portion of the unit id states should be the ruling Princile of every Freeman and should guide the deliberations of every Jiu Blic body whether in be state or National. It is Well known that there have always been those amongst us who wih to enlarge the Powers of the general government and experience Touhl seem to indicate that there is a tendency on the part of this government to overstep the boundaries marked out for it by the Constitution. Its legitimate authority is abundantly in ancient for All the purposes for which it was created and its Powers iveing cup reisly Ceniu iterated Liere can be j no justification for claiming any thing beyond them. Every attempt to exc disc Power beyond these limits should be promptly and firmly opposed. For one evil Exa Siple will Lead to other measures still More mischievous and if the principle of constructive Powers or supposed advantages of tem ovary circumstances shall Ever be permitted to justify the Assumption of a Power not Given by the Constitution the general government will before Long absorb All the Powers of legislation and of will have in effect but one consolidated government. From the extent of our country its diversified interests diff Erent pursuits and different habits it is too obvious for argument that a single consolidated government would be wholly inadequate to watch Over and protect its interests and every Friend of our institutions should be always prepared to maintain unimpaired and in full vigor the rights and sovereignty of the states und to confine the action of the general a government strictly to the its appropriate duties. There is Peri maps no one of the Powers conferred on the Federal govern Merit so liable to Ahoise As the taxing a a wer. The most productive and convenient a our soc Reveny a were necessarily Given to it that it might be Able to a form the important duties imposed upon in and the taxes which in his upon Coni Nerce living concealed from to i real payer in the a Ricc of the article Liev do not so readily Altra to the attention of the rapid extinguish ment of the Public debt and the Large Arcus tuition of a surplus in the Treasury notwithstanding the Tariff Quot was reduced and is now very far below the amount originally contemplated by its advocates. But rely upon it the design to collect an extravagant Revenue and to Burden you with taxes beyond the economical wants of the government is not yet abandoned. The various interests which have , together to impose a heavy Tariff and to produce an overflowing Treasury Are too Strong and have too much at stake to surrender the contest. The corporations and wealthy individuals who Are in aged enlarge manufacturing establishments desire a High Tariff to increase their gains. Designing politicians will support it to conciliate their favor and to obtain the Means of profuse expenditure for the purpose of purchasing influence in other quarters and since the people have decided that the Federal government cannot be permitted to employ its income in internal improvements efforts will be made to seduce and mislead the citizens of the several states by holding out to them the deceitful Prospect of benefits to be derived from a surplus Revenue collected by the general government and annually divided a Mong tie states. And if encouraged by these fallacious Hopes the states should disregard the principles of Economy which ought to characterize every Republican government and should indulge in lavish expenditures exceeding their resources they will before Long find themselves oppressed with debts which they arc unable to pay and the temptation will become irresistible to support a High Tariff Quot in order to obtain a surplus for distribution. Do not allow yourselves my fellow citizens to be misled on this subject. The Federal government cannot collect a surplus for such purposes without violating the principles of the Constitution and assuming Powers which have not been granted. It is moreover a system of injustice and if persisted in will Ingvi Tubby Lead to corruption and must end in ruin. The surplus Revenue will be drawn from the pockets of the people from the Farmer the Mechanic and the Laboi ing classes of society but who will receive it when distributed among tiie states where it is to be disposed of by leading state politicians who have friends to favor and political parties to gratify it will certainly not be returned to those who paid it and who have most of it and Are honestly ent idec to it. There is but one Safe Rule and that is to confine the general a government rigidly within the s Here of its appropriate duties. It has no Power to raise a Revenue or impose taxes except for the purposes enumerated in the Constitution and if its income is found to exceed these wants it should be forthwith reduced amp the burdens of the people so far lightened. In reviewing the conflicts which have taken place Between different interests in the United states and the policy pursued since the adoption of our present form of government we find nothing that Lias produced such deep seated evil As the course of legislation in relation to the currency. Tie Constitution of the United states unquestionably intended to secure to the people a circulating medium of Gold and Silver. But the establishment of a National Bank by Congress with the privilege of issuing paper moneys receivable in the payment of the Public dues and the Unior Lunate coarse of legislation in the several slates upon the same subject drove from resisting its execution. It is impossible that any people As smaller sum Naude it a from them i government can continue to exist upon any other vestly by the tax gatherer Lut t a tax imposed principles. It would cease to be a gov run Nunt on goods enhances by so la Icli the Price of the Turai j jealousies of different sections of the Couch try. The history of the world is full of and be unworthy of the name if it had not the Power to enforce the execution of its own Laws within its own spere of action. It is True thai cases May be imagined disclosing such a settled purpose of usurpation and oppression on the part of the government As would justify an Appeal to arms. These however Are extreme cases which we have no reason to apprehend in a govern Jent where the Power is in the hands of a patriotic people and no citizen who loves his country would in any Case whatever resort to forcible resistance unless he clearly saw that the time had come when a Freeman should prefer death to submission for if such a struggle is once begun and the citizens of one Section of the country arrayed in arms against those of another in doubt us conflict let the Battle re sultans it May there will be an end of the Union and with it an end to the i Ope of Freedom. The Victory of the injured would not secure to them the blessings of Liberty it would a Venge their wrongs but they would themselves share in the common ruin. But the Constitution cannot be maintained nor the Union preserved in Oppositi ii to Public feel ing by the Mere exertion of the coercive Jowers confided to the general government. The foundations must be Laid in the affections of the people in the Security it gives to life Liberty character and property in every Quarter of the country and in the fraternal attachment which the citizens of the several states Bear to one another As members of one political family mutually contributing to promote the Hap iness of each other. Hence the citizens of every state should studiously avoid every thing calculated to wound the sensibility or of end the Jusi Pride of the people of other states and they should frown upon any their own Borders Likely to disturb the Tranquility of their political Brethren in other portions of the Union. In a country sep a extensive As the United states and with pursuits so varied the internal regulations of the byeral states must differ from one another in important particulars and this difference is unavoidably increased by the varying principles upon which the american colonies were originally planted principles which Hail taken deep Root in their social relations before the revolution and therefore of necessity influencing their policy since they became free and Independent states. But each state has the unquestionable right to regulate its own internal concerns according to its own pleasure and while it does qom. Interfere with the right of the people of states or the rights of the Union every state a Tibet he the sole judge of the Iribas ures proper to commodity to the r and As Many of these duties Are imposed on articles of necessity which Are daily used Hyllie great body of the people the Money raised by these imposts is drawn from their pockets. Congress has no right under the Constitution to take Money from the people unless it is re Muired to Che Cut some one of the specific Powers intr sled to government and if they raise More than is necessary Chr Suc i purposes it is an abuse of the Power of taxation and unjust and oppressive. It May indeed happen thai the Revenue will sometimes exceed the amount anticipated when the taxes were Laid. When however this is ascertained it is easy to reduce them and in such a Case it is unquestionably the duty of the government to reduce them Lor no can justify it in assuming a Power not Given to it by the Constitution nor in taking away Che Money of the people when it is not needed for the legitimate wants of the government. Plain As those principles apr Eai u to Yon will yet Ford the it there is a constant Effort to induce Ilie Cie neral Jovern men logo beyond the limits of its taxing Power and to impose unnecessary burdens non the be Ajili. Many powerful interests Are Conti Meally Al work to procure heavy duties on Ronni rce and to sell the Revenue beyond the real necessities of the Public service and the country has already fell tin injurious effects of their combined in Lucacc. They. Succeeded in obtaining u Tarlit of a Ilies bearing mos t oppressively on the and Labouring classes of society and producing a Revenue that could not lie usefully mph Jyce within the Range of the Powers conferred upon Congress and in order o fasten upon Lle eople this unjust and unequal system of taxation extravagant schemes of Ini Emal improvement were got up in various quarters to squander the Money and support. Thus one unconstitutional measure was Iii envied to be upheld by another and the abuse of the Power of taxation was to be maintained by usurping the Power of expending the Money in i literal improvements. You cannot have forgotten the severe struggle through which we passed when the executive department of the government by its veto endeavoured to arrest this per Digal scheme of injustice. And to bring Back the legislation of Congress to the boundaries prescribed by the Constitution. The Good sense and practical judgement of the people when the subject was brought before them sustained the course of the of executive and this plan of i constitutional expenditure for the purpose of corrupt influence is i Trust finally overt Irown. J he result of this decision has been Felt in the Soliere of general circulation the constitutional currency land substituted one of paper in its place. It was not easy for men engaged in the Ordinary pursuits of business whose attention had not been particularly drawn to the subject to foresee All the consequences of a currency exclusively of j Aper and we ought not on that account to be surprised at the facility with which Laws were obtained to carry into effect the paper system. Honest and even enlightened men Are misled by the specious and plausible statements of the designing. But experience has now proved the mischief and dangers of a paper currency and it rests with you to determine whether the proper remedy shall be applied. The paper system being founded on Public Confidence and living of itself no intrinsic value it is liable to great and sudden fluctuations Elfere by rendering property Inse me. The Corpora Lions which create the paper Money cannot be relied upon to keep the circulating medium uniform in amount. In time of Prosperity when Confidence is High they Are Temple by the Prospect of gain or by the influence of those who nope to Jiro fit by in to extend their issues of paper beyond the Bounds of discretion and the reasonable demands of when these issues have been pushed on from Day to Day until Public Confidence is at length shaken when a reaction takes j acc and they immediately withdraw the credits they live Given suddenly curtail their issues and produce an unexpected and ruinous Oon fraction of the circular whig medium which is fell by the whole Community. The Banks by this moans save Iho selves and the mischievous consequences of their or cupidity arc visited Union the Public. Nor does the evil Stoj Here. These ebbs and flows in the currency and these indiscreet extensions of credit naturally engender a so Iril of speculation injurious u the habits and i Caracter of the people. We have already seen its effects in the m ild spirit of speculation in the Public lands and various kinds of Stock which within the last year or two Seiz cd upon such a multitude of our citizens and threatened to pervade All classes of society and to withdraw their attention from the sober pursuits of honest Industry. It is not by encouraging this spirit that we shall Best preserve Public virtue and promote the True interests of our country. But if your currency continues As exclusively paper As it now is it will Foster this eager desire to amass weath without labor it will Nihil Tipsy the number of dependants on Bank a cd my ovations and Bank favors the temptation to obtain Money at any sacrifice will become stronger and stronger Ami inevitably Lead to corruption which will find its Way into your Public councils and destroy at no Distant Day die purity of your government. Some of the evils which arise from Titis system of paper press Aith Peculiar upon the class of society least Able to Bear it. A port Quot in of this currency frequently be comes depreciated or worthless and All of it is easily counterfeited in such a manner As to require Peculiar skill and much experience to distinguish the counterfeit from the genuine these frauds arc most generally perpetrated in the smaller notes which Are used Iii the daily transactions of Ordinary Humines and the losses occasioned by them Are commonly thrown upon the Labouring classes of society whose situation ii and pursuits put it out of their Power to guard themselves from these impositions and whose daily wages Are necessary. For their subsistence it is the duty of every government so to regulate its currency As to protect this numerous ass As far As practicable from the impositions of and fraud. It is More especially the duty of the a United states where the government is emphatic cd ally the government of the people and where this respectable portion of our citizens Are Are so proudly distinguished Froin the Labouring classes of All other nations by their Independent spirit their love of Liberty their intelligence and their High tone of moral character. Their Industry in peace is the source of our wealth and their bra4 very in War has covered us with glory and the government of the United states will but ill discharge its duties if it leaves them a prey to Uch dishonest impositions. Yet it is evident that their interests cannot be effectually protected unless Silver and Gold arc restored to Cir Cut upon. These views alone of the paper currency Are sufficient to Call for immediate Reform but there is another consideration which should still More strongly press it upon your attention. Recent events have proved that the Papor Money system of this country May be used Asar engine to undermine your free institutions and that Hose who desire to engross All Power in the hands of the few and to govern by corruption or Force arc aware of its Power and prepared to employ it. Your Banks now furnish your Only circulating medium and Money is plenty or scarce according to the Quantity of notes issued by them. While they have capitals not greatly Dis proportioned to each other they Are competitors in business and no one of them can exercise Dominion Oyer the rest and although in the present slate of the currency these Banks May and do operate injuriously upon the bus iness the pecuniary concerns and the moral tone of society yet from their number and dispersed situation they cannot Combine for the Purpo ses of political influence arid whatever May be the disposition of some of them their Power of mischief must necessarily be confine j to a narrow space and Felt Only in their immediate neighbourhoods. Rut when the charter of the Bank of the United states was obtained from Congress it perfected the schemes of the paper system and gave to its advocates the position they have struggled to obtain from the commencement of the Federal govern ment Down to the present hour. The immense capital and Peculiar privileges bestowed upon it enabled it to exercise despotic Sway Over the of Ier in every part of the country. From its Superior strength it could seriously injure if not destroy the business of any one of them which might incur its resentment and it openly claimed for itself the Power of Reg Ula Linthe currency throughout the United states. In other words it asserted and undoubtedly possessed the Power to make Money plenty or scarce at its pleasure Ai any time and in any Quarter of the Union by controlling the issues of other Banks and permitting an expansion or compelling a general contraction of the circulating medium according to its own will. The other banking institutions were sensible of its strength and they soon generally became its obedient instruments ready at All times to execute its Man dates and with the Banks necessarily went also that numerous class of persons in our commercial Citie who depend altogether on Banc credits for their solvency and Means of business and who Are therefore obliged for their own safety to propitiate the favor of the Money Power by distinguished Zeal and Devotion in its service. The result of the ill advised leg Ashition which established this great monopoly was to concentrate the whole Money Power of the Union with its bound less Means of corrupt Iii and its pendants under tie direction and command of one acknowledged head thus organizing this particular interest As one body and securing to it and concert of action throughout the United states and enabling it to bring Forward upon any occasion its entire and undivided strength to supporter defeat any measure of the government. In the hands of this formidable Power thus Perfecky organized was also placed unlimited Dominion Over the amount of the circulating medium giving it the Power to regulate the value of property and the fruits of labor in every Quarter of the Union an i to bestow Prosperity or bring ruin Pon any City or Section of the country As might Best comport with its own interest or policy. We Are not left to conjecture How the monies Power thus organized and with such a weapon in its hands would be Likely to use it. The distress and alarm which pervaded and agitated the. Whole country when the Bank of the United states waged War upon the people in order to compel them to submit to its demands cannot yet be forgotten. The ruthless and unsparing temper with which whole cities and communities were impoverished and ruined and a scene of cheerful Prosperity suddenly changed into one of gloom and despondency ought to be indelibly impressed on the memory of the people of the United states. If such was its Power in a time of peace what would it not have been in a sea son of War with an enemy at your doors no nation but the freemen of the United states could live come out victorious front such a contest yet if you had not conquered the government would have passed from the hands of the Many to the few and this organized Money Power from it secret conclav.�. Would have dictated the Choice of your highest officers and compelled you to make peace or War As Best suited their wishes., the forms of your government might for a time have remained but its living spirit would have Dis parted from it. A the distress and sufferings inflicted on Topie by the Bank Arfe some of the fruits of that system of policy which is continually striving to enlarge the authority of the Federal government beyond the limits fixed by the Constitution. Tha Powers enumerated in to iat instrument do not Confer in the right to establish such a corporation As the. Bank of the United states and the consequences \v1 Tich May wart of of the danger of depot tips. From the True Rule of construction an of permitting temporary circumstances or the Hope of i per promoting the Public welfare to influence in any degree our de Caisip Yaupon the extent of the authority of the Gene ral government let us abide. Bythe Ftp cons Tulion As it is written or Amend ilium Rio

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