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Indiana Tipton Tribune Newspaper Archives Sep 1 1976, Page 3

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Tribune (Newspaper) - September 1, 1976, Tipton, Indiana \ Tipton Tribune Wednesday, September 1, 1976 PAGE 3Soviet government faces rampant corruption MOSCOW (AP) — “You need money, *and I need an apartment,” a woman in Saratov tells a local housing official. Two thousand rubles change hands and the official tells his assistant: “Satisfy the request of our worthy client.” In Leningrad, a motorist finds his Volga automobile will be repaired a lot faster if he slips 50 rubles to the body shop manager. Another customer had warned him in advance: “Unless you grease the manager’s palm, you won’t be going anywhere in your Volga.” For the right bribe in Soviet Armenia, á clerk at the industrial Medical Examination Commission certifies pensioners for high disability payments they don’t deserve. The total loss to the state by the time the scheme is uncovered: 22,500 rubles, equivalent to $29,700. Stories like these, taken from angry exposes in the Soviet Press, suggest’that Western countries are far from alone in their concern over official and private corruption. Bribe-taking, industrial rackets and genera' swindling are alive and well here, too — where the official encyclopedia smugly claims that corruption is “characteristic of the bourgeois (Western countries’/ state apparatus and parliament.” In one celebrated incident earlier this year, construction officialsj of the Cheboksary Tractor Trust were found to have spent the equivalent of $845,000 of state money on a landscaped river retreat for themselves and their friends. The Soviet weekly Literatur- naya Gazeta, aghast, noted that the retreat included marble baths and beautiful hostesses who played “love gamtis” with the guests. In another big-time operation, an '^Azerbaijan Republic newspaper recounted a complicated land swindle involving the leasing of land from a vegetable plant to state farms. After losses to the state of $11 million were uncovered, five people were sentenced to death and 59 packed off to prison. It’s small-scale corruption, however, at the level of the ordinary citizen, that is most noticeable in Soviet life. There are few elements of everyday life that can’t be made a bit easier by the judicious use of “blat” — a word from Russian criminal slang* that has come to mean getting what you need by bribes, influence or personal connections. Thus, the man at the state- owned furniture store will get a bed shipped to his customer’s house faster for a few rubles or a bottle of vodka. For the right price, a store clerk w'ill watch for a rare automobile part or good leather jackets to come into stock and squirrel them aside for his client. Money talks in more serious matters, as well. Officials in Georgííi^fecovered a ring of teachers at the Tbilisi Medical Institute who, for a stiff bribe, would.make sure the dullest student passed the admission test. The father of one aspiring doctor had to provide a bulldozer for work on the institute director’s garage. In an -economy perpetually short of_a high-quality goods, any store clerk has a chance to earn extra money by favoring certain customers. The temptation is even greater for civil servants who dispense the best things in life: apartments, vacation trips and automobiles. Since only one organization in each city may dispense such items, people who work there can lay down any terms they want without fear their customers will go elsewhere. In addition, the nation’s rigid command economy puts tremendous emphasis on — and awards lavish prizes for — the fulfillment of work and production quotas. Bookkeepers and supervisors who compute whether quotas are being fulfilled are in -excellent positions to depart from “Socialist moralify” for the sake of a little old-fashioned profit. Corruption serves at least two useful purposes in the Soviet Union. First, it can provide a way around obstinate bureaucracies when all other paths open to a citizen fail. It adds some flexibility to everyday life when the citizen is willing to pay the price. More important, a form of industrial corruptión known as “fixing” makes the economy more efficient. Though factories here don’t compete with each other for orders, as they do in the West, Soviet plants do slug it out for supplies of rare raw materials. Many factories have full-time fixers on their payrolls who prowl the country^ looking for these raw materials and trying to get them for their plant. It is widely believed the fixers use payoffs and other inducements to get the goods. But the efficiency of their home factory — and that factory’s contribution to the national economy depend on the outcome. If there is a corruption capital of the Soviet Union, it must be Georgia, the sunny Caucasus mountain republic where a former secret policeman was made party chief in 1972 in an effort to Stamp out cheating. The ex-policeman, Eduard Shevardnadze, started bis reign with the imprisonment of one of the top lieutenants of the previous party boss for embezzling nearly half a million dollars and building country mansions. A spot check of Georgian stores found 68 per cent were swindling their customers by selling short. In the first two years of Shevardnadze’s administration, 25,000 people were arrested for various kinds of corruption. in WÍ dei$r< Still Public Enemy No. H While insect pests deá$roy about 30 percent of the world’s food supply each year, t^e World Health Organization estimates that 4' .. million human deaths are caused by starvation annually. ‘EGGCEPTIONAL* SANTA BARBARA, Calif. (AP) — One of Ulla West-erholm’s white leghorn hens hit the daily double recently when it laid an egg within an egg. When the huge egg was opened, out came both white and yolk and left inside was another completely whole egg, still uncracked. VETERAN FIREMAN SAN FRANCISCO (AP) — After 54 years as a fireman, George Washington Ryst, 83, retired recently. He joined the department in 1922, became a lieutenant in 10 years, and captain in another eight. For the past 22 years, he has worked at fire prevention. When San Francisco made retirement mandatory at 65, those already working for the department were exempted, so Ryst stayed on. North Sea diving Buy For 2 Days McCRAWS' Will Be CLOSED LABOR DAY SUMBURGH, Shetland Islands (AP) — He speaks with a Texas drawl and wears cowboy boots with pointed toes. His name is Lee Wayne Johnson. He comes from Corpus Christi, and his occupation is deep sea diving in the treacherous North Sea. “Heck, it’s a pretty healthy way of life,” said the 39-yearold “aquanaut,” as divers are known in these parts. “We eat a very high protein diet and breathe a lot of pure oxygen. It’s not a badlife,” said Johnson who heads a team of 21 U.S. and British divers working in the Thistle Oil Field 130 miles northeast of the Shetland Islands, the most northerly of the 14 commercial fields in the British sector of the North Sea. Their job jit^the moment is to dive as deep as 530 feet in the frigid waters of the United Kingdom’s, continental shelf. Thistle lies in the deepest water yet exploited and its %8-foot oil platform, now being completed, will be nearly as tall as the Eiffel Tower. • Burmah Oil of Britain, acting on behalf of U.S. and West German interests, pl^ to drill up to 60 wells from the^atform to tap what it hopes are billions of barrels of oil lying two to three miles beneath the sea. The North Sea oil boom has attracted many Americans like Johnson, a 15-year veteran of oil industry diving in the United> States and Persian Gulf. “The North Sea is more treacherous and so much rougher and colder -than anywhere else I’ve worked,” said Johnson. “Apyfnrewho falls overboard into this water would expire in five minutes. ” Even in mid-August the water temperature is 45 degrees and in winter it drops to 38. “It’s quite a challenge for any diver,” Johnson said.    * Sixty divers and other oil rig workers died between 1965 and 1-975 in the North Sea. “Most of these men were inexperienced and probably panicked when something went wrong. Virtually every accident that has been investigated out here can be put down to human error, ’’ said Johnson. Today’s divers are better trained and equipped and must meet the strict qualifications of the British government’s diving regulations introduced last year, covering a diver’s training, age, number of dives, medical checkups and equipment. / Ml S.t &°JL TIK^E! Boiled Ham Emge's Real Thing lb. Grade "A" Homogenized Emge's Best BOLOGNA Elf Brand FRUIT COCKTAIL Consequently the number of diving accidents has dropped significantly, but most divers agree that North Sea diving will never be completely safe. There are 1^)0 many unknowns As oil companies reach into deeper offshore waters for new oil strikes, divers are being called upon to plunge to 1,000 feet or below and simulated dives have reached 1,500 feet. Special capsules and minisubmarines are‘ on the drawing boards to enable oil^ explorers to push out into uncharted waters 2,000 feet deep, handling the jobs now done by divers. But until such techniques are perfected, the industry must rely on divers for essential drilling and pipelaying tasks. PEANUT BUnER Folgers INSTANT COFFEE Receive FREE Childs Book Sealtest ICE CREAM ALL FLAVORS, NO LIMIT.................Reg.    gal. WHITE GRAPES Mountain warfare PICKLE MEADOWS, Calif. (AP) — Thousands of Marines have been prowling through the high Sierra this summer as part of a recently resurrected mountain warfare training program. By summer’s end the Marine Corps expects to have trained about 6,000 Marines and Marine reservists in “mountain man” skills such as scaling sheer granite cliffs and crossing river gorges by rope. Base for the activity is the Marine Corps’ Mountain Warfare Training Center, located in this 7,000-foot-high meadow just north of Yosemite National Park. The austere base, first built in 1951 after U.S. military setbacks in rugged sections of Korea, resumed full-time training last May after a nine-year break. It is the only facility of its sort in the Marine Corps, and om of liiai only two run by the U.S. military services in this country. The ase in Army has a similar base Alaska. Lt. Col. George Knudson, commanding officer, says the training isn’t designed to build up an elite fighting group within the Marines, or to deal with some impending conflict in mountain regions elsewhere in the world. “We jiMit want to build up the all-around capability of the Marine Corps,” says Knudson, 42, who runs the base from a spruced-up quonset hut. “Marines should be able to go anyplace. We have never been able to pick where we go to war. Somebody else picks that for us. What Marines get here is a crash course in mountain fighting. Training runs year round, from two to four weeks for each group sent here. The Marines scale cliffs, both by rope and with bare hands, make rope bridges so they can crawl across ravines, and learn land navigation so they can find their way across trackless mountain stretches seldom seen by anyone but backpackers and hunters. Marine reservists get quick courses in mountain survival, learning how to to make shelters, build fires without matches, snare animals and survive on available vegetation. One instructor will even pop a lizard into his mouth occasionally, just to show the trainees there is more than just pine nuts or berries to chew on. During winter months Marines will learn how to camp in snow and below zero temperatures, and to show shoe and ski while carrying rifles, packs, and other gear. Knudson says the Marine Corps hopes to run about 10,000 trainees through the program each year. Knudson says many of the trainees have never been in mountains before, and there are many cases of pulled muscles “they didn’t know they had.” He says there have been a few cases of sprains and broken bones but no one has died or suffefed major injuries as a result of the arduous training. He says the Marinen^ seem to like the training. “The units really tighten up when they get here. They seem to get a lot more motivation. ’ * Flavorite LEMONADE YELLOW ONIONS . 55* 55* FROZEN, 6 oz. Kraft ORANGE, JUICE .Seedless, lb. • • • • • • • CATSUP HI-C DRINKS PRUNE JUICE PARKEY MARGARINE GREEN,BEANS SPINACH..... ARMOUR TREET COOKIES..... SUGAR ..... KRAFT CHEESE . CLOREX BLEACH....... VANILLA WAFERS...... SHORTNING   ......... 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