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Hutchinson News (Newspaper) - July 27, 1890, Hutchinson, Kansas 2 HUTCHINSON DAILY NEWS: SUNDAY MORNINB. JULY 27. It 90. HOW LEATHER IS MADE. ONE TRADE IN VVHUCH ANCIENT METHODS ARE EMPLOYED. M*d�rn Improt meati Have Ni Tanning--Tb* Proees* of tildes into Leather Minutely A L*nr� Kelsbllshnieul. I Afleeted ^unvertlna IrwrlbeO. Modern ingenuity bos changed the character of almost every business in ndstenco within tbe but fifty years, bat there Is one which still retains Its prime-val simplicity. That Is the lunnufact-ore of leather. Tho one tiling needed to make good leather is time, und as modern machines tend to eliminate that element Ibey aru of no use here. Tho ancient and honorable occupation of the tanuer stands proof against innovations. Notwithstanding that fact there is an Immense amount of leather made, and Cincinnati's output for a year reaches the enormous quantity of 4113,000 hides, valued at (H,et),0()(). Of this fully halt Ik made at one tannery, which is the largest in the world. It was to this tannery tliav u reporter betook himself yesterday to see how the old rashionod business was conducted. The obliging superintendent took hiin in hand, and for one hour and a half the pair marched steadily onward, upstairs, down elevator's and through villainous timlK l-oiifcsrs or uakk, The first room entered was tho hark store room, where there was an imuieugo pile of 40,0(K> cords of chestnut oak bark. This is obtained from Kentucky, Tennessee luid Alabama, and enough is kept stored for a year's u^e. At one end of this room is a machine, into which two uieu are kept busy feeding the bark to W* ground up. The tan Imrk was left for awhile and the hide- mom was visited. This is ltdow the level of the railroad track, mid a trap door opens in the ceiling, through which the hides are dropped from the curs. Most of tile hides coine from Chicago, but for patent leather those brought from Paris, France, are tho best, as they are larger and thicker. Bough hides nitige in value from (8 to $10, according to grade. They are here sorted, weighed and put into packs of 184 hides each, and one hide of each pack is numbered. The whole pack | J* started at once, and comes out finished I At the same time. By means of a rope attached to tha numbered hide the location of any puck noi be nsrertained at any time. Next comes the beam house. Here the hides are soaked iu clear water for three days, receiving four changes of water in that time. Thus thoroughly soaked they are plunged into lime water tuid left, for five days,. One more day in fresh water and they are run through a machine at the rate of Sli! daily and have fill the hair removed. Ne.vt they go to tho beams, which art? boards about five feet long, inclined to an angle of forty-five degrees and having a longitudinal convexity upward and iieiug covered with nine. Upon these the hides are thrown flesh side up, and the flesh aido k raped off with broad bhided knives. The bits of meat go to the glue factories and tho hah- is used by plasterers. Another soaking in fresh water and they are taken by the slrokers, who work them three times on beams to remove any short hairs or lime that may remain. From hero they are put into fresh water again, then suspended on sticks in very weak tan liquor for two weeks. They are ijerfeetly white when introduced into this liquor, but come out slightly tanned or brown. in (uk tan lkjuok. They are then taken into a large room, tbe flour �f which is simply planks laid over large vats. Into these vats a bide is thrown, fresh bark is scattered over it, and another hide is placed on top, etc., until tho vat is filled. The whole is submerged in the strongest tan liquor. While these are soaking let us see how the Uqnor is made. In a largo room there, are thirty-two levelling vats, each 10 feet in diameter ami 10 feet deep. In a new tannery these must be filled with fresh water and ground bark, but in an established tannery liquor is used. The fresh bark is flooded with strong liquor, and when this is drawn olf weaker liquor Is put on the same bark, the v:it being allowed to stnnd eight days each time, and then weaker liquor is placed on the bark, fill at tho thirty-second timo it is pore water; or, in other words, fresh water is put on worn out bark, then transferred to fresher and fresher, until when put on new bark it is strong liqnoi. The exhausted bark is burned in heated ovens and generates an immense amount of steam. "... The hides taken from the v>u were . packed with bark and suspended on �trmws la tan liquor for two weeks. Here a� la; the leeching process an old ' tannery ;h*� an advantage. The fresh ' liquor iepat on the hides that havs been longest! terming, and as the strength is taken out by the hides the liquor ii run over frentier hides until at last it is rnn over perfectly frcBh hides and into the sewer. Thus the longer a hide lias been tunning the stronger liquor it is subject-id to. � ! From the Vats the hides are taken to he Moored by a brush and stone in /machine. They aro then dried. When perfectly dry they are tempered by being dampened with fresh water. They are then polished with copper wheels worked by machinery iu tbe manner of a huge flatiron. This is tbe hist touch given to dole leather. Belting leather is Bold in the rough without tliis last pol idling. Helling is, however, made hero, and only tbe best stuck is selected for that purpose. The hides are first cut into short stripe of the proper width, soaked and scoured, dried and staffed. Stuffing consists in applying a coat of oil and grease to the damp leather. It is then dried and the oil is absorbed by th. 'leather, after which the grease is scraped off, the strip dampened and put into (frame, where it is subjected to a great jrtroin in order that it may lot* all elasticity. It is then removed to the belt department, where it is glued or riveted Into belts.-Ciucinntuti Times-Star Mia Wad Dona a uowJ tier's An ancient Irish dauie has a small Mtnnd elope by the Franklin statue in Printing house square from which she offers to passei-sby the cool and refreshing lemonade. If there is wind anywhere it always aeeum to find u funnel upBpraoe street, and Bona-; was doing Koine of his best work u� his favorite Ui era aghfare one day. A young woman iu bur l*�t bib and tucker, with the inevitable young iubu, was cnxaiuj; fruut Uu* poetotfice in the um'i'.uii ot me linage. A paflu rilarly j stroi . puff of wind nearly blew off het| hat, bristling with meadow Bowers, anq\ ui J her attention was given to keeping it n her head. The rude breer.e, however, took charge of her dress, and as it blew around got entangled with the only three glasses Bridget had on li'>r stand. They fell on the flags, to be simply smashed into smithereens. For ami uncut thero was silence, thea the owner, in pure Hibernian, gave vent to her feelings, and the language was not really ladylike. The young man was, however, equal to the occasion, and diving into his pocket produ^A and gave to Celtic Hebo a dollar Tbe latter looked at the note for some seconds and then disappeared into that undiscovered country, so far as men aro ( jncerje'd-a woman's pocket. �lack and .till had passed on; of this tile vendor of cisil drinks made certain. She then uelibrialely took up her bucket of water, ihislicd it 011 the gronnd, picked up her lemons, and folding up her temporary stand made a bee line for home. She had ilniio a good day's business.- y-w York Tribune. Mr. Annum- unit the tlootlilauk. A bootblack walked into the office of Mr. Armour. Ho had none of his outfit with him, but the bootblack was stamped in his fare and all over him. He went to the gate where a guard stands between bis post and the greatest pucker iu the world. "WVie's do old man?" asked the iireh The guard told the boy to get out. "You tell de ole mau tint I want to see him. I waut to see him alone. 1 don't want to hodder you nor de ole man. But I waut to see de ole uuui, an' I want to see him right off." Mr. Avmouv at his desk overhead the ragged request. "Let that boy come iu here," he called to the young man at the gate. The urchin approached Mr, At-uiour in a business like way. There were no preliminary compliments. "Say," si�ko the urchin, "ltoolc a nap out dere in do alley, and w'ilo I was asleep some o' dem kids from the board o' trade cuius along and swiped (Stole) my kit an' I'm short. 1 want tcr borrar a dollar to buy me a kit an' I'll pay yon back 011 de '.-tallment plan. See?" Mr. Armour handed the boy two sil �r dollars and told him to go. But the V h.-mded hack one of the dollars and id: I iloan' want but one. I'm gain' to ii back, and dcre's no use o' a man .join' in ileflpcr'u his h?ad. I alius keep head alsive de water." The truth of the abuse stovy is vouched >r by one who saw the scene and over-ird the conversation.-Chicago Trib- -Ti-.,' JveTsMl lie li:i\>. Imnt' M 1'nem rnn d t-> dvpoti* the palet with v. D11.1 wager or t.lWi h- mi-rlortvM'i to riilealinie from ttanta IV to lnde|x-n'!ws; ''1 had engaged to leave the sword after my death to the Cluny museum, I but I know the collectors, amateurs and .lirectors of museums. In their fondness for a rarity they go so far as to wish for tho death of those to whom it belongs, >l>eeiujly if they nre the heirs. I do not wish to ei-poso your conscience to a paiu-11I kittle, for it would in- Mire to light, perhaps, successfully, for the posse.v-ion uf the weapon. 1 tb Cook Stroke. Bob Cook's stroke is the result of Bob Cook's exhaustive study of a man from his heels to the crown of his head said a incumber of the Yale nine. ' have watched his work with our crew very carefully. Everybody is familiar with the success he has achieved, but it not generally realized that what is known as tbe Boh Cook stroke is not an accidental discovery by this prince of iithletes, but is the result of years of painstaking und exhaustive stndy on the general subject of the physical possibilities of the human frame in athletics. The stroke today is a masterpiece of genius which has solved the problem of imparting the greatest amount of force to the end of a long oar by the least possible expenditure of strength. That is rather a sophomoric statement, but it covers the grounds of Bob Cook's life work."-New York World. The Work or Wrltluie a liook. Dumas once said that it was the easiest thing in the world to write a book. You had ouly to seat yourself in a leather covered chair at a library table well supplied with blue paper and a certain kind of pen and ink, and proceed to write; but Ixfore you began, before you seated yourself or wroto the first word, yon should have given ten years of thought to the subject on which you iu tended to write-Writer. How to Keep Oysters. There is an ingenious device for keeping oyBters good in the shell for several weeks after tliey have been taken from the water. Hitherto this lias been done unsatisfactorily by boring holes through the edges of the shells and locking in the oysters with bita of twisted wire. By the new scheme the edges of the shells are dipjs.-d iulo plaster of paris mixed with certain chemicals that make it harden quickly. In a few minutes the oyster is hennetii ally sealed, and strong is the cement that not even the most muscular mollnsk can manage to get a breath of fresh air After having been subjected to this process.-Exchange. __ Two years ago George Croft, of Osh-kosh, Wis., loaned a friend $10, to be returned by mall. Soon after he got a letter asking if he had received the money. Croft replied no. A short time after he received a letter with the #10 in it, and the friend declared he had once before sent the money. Not long since Croft received the first letter containing $10, which was seni Aug. 17, 1888, to Ashland, and had lain there two years. FACTS ABOUT AMBER. AUBREY'S FAMOUS RIDE. A Feat That Hai Few Parallels lu physical Badnrwnee autl Bravery. "The greatest physical achievement ever accomplished in this country," said John P. Graham, "was the ride of F. X Aubrey from the plasa of Santa Fe, If. M., to the public square at Independence, Mo., a distance of nearly eight hundred miles, through a country inhabited by warlike Indians, a large part of which was then a sandy desert." Being urged to giro an account of the great ride Graham proceeded'. "It was abont tho year 1851 that An-brey gave his wonderful test of human endurance, before which all other attempts of the kind pole into insignificance. He was a short, heavy set man 88 yean) of age, in the prime of manhood and strength. �Qa business for ten years as a Santa Fe trader hail nud> Aim perfectly familiar with the fevQ and all the &toppin� plaoea. He una a perfect horseman, and although ttaMr* I'nder the stratum of trees is found pyrites, sulphate of Iron and coarse aands, iu which are rounded masses of amber. Tha largest amber miues in the world today are along the Baltic, between Ko-uitsaiier^ aud Memel, on the Prossiaa coart. Tho Komaus discovered the true nature of auiber, that It Is a fossilized vcget-ahle gum, and Ihci^fore gave it the name of fluccinum, or gum stone. Auiber is sparingly cast on the Swedish and Danish coasto, and occasionally pieces are picked op along the slioies 0/ Nc-folk, Essex and Sussex in England. The great source of the supply of amber in all agi s appears to have been tbe Baltic coast, from which the supplies of commerce still contiune to be drawn. Amber was regarded by the ancients with superstitions reverence because of ita unknown origin and on uccount of the electrical phenomena which it exhibited. Large quantities Of amber are thrown up from the sea 00 the Baltic and Prussian coasts, and obtaining amber from tbe is a regular industry, giving employment to large numbers of psople The most beautiful specimens 0! amber are said to be those found at Catania, which show a beautiful play of color ahad> Ingto purple. Amber has also been found in different snoba la Biberi* and GreenieSBl. The, tress from which the amber gum eluded stood in foresto of put epochs, ** many�to� aw new-sry fwtbfltranaCor-'UsttUoa of tea an bat nnno.and arenowforra-log strata of nitumhwa* wood baaeaik beds at sand sad ulai. SmvuiiI lleserlt,e< a furious I'ortlon at file t:l�be*� Makeups-Musical .Sand Is r'ouud In Several Cmvatrles-Home Hy-polue.cN to Explain tihe Cause. The so-called "barking sands" of Kauai aro mentioned in tho works of several travelers in the Hawaiian islands, and i have a worldwide faine as a natural curl- ' osity. As anile, however, tho printed accounts are meager In duails, and show tho authors to have bet a unacquainted with similar phonoir.ciia cltewliere. Jointly with Dr. Alexis A. Jnlien, of Columbia college, Now Y oris, I have been studying the properties of sonorous sand for a long time, and have visited many localities in America, Europe aud Asia; hence 1 was uble during a recent visit to Kauai to make some notes and comparisons lhat may interest the resi-lnitfl of this kingdom. NotwitlLitauding recent rami I found tho sand 011 the dune at Mun.i dry to the depth of f'onror five inches, aud when pushed dow-n the steep incline it gave out a deep base note having a tremulous character. This hardly resembles the barkiiv.c" of a dog. but a sound somewhat tike it is produced by plunging tho hands into the sand anil bringing them vigorously together Another way is to fill a lon^ bag three-quarters full of sand, and then dividing its contents iuto two part.s. holding one in each hand, to clap the two portions together. This 1 had found to be a good method for testing the sonorousness of sand on sea beaches. A bag of the sand will preserve its acoustic, qualities n l"iiu time if kept dry aud not too frequently manipulated. The angle nt which Hit; sand lies where it falls over the dime is til degrees; the sonorousness ext. ink' several hundred feet along the dune, being interrupted by a cii ;ping vine that thrives marvel-ously in such 11 soil. A similar duue of .-.onerous sand occurs on Niihau, as has long beeu known to residentsof the island, and it hits beeu also reported to ts-eur near Koloe. These observations, simple as they are, have hi en of special interest to rae, lie-cause they show that the sand of these localities forms a link between that of the sea beaches aud that of a certain hill ou the Gulf of Suez known as Jebel K�-gons, and which I visited in April, lfc*U. Sonorous sand is of more common occurrence than generally supposed. It found on the Atlautic coast of the United States from Maine to Florida, ou the Pacific coast, in Europe, Japan, Africa, Tasmania, etc., a* well as on theshoresof many fresh water lakes. Iu these localities it forms areas generally between low tide and the base of adjoining dunes, and emits sounds only when subjected to friction by the feet and hands or in a bag as described. At Jebel Nagons, in Arabia, on the other hand, the sand rests in a ravine, and produces sound only when it rolls down the incline (which it often does spontaneously) and fails to respond to kicks and cuffs. The sand at Mana, as shown, unites in itself both these acoustic properties. The angle at which the sand lies at Jebel Nagous is the same as at Mana. 31 degrees being the "angle of rest" for fine dry sand. The musical notes obtained at these far separated localities aro also the same, but in Arabia the incline is 390 feet high, and consequently th.-sounds ore far louder, especially as they are further magnified by being echoed from adjoining cliffs. The sand at Kauai and Niihau is made np of fragments of shell and coral, while that of aU other localities known to us (over 100 in number) is siliceous. This shows that the soiiorousuess is independent of material. Examination under the microscope further shuws that the sonorous quality is u:jt connected with the shape of the grain. Sonorous sand is distinguished by being free from tine dust or silt; the in dividual grains are very uniform in size. It is very e;isy to deprive sand of its acoustic power by mixing a little earth with it or by wetting it It. is difficult if not impossible, to restore to sand its sonorous quality when unce "killed, " A number of hypotheses have been proposed to explain The ca'jse of this curious property of certain sands. The prevalent idea iu theso islands that the sound is due to the cellular structure of the sand must be abandoned, since most sonorous sand is not so constituted, that of Kauai forming an exception. Borne have attributed the nmarous quality to saline crusts, others to electricity, offer vescenca of air between the particles, reverberation within subterranean cavities and to solorization, and one author attempts to explain the phenomena by writing of "a it-duplication of impulses setting' air in vibration in a focus of echo." These theories Dr. Julien und I reject for reasons I cannot here detail, and we believe the true cause of sonorousness to be connected with thin pellicles or films of air or of gases thence derived, deposited and condensed upon the Lrrrface of the sand grains during gradual evaporation after wetting by seas, lakes or rains. By virtue of these films the sand grains become separated by elastic cushions of condensed gases, capable of considerable vibration, whose thickness we have approximately determined. The extent of the vibration aud the volume and pitch of the sound produced we alt-:o find to be largely dependent upon the forms, structures and surfaces of the sand grains, and especially upon their pnrity or freedom from fine silt or dust. We have shown that the pitch of the musical-notes obtained on sea beaches is proportional to the mass of sand moved- the greater the mas6 tho lower the tones. On the dunes of Kauai and Niihau tho same holds true.-H. CarringtonBolton, Ph. D., in Honolulu Commercial Advertiser. lie nmves at ins hucccsos through hie ! knowledge nf tiie evil in men; he comes I to grief through his ignorance of the,1 good in nun. He thinks he knows "hu-1 man nature," but he ouly half knows it. Therefore he is conslantly in danger of ! making a fatal mistake. For instance, his excuse to himself for lying und trickery is that lying and trickery are indulged iu by others-even by some man who make � loud boast of virtue before the world. A little uiorc or less of lying and trickery seems to make no difference, he assumes-especially bo long us there is no public display of lies and tricks-for he understands Unit there must always be a certain outward propriety in order to insure even the inferot kind of success be is oilniug at But having no nsablo conscience to guide him he underrates the sensitiveness of other consciences-and espcciolly tho sensitiveness of that vague sentiment called "public opinion"-and ho makes a miscalculation, whlcb, if it docs not land him in tho penitentiary, at least makes him of no use to his reBpeetablo allies; therefore of no use to his semi-criminal associates; therefore a surprised, miserable aud vindictivo failure.-Century Magazine. HI 9 and 21 East Sherman Street, The (load Old Times. Under Henry I coiners of false money were punished by the loss of their right hands, and other mutilations of various kinds were in common use. In 1100 we hear of heretics who had refused to abjure their faith being handed over to the church by the civil authorities to be branded with a hot iron on the forehead, have their clothes torn off from the waist up and be whipped through tho public streets. Boycotting was at that time a legal practice, whatever it may bo now, for the said heretics were not only forbidden to worship as they desired, but forbidden to enter tho bouses ot ortho dox believers, or even to purchase the necessaries of life. The popular notion of the crusaders as an Bnuy of Bayards, "sans peur at ear"! reprocbe," is hardly consistent with the code of criminal law which Biobord Cceur de Lion enacted for the especial benefit of those with whom he set out for holy Palestine. If any one of them were convicted of theft boiling pitch was to be poured over his head, then a pillow full of feathers s'fiakeu over him, and he was to be abandoned at the first port the vessel touched. Whoever killed another on board ship was to bo tied to the corp"-' and cast iuto the sea; whoever killed another on shore w us to be tied to the corpse and buried with it. A blow was to Is- punished by three duckings in the sea, and tbe use of the knife in a quarrel caused the aggressor to lose one of his hands.-All the Year Bound. does a general; lie t^etn Titer* in Sereutreu Way.. I can swim seventeen ditlerent ways, some of which come under the head of fancy swimming. As a gymnast can go through his regular performance so con I change rapidly from ono style of swimming to unotber. For a hundred yard race I recommend tho American overhand side stroke. 1 admit that some say the turtle stroke is the foster of the two, but I really think the side stroke is the fastest in the world. With the overhand side stroke I swam 100 yards in one minute and fifteen seconds, while the turtle stroke occupied just one and one-fifth seconds longer. I have found the turtle stroke very hard to keep up, because the movements are quicker than the side stroke movements. In a race always try to keep on the left side of your oppouent, with your eye on him so he cannot make a spurt aud get away from you.-(JusSandstrom iu New York Mail and Express. JOB PRINTING Book Making Book Binding Business. A Horse with a Bis Mo a Hi. At Rome, Ga., while a horse was loose in the stable one of his bind feet got caught in his mouth. It is supposed that the animal was rubbing the flies from his nose with his hind foot, when by accident the foot liaised iuto the mouth. The hoof was shod with a heavy iron shoe, and the sharp corners of the shot: and hoof cut Very painful wounds in the month. The animal fell to t'<-gmnuil and continued to struggle with ' -.t :ei\e.f. When lie was discovered he wa* envered with foam and showed every sign of fearful r-.truggle. His master came and succeeded in the foot-Exchange. SPECIALTIES 11 THE BOOK DEPARTMENT. Journals, Ledgers, Balance Books, Minor AbstractfBooks, Blank Books of all kinks, Land Examiner's Books iOaitfRegisters, County Records, Manilla Copy Books, Ward Registration Book*, White Paper Copy Books, Scale Books a specialty Real Estate Contract Books,, Attorney's Collection RetfiaterR. The above is only a partial list of the goods we carry and the work we are prepared to execute promptly. We are making a specialty of Magazine Book Binding! and we bind Magazines and. Law'Books in all Btyles and at lowestfrrioeB. We wish the public to understand that IVe KAl Lots uf Peanuts. The average yield of peanuts apiioars to be about fifty bushels to the acre, although it sometimes goes im high as | seventy-five und falls as low as twenty-five. The value to the producer of the j crop of lBtJlM)0 is estimated at not less I wZ st? Tat thftiylo^ we are ready and prepared to execute any kind of tion of peanuts in the United States is about 'J0U,000 pounds, or ten carloads, representing an expenditure by the consumer of from f2O,0O0 to |SJO,000 daily. -St Louis Post-Dispatch. Printing or Book Work! The odor of ambergris is not unlike musk, but more penetrating and also _ , . . , , _ . more enduring. Everyone knows how Have stock forms, but oan make special forms to order. difficult it is to remove the musk odor , . ._ from anything which has ever been We guarantee all work and solicit patronage. touched with the tail of the rat. It is much more difficult to get rid of the odor of genuine ambergris. This accounts for its great value to the manufacturers of perfumery. Audible. Customer-Is this woolen maUfrial new? Tailor-Yes, sir. It's so new you can almost bear it bleat.-Clothier and Furnisher. Baoereaoe tor K*sv�l*. The fact la that there is altogether too much reverence for rascals and for rascally methods on the part of tolerably decent people. Rascality is pictareeque, donbtieas, and in fiction it baa even its mora] was; hot In real life it should have 00 toleration, and it is. as a matter of fact,-seldom aocompanied by the ability that it brags. One. proof tiat tie smart rogue is not M smart as he thinks and as others think it tl|ut he no often comes to grief. V New York's theosophicol society is I made up of all kinds of religious believers. Spiritualists have sat side by side with hardshell Baptists and dignified churchmen of every denomination. Tho meetings are opened with tho reading of an old Hindoo book. The philosopher Tholes, of Miletus, 000 j B. G, noticed that amber when rubbed ai-1 tracted light bodies to itself, and this ok- | servstioa was the foundation of the wonderful science of electricity, which was I named from electron, the fjretk word for | amber. It Is not altogether certain what trees exude the orubur gum, though one species of fir, plnetes suceinifer, bos been accepted, somewhat provisionally, us the amber yielding tree; but noted botanists hava shown that the exudation may have proceeded from ether species ulso. Amber la a hard, lustrous resinous sub-�taoee, which Is found to alluvial deposits. It is usually of a pale yellow color, bat has sometimes � reddish or brownish shade, U sometimes quite transparent, but fa usually of varying degrees of trannlnoeisey,- Oblrmj*n 1 ntoe^Vwum -Mere scetaa to oea lamenuuiicwantor harmony in antlon b*