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Hutchinson News (Newspaper) - July 25, 1890, Hutchinson, Kansas mmmmmm HUTCHINSON DAILY NEWS: FRIDAY MORNING. JULY 25,1890. HOW LEATHER IS MADE. ONE trade in which ancient methods are employed. Modena Imyr�v�an�a.t4 II�vr Convertlng Hldv* lain leather Minutely !�� ai-rlbrfl. A Lane* Kfttkbllahmtnt. Modern ingenuity has changed lie character of almost every business in existence within the last fifty years, but there is one which rtiVV retains it� primeval simplicity. That is the manufacture of leather. The one thtii|{ needed to make good leather is time, mid as modern machines tend to eliminate that element they are of no nee here. The andent and honorable occupation of the tanner stands proof against innovations. Notwithstanding that fact then; is an immense amount of leather made, and Cincinnati's outpnt for a year reached the enormous onantity of 4Iiy,tX)0 hides, �valued at $4,0�0,000. Of this fully half Is made at one tannery, which Is the largest in tho world. It was to this tannery that a reporter betook himself yeeleriluy to see how the old fashioned business was conducted. The obliging superintendent took hira in hand, and for ono kouT and ft half the pair marched steadily onward, upstairs, down elevators and through villainon* IrnelK vuhests ok UAKK. The first room entered was the bark store room, whore there wan an immense pile of 40,000 cords of chestnut oak hark. This is obtained from Kentucky, Ton-nesseo and Alabama, and enough is kept stored for a year's use. At one end of this room is a machine, into which two men an! kept busy feeding tho bark to Iw ground up. Tlic tan bark was left for awhile and the hide room was visited. This is below tho level of tho railroad track, and a trap door opens in tho ceiling, through which the hides are dropped from the care. Most of the hides come from Chicago, hut for pat e.ut leather those brought from Paris, France, are the best, as they are larger and thicker. Rough hides range in value from $i to $10, according to grade. They are here sorted, weighed and put into packs of 131 hides imu-.1i, anil one hide of each pack ib numbered. The whole pack is started at once, inid comes out finished at the same tinm. By means of a rope attached to tho numbered bide the location of any pack can be jtscei-tsined at any time. Next comes tile beam house. Here the hides are soaked in clear water for three days, receiving four rhain,vs of water in that time. Thus thoroughly soaked Iboy are plunged into lime water ami left for five days. One more day in fresh water and they art* run through a machine at the rate of Tj 12 tlnily and have all the liair removed. Next they go to the beams, which an* lioards about live feet long, inclined to an angle of forty-five degrees and having a longitudinal convexity upward and trcing covered with Bine. Upon Uiwo the ludes are thrown flesh side np, and the flesh aide scraped off with broad bladed knives. The bits ot moat, go to the glue factories and the hair is used hy plasterers. Another Koalung in fresh water and they are takeu by tlui strokers, who work thein throe times on beams to remove any short hairs or lime tluit may remain. From hem they arc put into fre�li water again, then suspended on sticks in very weak tan liquor for two weeks. They are perfectly white whi^n introduced into t.liis liquor, but come out slighUy tanned or brown. IN THE TAN LlyUUIl. They are thou taken into a large room, the floor of which is simply planks laid over large vats. Into those vats a hide is thrown, fruah bark is scattered over it, and another hide is placed on top, etc., until the vat is filled. The whole is submerged in the strongest tun liquor. While those are soaking let us see how the liquor is made. In a largo room thoro aro thirty-two leeching vata, each 10 font in diameter and 10 feet deep. In a new tannery these must be filled with fresh water and ground bark, hat in an established tannery liquor ii nsod. The freab bark is flooded with strong liqnor, and When ibis is drawn off weaker liqnor is put on the simio luirk, the vat boing allowed to stand eight days each time, and then Wfiakur liquor is placed on tho bark, till at tho thirty-second time it is pure water; or, in other words, fresh water is put on worn out hark, thou transferred to fresher and fresher, until when put on now bark it is strong liquor. The exhausted bark is burned in heated ovens and generates an immense amount of steam. The hides taken from the vats were packed with bark and suspended on frames in tan liquor tor two weeks. Hare as in tho leeching process an old tannery has an advantage. The fresh Equoriflpnt oh the hides that have boon longest tanninK, and as the strength it taken out by the hides the liqnor is run over fresher bides until at last it is run over perfectly fresh hides and into the tower. Thus the longer a hide lias been tanning tho stronger liquor It is subjected to. From the vats the bides are taken to be scoured by a brush and stone in a machine. They are then dried. When perfectly dry thoy are tempered by boing dam pound with fresh water. They are then polished with copper wheels worked by machinery in the manner of a hugo flatiron. This is tho hist touch y^ven to Kile leather. Beltiug leather is sold in the rough without tlds last polishing. Belting is, however, inado hero, and only tho host stock is selected for that purpose. The hides aro first cut into short strl]>u of the projicr width, soaked arid scoured, dried ami stuffed. Sniffing coiisif.ut in applying a coat of oil and grease to tin: damp leather. It is then dried mid the oil is absorbed hy the leather, titer which tlia grease is scraped off, the strip dtunpcuud uud put into n frame, whore it is subjected to a groat strain in order that it may lose all elasticity. It is then removed to tho belt department, whero it is glued or riveted into belts.-Cinrinn'ti Times-Star. oireenon ol tne linage. A particularly strong puff of wind nearly blew off her hat, bristling witli meadow flowers, and nil her attention was given to keeping it on hor la-ad. The rode brwze. however, took charge of her dress, and as it blow around got entangled with the only three glatses Bridget had on h-r stand. They Tell on the Bags, to lie simply smashed irtto smithereens. For a moment there was silence, then tho owner, in pnre Hibernian, gavo vent to her feelings, and the language was not really ladylike. The young man was, however, equal to tho occasion, and diving into bin pocket prodn^B and gavo to Celtic Hebe a dollar The latter lookiil at the note for some seconds and then disappeared into that undiscovered country, so far as men arc concerned-a woman's pocket. Jack uud Jill had passed on; of this the vendor of cool drinks made certain. She then deliberately took up her bucket of water, dashed it on the ground, picked up her lemons, and folding np her temporary stand miido a bee line for home. Mio had done a good day's business.- Xew York Tribune. .Mr. ,4i-muilr ami the Jluotblaek. A liootblack walked into the office of Mr. Armour. He had none of his outfit with him, but the liootblack was stamped in his face and all over him. He went to the gate where a guard stands Ijetween his [lost and the greatest packer in the world. "WVre's de old man?*' asked the urchin. The guard told the hoy to get out. You tell de ole man dut I want to see him. I want tost* him alone, f don't want to bodder you nor de ole man. But I want to see de ole man, an' 1 want to see him right off," Mt. Armour at his desk overhead the ragged request. "Let that boy come in here," he called to the young man at the gate. Tho urchin approached Mr. Armour in a business like way. There were no preliminary compliments. "Say," spoke the urchin, "I Uiok a ua): out dere in de alley, and w'ile I was asleep some o' dem kids from tho hoard o' trndo conw along and swiped (stole) my kit an' I'm short. I want ter horror a dollar to buy me a kit an' I'll pay you back on do 'stnllment plim. Scc'r" Mr. Armour handed the lioy two stl ver dollars and told him to go. Bnt the hov handed back one of the dollars and said: "I di>un'want hut one. I'm goiu'to ]iay it back, and dere's no use o' a man goin' in dt-eper'n his head, f alius keep my head above do water." Tim truth of the above story is v� niched for by one who saw the scene and overheard the conversation.-Chicago Tribune. C'huracli-rlalli: uf Ouiuux. A very characteristic letter of Alexan iler Dnnias was received by the director of the Crony museum, in which the former announces his intention of presenting to the museum the sword of the Marqtiisde Pescaire, which has lieen left to him by E. de Beaumont. M. Dumas Ldvcs the reason for his liberality as fol .own: "1 had engaged to leave the sword after my death to the Clnny museum hut 1 know the collectors, amatcms and ilirectors of museums. In their fondness for a rarity they go bo far as to wish for tho death of those to whom it belongs, especially if Ihey are the heirs. 1 do not wish to ejrpofto your conscience to a pain fill battle, for it woidd be sure to fight perhaps successfully, for- rhe rK/Ksession uf the weaiioii. I therefore offer you at once the sword of the vmiqoiaher of Pa-via and the vanquished of Ravenna. And now, dear sir, as you can no longer see any reason why I should not live a very long time yet, let me assure you that while I live I shall nlways lie your devoted friend. A. Domab." wen; great rulers lu those nays, none ot them cartd to dispute the paint with Aubi-ey. On a wager of $1,000 he undertook to ride alone from Santo Pe. to Independence inside of six days. It was thirty-nine years ago that he undertook tho terrible feat. It was to Ik1 the i.u-preme effort of his life, and he sent a half down of the svrtftest horses ahead to be stationed at different, jioints for nse in the ride, 'He left Santa Fe in n sweeping gallop and that was the pace he kept up during early every hour of the time until he ill fainting from his foam covered horse in the square at Independence. No man eonkl keep with tho rider and ho would have killed every horae in the west rather than to have failed in tho undertaking. It took him just five days and nineteen hours to perform tho feat and it cost the lives of several of his liest horses. After lieing carried into a room at the old hotel at Independence Aubrey lay for "orty-eight hours in a dead stupor before ho cainn to his senses. Ho would never have recovered from the shock had it not liecn for his wonderful constitution. The feat was unanimously regarded by western men as the greatest exhibition if strength and endurance ever known on the plains." What became of Aubrey afterward?" was asked. After his ride he became the lion of the west and was dined and feted at St. Louis as though he had liecn a conquering hero. Ho finally met his death at the- hand of a friend. One day in 1954, in an "'.'.creation with Maj. Richard H. Weightmnn, tho great rider was stabbed to the heart and dropped dead in Santa Fe. He was bnriod in an unknown grave and all that is remeinliered of Aubrey is his remarkable ride. Wetghtman was tried upon tho cluirge of murder, hut was acquitted, and joining the Confederate army was shot at Wilson's Creek while leading his brigade into battle."-Denver News. HlaTuinf; Yunr Kame lOO Mllea Anay. One of the, marvels of electricity, and ouu of the most striking of the Ellison exhibits at the Paris exposition, wils the little instrument which enables the oper ator to Bign a check 100 miles distant, Tho writing to be transmitted is im pressed on soft paper with an ordinary stylns. This is mounted on a cylinder, which, as it revolves, "makes and breaks" the electric current, by means of tho varying indentations on tlie paper. At tho receiving end of the wire a simi h�r cylinder, moving in accurate syu chroniam with the other, receives th current on a chemically prepannl paper on which it transcribes tho signature in black letters on a white ground.-Ex change. Whut llo Ulaned. Uncle Silas Greening, visiting his niece in the city, was token one day to see tho chrysanthemum show. The old man is of a practical turn and seldom hesitates to speak his mind. "Well, uncle," said Ids niece, after their return home, "how did you like the exhibition?" "Wal, to tell ye the truth, Elviry, didn't think much on't." "Why, what was tho matter with it?' "Matter? Why; there wan't so much as a single punkiu in the whole showf Youth's Companion. The Work or Writing � Book. Damns once said Unit it was tho easiest tiling in the world to write a book. You had only to seat yourself in a leather covered chair at a library table well supplied with blue paper and a certain kind of pen and ink, and proceed to write; hut lHjfore you began, before yon seated yourself or wrote tho first word, you should have given ton years of thought to tho subject on which yon in tended to write.-Writer, A SAND THAT BAHKS. an account of the musical earth of the Sandwich islands. a Savant Ii*a�rlbea � Curlona Portluti ot tur Olobe'a Mltketip-Mualcat Hand li Found In Hcvirral Couatrlea-Horn* Hy-poUiftMft to Kxplftlnftlh* Cauao. .I�kvn �f llufciuvfcii Men. A well known lawyer and his broker friend drnpiied their tickets into the glass aquarium on the city hall elevated station, and as the lawyer stopped to buy the evening papers he jerked down and pinned to his friend's back the large yellow placard placed under the latest inlitions and reading, "Out Today." Hello, here, how long have you been out of King Si�:A''*" said n friend, slapping the broker familiarly on the back. The broker laughed when shown the ird. but insisted on keeping it. The incident had bt-en forgotten when one day the broker stuck his head into his friend's office and said: "Better come ilown the Sound fishing today.v "Can't iHissibly do it," answered the lawyer. "Have made tm eugugemeutto meet some clients here on important business." "All right," said his friend. The lawyer waited in vnin for hisclients. He heard several people approach the office, bnt no one entered, and when ho left tlie office he bsw a huge yellow placard on his door reading "Ont Today." The smile he tried to give was a failure. �Now York Times. Tile Hub Cuulc Strobe. "Bob (look's stroke iH the result of Bob Cook's exhaustive study of a man from his heels to the ctowu of lus head said tv member of the Yale nine. "I have watched his work with our crew very utrefnlly. Everybody is familiar with flic sncress he has achieved, hut it not generally realized that what known as the Bob Cook stroke is not an iciidental discovery by this prince of athletes, hut is the result of years of painstaking and exhaustive study on the general subject of the physical poseibili-tios of the human frame in athletics. The stroke today is a masterpiece of genius which has solved the problem of imparting the greatest amount of force to the end of a long oar by the least possible expenditure of strength. That is rather a eophomoric statement, but it covers tho grounds of Bob Cook's life work."-New York World. Uow to Ke�p lljuwn. There is an ingenious device for keeping oysters good in the shell for several weeks after they have been taken from tho water. Hitherto this has been douo unsatisfactorily by boring holes through the edges of the shells and locking in the oysters with bite of twisted wire. By the now scheme the edges of the shells are dipped into plaster of paiis mixed with certain chemicals that make it harden quickly. In a few minutes the oyster is hermetically sealed, and so strong is the cement that not even the most muscular inollnsk can manage to get a breath of fresh air after having been subjected to this process.-Exchange. _ Two years ago George Croft, of Oeh-kosh, Wis., loaned a friend $20, to be returned by mail. Boon after he got a letter asking if he had received the money. Croft replied no. A Bhort tiino after Uo received a letter with the f 10 in it, and the friend declared he had ouce, before sent tho money. Not long since Ooft received the first letter containing f 10, which was sent Aug. 17, 1688, to Ashlaud, and had lain there two years. facts about ambeh. Slie Had Ifcoue a, Utfod lifty's BawtMM. An indent Irish daino has a email stand close by tho Franklin statue in Printiiifi hoaso square from which she offers to passursby tho cool and refreshing lemonade. If thoro is wind anywhere it always soemB to find o funnel up Spruce street, and Boreas was doing f3 ^ �LaS8lin J"1!?0 of. maa' some of hto host work on bis favorite, Uood and Bbenjrth. His business for ten thoroughfare oue day, 1^.^,1^^. ^,^1^ T^, AyonngwouuMinher boat bib and M� �emg interrupted by a creeping vine that thrives marvel-onsly in such a soil. A similar duue of sonorous sand occurs on Niihau, as has long been known to residents ot the island, and it bas been also reported to occur near Koloe. These observations, simple as they are, have been of special interest to mo, because they show that the �and of -Mieso localities forms a link lictween that of the sea beaches and that of a certain hill on the Gnlf of Suez known as Jebel Na-gons. and which I visited in April, 1889. Sonorous sand is of more common occurrence than generally supposed. It is found on the Atlantic coast of the United States from Maine to Florida, on the Pacific coast, in Europe, Japan, Africa, Tasmania, etc., as will us on the shores of ninny fresh water lakes. In these localities it forniB areas generally between low tide and the base of adjoining dunes, and emits sounds only when subjected to friction by the feet aud hands or in a bag as described. At Jebel Naguns, in Arabia, on the other hand, the sand rests in a ravine, and produces sound only when it rolls down tho incline, (which it often does spontaneously) and fails to respond to kicks and cull's. Tlie sand at Mima, as shown, unites in itself both these acoustic properties. Tho angle at which the sand lies at Jebel Nagous is tlie same us at Maua. 31 degrees lieing the "angle of rest" for fine dry sand. The musical notes obtained at these far separated localities are also the same, but in Arabia the incline is SfW feet high, and consequently th.-sounds aro far louder, especially as they are furtlier magnified by being echoed from adjoining cliffs. The sand at Kauai and Niiluin is made up of fragments of shell and coral, while that of all other localities known to uf (over 100 in number) is siliceous. This shows that the sonorousness is independent of material. Examination under tho microscope further shows that the sonorous quality is not connected with the shape of tho grain. Bonorons sand is distinguished by being free from line dnst or silt; the individual grains are very ur,;form in size. It is very easy to deprive sand of its acoustic power by mixing a little earth with it or by wetting it. IV, is difficult, if not impossible, to n^tcre to sand its sonorous quality when once "killed." A iminber of hyjiothescs have been proposed to explain the cause of this curious property of certain sands. The prevalent idea iu these islands that the sound is due. to the cellular structure of tho sand must be abandoned, since most sonorous sand is not to constituted, that of Kauai forming on exception. Some have attributed the sonorous quality to saline crusts, others to electricity, effervescence of air between the particles, reverberation within subterranean cavities aud to solarization, and one author attempts to explain the phenomena by writing of "a reduplication of impulses setting air in vibration in a focus of echo." These theories Dr. Julien and I reject for reasons I cannot here detail, and we believe the trne cause of sonorousness to be connected,with thin jielljeles or films of air or of gaeea thence derived, deposited and condensed upon the surface of the sand grains during gradual evaporation after wetting by seas, lakes or rains. By virtue of these films the sand grains become separated by elastic cushions of condensed gases, capable of considerable vibration, whose thickness we have approximately determined. The extent of the vibration and the volume and pitch of tho sound produced we also find to lie larijcly dependent upon the forms, structures and surfaces of the sand grains, and especially upon their purity or freedom from tiuu silt or dust. Wo htivo shown that tho pitch of tho musical notes obtained on sea beaches is proportional to tho mass of sand moved- the greater the mass the lower the tones. On the dvtnes of Ktvuaj and Niihau tho same holds true.-H. Oarringtou Bolton, Ph. I)., in Honolulu Commercial Adver User. He arrives at his successes through his kftowVdgu of the'evil ih men; he pdlnos to grief through nis ignorance of the good in wen. He thinks fife knows "hu-uuii nature," but he only half knows it. Therefore he is constantly in danger of making a fatal mistake. For instance, his excuse to himself for lying and trickery is that lying and trickery are indulged in by others-even by some men who matte a loud boast of virtue before the World. A little more or less of lying and trickery seems to make no difference, he assumes-especially so long as there is no pnblio display of lies and tricks-for he understands that there must always be a certain outward propriety in order to insure even the faferor kind of success he is aiming at. But having no usable conscience to guide him he underrates the sensitiveness of other consciences-and especially the sensitiveness of that vague sentiment called "public opinion"-and he makes a miscalculation, which, if it does not land him in the penitentiary, nt least makes him ot no use to his respectable allies; therefore of no nse to bis semi-criminal associates; therefore a surprised, miserable and vindictive failure.-Century Magazine, The Good Old Timoa. Under Henry I coiners of false money were punished by the loss of their right hands, and other mutilations of various kinds were in common use. In 1100 we hear of heretics who had refused to abjure their faith being handed over to the church by tho civil authorities to be branded with a hot iron on the forehead, have their clothes torn off from tho waist np and bo whipped through the public streets. Boycotting was at that time a legal practice, whatever it may be now, for the said heretics were not only forbidden to worship as thoy desired, but forbidden to enter the houses of ortho dox believerB, or even to purchase the necessaries of life. The popular notion of the crusaders as an army of Bayards, "sans peur et sans reproche," is hardly consistent with the code of criminal law which Richard Cceur do Lion enacted for the especial benefit of those with whom he set out for holy Palestine. If any ono of them were convicted of theft boiling pitch was to he poured ovor his head, then a pillow full of feathers shaken over him, and he was to be abandoned at the first port the vessel touched. Whoever killed another on board ship was to be tied to the corpse and cast into the sea; whoever killed another on shore was to be tiod to the corpse and buried with it. A blow was to be punished by three dnckings in the sea, aud tlie use of the knife in a quarrel cansed the aggressor to lose one of his hands.-All the Year Round. Ue Ovta Ther* la Seventeen Waya. I can swim soventeeu different ways, some of which come under the head of fancy swimming. As a gymnast can go through his regular performance so can I change rapidly from one style of swimming to another. For a hundred yard race I recommeud the American over hand side stroke. 1 admit that some say the turtle stroke is the faster of the two, but I really think the side stroke is the fastest in the world. With the overhand ride stroke I swam 100 yards in one minute and fifteen seconds, while the turtle stroke occupied just one and one-filth seconds longer. I have found the turtle stroko very hard to keep up because tho movemonte aro quicker than the side stroke movements. In a roc, always try to keep on the left side of your opponent, with your eye on him so he cannot make a spurt and got away from you. -Qua Hundstrom in New York Mail and Express. A ilons wlUl a 111* Mouth. At Borne, Ga., while a horse was loose in the stable ono of his hind feet got caught in his mouth. It is supposed that the animal was rubbing the flies from his nose with his hind foot, when by accident the foot passed into tho mouth. The hoof was shod with a heavy iron shoe, and the sharp corners of tlie shoe and hoof cut very painful wovvmis in th month. The animal fell to t!i  nnd and continued to strngglo with- ur n-lief. When he was discovered he w;.:: covered with fo:un and showed every bign of a fearful struggle. His master came and succeeded in extracting the foot.-Ex change, We Eat Lull ot 1'eannU. The average yield of peanuts appears to lie about fifty bushels to the ;icre, although it sometimea goea us high as seventy-five and falls as low us twenty-five. The valuo to the producer of the crop of 18SD-00 is estimated at not less than (3,000,000. A simple calculation will show that the daily consnmp-tion of peanuts in the United States is abont 200,000 pounds, or ten carloads, representing on expenditure by the con eumer of from #20,000 to tiW.000 daily. -SL Louis Post-Dispatch. .Imllble. Customer-Is this woolen material new? 7'ailor--Yes, sir. It's so new yon con -serratkiu was the foundation of the won, derlul science ot electricity, which was named fruui electron, tho Greek word for amber. It Is nut altogether certain what trees axude the amber gum, though ono species ot fir, piuetes euccinifer, has beenuccepted, somewhat provisionally, as tne amber yluldlng tree; hut noted botanists hav� shown that the exudation may have pro-seeded from othur species also. Amber Is a hard, lustrous resinous substance, which Is found In alluvial deposits It Is usually of a pale yellow color, but has souKtlmes a reddish or brownish shade, la sometimes quite transparent, bnt is usually ot varying degrees ol traosluceney, mens seems to De a utmanioniu want oi harmony lu action between the eastern and western racing associations as regards the enforcement of the seateuees on delinquent jockeys. It create* an exceedingly bad precedent to ignotie the rulings of any raee track of good tsnrllng and may load to serious complications In the future. DOES A GENERAL| ling Business. SPECIALTIES IN THE BOOK OEPKBTIIEKI. Journals, Ledgers, Balance Books, Minor Abstract?Books, Blank BookB of all kinks, Land Examiner's Books Lioan^RegiBters, County Records, Manilla Copy Books, Ward Registration Books, White Paper Copy Books, Scale Books a specialty Real Estate Contract BooksJ Attorney's Collection Registers. The above is only a partial list of the goods we carry and tho work "we aTe prepared to execute promptly. We are making a specialty of Magazine Book Bindingl and we bind Magazines and Law' Books in all BtyleB and at lowes^pncee. We wi�h the public to understand thai we are ready and prepared to execute any kind of Printing or Book Work! Have stock forms, but can make Bpeoial forms to order. We guarantee all work and solicit patronage. Mail Orders Receive Prompt Attention. Address, [NEWS PRINTING AND PAPER GO. Hutchinson, Kas. ;