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Independence Examiner Newspaper Archives May 5 1990, Page 4

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Independence Examiner (Newspaper) - May 5, 1990, Independence, Missouri Forum Page 4�?the examiner saturday May 5,1990 Korea stay divided despite world events by Kelly Smith Tunney the associated press Seoul South Korea a once a month the huge sprawling City of Seoul comes to a standstill As shrieking sirens and loudspeakers warn to million citizens to seek cover in air raid shelters. For 20 minutes the frenzied economic and political capital of South Korea one of the worlds largest cities is hushed. The Only movement alongside boulevards and narrow alleys Are Green army jeeps on surveillance patrols checking to be certain citizens complied. Thirty Miles North beyond barbed wire and Concrete bunkers lies the most heavily fortified Border in the world and one of the last frontiers of the cold War a the demilitarized zone separating South and North Korea. While Eastern Europe celebrates the collapse of communism and the easing of East West tensions the korean Peninsula continues an arms buildup with virtually no signs of detente Between the capitalist South and the communist North. For South Korea Security and War preparedness Are no. I National priorities and the monthly air raid drills Are symbolic of the times. In both Korea billions of dollars a year Are spent on armies and weapons. A nothing remotely comparable to events in Eastern Europe is happening in North Korea a says . Ambassador Donald p. Gregg. A if the hallmark of South Korea is Progress the hallmark of the North is despite this grim evaluation the United states primary sponsor and chief ally of South Korea for four decades is making plans to reduce its 43,000 forces. New economic realities Are forcing alterations in the two nations relationship. To most South koreans the special brotherhood with the United states has had a single purpose a to deter or defeat a new invasion from the North. Many americans see wider economic issues and Point to a $4.7 billion Trade imbalance and the current deployment of troops As altruism their country can ill afford. Restructuring of delicate bilateral alliances poses Tough questions for those trying to protect american interests As Well As preserve peace and stability. Can South Korea which has Cost americans dearly in blood and treasure become self reliant As . Troops Are withdrawn for its part South Korea faces a critical turning Point in its defense posture As it enhances its military capabilities and looks to develop new and Independent thinking for the next Century. The ideological and civil War that began in 1950 Between North and South Korea lasted 37 months. More than 5 million americans served in Korea with 140,000 casualties. The country was rubble and 2 million South korean soldiers and civilians had died by the time the armistice was signed in 1953. American forces the largest contingent among 16 nations who fought on the Side of the South were seen As heros. In the immediate aftermath of the bloody and horrible civil War it became a National passion to make certain that americans never leave Korea again. Americans became the key deterrent to renewed communist aggression. Now Radical students yell a Yankee go Home a Burn effigies of Uncle Sam and stomp american flags painted on roadways at College campuses. The korean War remembered vividly by the 1950s generation is Only a textbook to today a korean Soldier an Independent consumer oriented conscript who thinks Korea is no. I and is generally indifferent toward the United states. Not so Long ago korean officers accepted american decisions but fast facts among factors influencing the United states and South Korea Are these a communist North Korea has More soldiers More tanks More artillery pieces and More planes than the South. A North Korea is widely believed to be nearing capability to develop a nuclear weapons program and it reportedly has agreements to sell arms in the Middle East. A Northeast Asia is unique in that it engages the vital interests of the United states the soviet Union Japan and China. A despite All the hostility and suspicion Between the two Korea and All the Energy that has been invested in the construction of separate and competitive societies koreans continue to cherish the Hope of National unification. Nowadays military observers say they too Are Quick to engage in confrontation. A on virtually All matters there has to be a negotiated yes or a negotiated no a says one american. For a Quick look at Korea nothing is quite As sobering As a visit to the Barren no Many a land along the 2.5-mile wide demilitarized zone rimmed with barbed wire bunkers and guar posts along both sides of the 155-mile-Long Border. On a Spring Day the undulating Hills and valleys of the Doz Are Green with new grass and yellow wildflowers. Flocks of Birds Flap overhead. Except for the camouflage netting the personnel carriers the mile Long anti tank barriers the soldiers moving in full combat gear and the sound of jeeps the Doz could be a Rural scene from a tourist brochure. Doz duty is the closest assignment the army has to combat. Soldiers in flak vests and helmets carry loaded automatic weapons and focus their sights directly into enemy territory. Sentries with binoculars watch communist guards from behind sandbagged guar posts. Clashes along the Border Are fewer than they used to be but incidents still occur. In february on the eve of a visit by . Secretary of defens Ethe examiner the evening newspaper Eastern Jackson county a daily newspaper since 1898 a stauffer communications inc. Newspapermen f. Weir jr., publisher Irene Baltrusaitis advertising manager Dan Potter executive editor Terry Cochran circulation manager Sheila Davis managing editor Corwan Akers production manager Rob Schlotterbeck news editor Tori Schubert composition manager Becky denier business manager saturday May 5,1990 vol. 85, no. 292 published daily except sundays Jan. 1, memorial Day Independence Day labor Day and Christmas Day. Second class postage paid at Independence to 64051. Postmaster Send address changes to the examiner. P o. Box 459, Independence. To 64051 uses 2605-4000 Home delivery Sal rates to i year.$69.60 a 4.12 1 month.$5 80 34 mail a Las subscriptions tax Jackson county-1 or. $67.00 a 3 97 other to counties-1 or. $70.00 a 4.15 outside Mo-1 or. $73.00 a 4 32 254-8703 to Start Home delivery or for circulation customer service254-8600 All other departments a numbers 816 area code 254-8705 to place a classified ad816836-3805 fax transmissions office hours Sam to pm monday thru Friday customer service hours 7am to 7pm monday thru Friday 7am to noon saturday 410 s. Liberty St., . Box 459, Independence to 64051 Dick Cheney 20 shots from a North korean guar Post hit a South korean guar Post. There were no injuries. The South did not return the fire. In March . And South korean forces unearthed what they said was an invasion Tunnel dug under the Border by North Korea. This was the fourth such Tunnel found and the korean defense minister said there could be As Many As 20 More. Sen. Tim Wirth d-colo., who favors cutbacks in the military said his first visit to the korean Border this Winter stunned him and made him see the threat of a North korean attack in a new Light. Analysts agree such a threat remains serious especially from terrorism and subversion and could be increased by political unrest on either Side. South koreans raise the Specter of an All out invasion. Ultimately the question is can South Korea deter communist aggression can it become self reliant few military systems have been affected by other Powers As profoundly As that of South Korea. The United states helped create the country a armed forces designed its organizational Structure and selected its first officers. South Korea this Spring is embarking on an ambitious military improvement program that entails modernizing its forces by purchasing new weaponry developing its aerospace program changing its defense Hierarchy and democratizing its military. President Roh Tae woo a former general Calls it the a a korean nation a of the military and its a major step toward creating an armed forces seen As More korean and less american. The Centrepiece of the South korean military is the prestigious korean military Academy founded in 1946 and consciously modelled on the . Military Academy at West Point. All of South koreans presidents have been Kama graduates since Park Chung Hee who gained Power in a 1961 military coup with some of his classmates. The Lith class in 1955 produced former president Chun Doo Hwan and his successor Roh. Although civilian control of the military is taught at the Academy the sense of professional elitism an almost puritanical ethical code and a Devotion to National service has led in the past to a willingness by the military to take Over the reins of government if a threat to National Security was perceived. The 650,000 soldiers sailors airmen and marines in service Are better fed better trained and better housed than Ever before. Military service is compulsory. Draftees Are paid Only about $15 a month but there a a growing if controversial Effort to improve their lot. Revisions suggested for a new military code of conduct became Public recently and included controversial guidelines regarding the use of firearms rules for controlling civilians during violent protests and new limitations As to when and if a Soldier could disobey the order to fire. North Korea South Korea 1,100,000 total forces 649,000 5,000,000 Reserve forces 4,600,000 30 infantry divisions 21 6,600 Field artillery 4,000 2,500 rocket launchers 37 12,000 anti aircraft artillery 600 55 Sam Sites 34 900 missiles 210 80 bombers 0 750 Jet fighters 476 300 air transports 34 280 helicopters 280 632 fighting ships 182 24 submarines 0 there a also a suggested ban on political involvement and on violence and abuse in the Barracks. The military like korean society is vertical rather than horizontal in Structure and koreans used to knowing their place among associates feel comfortable in the rigid authoritarian Chain of command. In military terms North Korea seems to have More of everything. More soldiers More tanks More planes More submarines and More artillery. The majority of communist troops Are deployed offensively near the Border. North korean missiles could reach Seoul in two to three minutes bombers in eight minutes tanks in two to three hours. Is there any Hope of an arms reduction Between the Korea on april 4, South Korea formally agreed to a . Plan to Cut Back 7,000 of the 43,000 american troops by 1993, All noncombatants. They include 2,000 air support personnel assigned to three . Air bases which Cheney announced in january would be closed As a Cost saving measure. This was called the first stage of . Withdrawal. Further cuts could come in 1994-95 after a review of the military situation on the Peninsula. Third stage cuts would come after 1996. North Korea has demanded a withdrawal of All . Troops. Seoul and Washington Are looking for North Korea to reciprocate with some form of comparable reduction. South korean defense minister Lee Sang Hoon has said he expects arms control talks in the Middle 1990s after concluding a non aggression pact and a peace treaty. Washington and Moscow Are pressuring the Korea to talk seriously on ways of building Mutual Confidence. Rapidly improving Trade and diplomatic ties Between anti communist Seoul and Moscow Are seen As a moderating influence Between the two Korea. War preparedness is so costly Many observers say economics will drive the Korea together Long before ideology. Since 1950, Washington has spent roughly $59 billion in Korea on War and military Aid ranging from Loans and weapons procurement to the training of korean officers. In addition to containing communism the Alliance Between South Korea and the United states has been a remarkable economic Success Story. The United states has helped South Korea examiner graphic become the worlds 10th largest trading nation with 1989 Trade volume of $130 billion. It is the country a growth that has spurred Washington to demand that Seoul open its markets wider to . Products and pay More of the costs of keeping . Troops. South Korea now absorbs $1.9 billion in land leases and pays about $300 million in direct local costs an average of $50,000 per american Soldier. The United states puts in an equal amount plus an additional $3 billion to $4 billion for indirect costs such As wages. As the efforts continue to reduce tensions and bring the Korea closer together american businessmen and diplomats Hope the United states will be Able to develop an economic presence which is appropriate to its military and political influence. . Ambassador Gregg is optimistic. A we Are clearly in a constructive transition moving from our role As a military Alliance to a new and broader role As an economic and political partnership a he says. A we Are i Hope entering a new decade in which the korean question will finally be school May ensure forts future by Jerry Nachtigal the associated press fort Leonard Wood to. A despite deep proposed cuts in . Military spending and personnel fort Leonard Wood May emerge largely unscathed and could even gain additional training programs officials say. Army Secretary Michael Stone has proposed reducing the ranks by As Many As 250,000 Active duty soldiers in the next five or six years because of budget pressures and the reduced soviet threat. However fort Leonard Woods role As one of the army Stop training Sites for nearly 50 years should make it less susceptible to major cutbacks says rep. Ike Skelton do. A i done to see a great change at fort Leonard Wood a said Skelton a member of the House armed services committee. He represents Missouri a fourth District which includes the 63,000-acre base in the South Central part of the state. Skelton said the sweeping political reforms in Eastern Europe and resulting . Military reductions could mean fewer soldiers will undergo Basic training at fort Leonard Wood. Since 1941, an estimated 2.5 million soldiers have taken Basic training at the base. On the other hand Skelton believes the Missouri Post could also expand As bases like fort Dix n.j., Are closed and programs at other installations Are consolidated to save Money. Fort Leonard Woods existing training facilities Central location and Rural setting for Maneu vers Are All factors in its favor he said. Nonetheless fort Leonard Wood is certain to feel some of the effects of leaner budgets says maj. Gen. Daniel r. Schroeder the fort commander. But Schroeder also sees room for expansion at fort Leonard Wood in the Era of the new slimmed Down army. A was the army works to get smaller More efficient and More effective there a a potential for other things to be accommodated Here a training military police soldiers for example or folks involved in Man Euver support roles a he said. Both Skelton and Schroeder Point to the new . Army Engineer school and Center As a stabilizing Factor in the future of fort Leonard Wood. More than 3,500 . And Allied engineers will train each year at the $45.9 million Complex which was formally dedicated in late april. The training Center a gleaming quadrangle of red Brick and smoked Glass features state of the Art technology for Engi attend the dedication of the army Engineer school and Center at fort Leonard Wood. The school which was dedicated april 24, May ensure the future of the base in the face of defense cuts. Neers learning everything from Battle tactics to River and flood control. Business leaders in communities near the base like Waynesville St. Robert and Rolla Are keeping a close Eye on budget and troop reduction proposals that ultimately could affect the fort. Fort Leonard Wood Home to nearly 27,000 military and civilian personnel and their dependents pumps tens of millions of dollars into the state and regional eco Nomy annually. The army has the largest segment of the nations 2.1-million-Strong military Force. No matter How much is Cut from its budget Bort Leonard Wood will continue to play a major role in the nations defense Schroeder said. A a the army is still going to need Engineer forces equipment doctrine trained soldiers and they re going to be produced Here a he said

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