High Point Enterprise Newspaper Archives May 12 1974, Page 36

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High Point Enterprise (Newspaper) - May 12, 1974, High Point, North Carolina 20 years after Brown decision where Are we from Page in confrontation and a willingness to go peacefully to jail. In the months and years ahead it would leave a nation in Kings words a at the mercy of its the Law came dec. 20, 1956, ending the Boycott. The supreme court ruling in the Case of mrs. Rosa Parks said that not Only was school segregation unlawful but also segregation in a bus a Public coach unlawful and so therefore was All segregation unlawful. From the same City of Washington in that same year however issued another document. Its authors called it a a Southern All except 24 representatives and three senators from the la states of the old South Sis med it. Thev pledged a to use All lawful Means to bring about a reversal of this Brown one senator who refused to sign was Lyndon b. Johnson of Texas. I new massive resistance a of the South forced Blacks to fight for desegregation in the courts suit by suit. The Pace of the Law was glacial. One Federal judge thought it would take 12 years to Complete a school integration Quot if you Don t Stop them and keep them in their place they re going to try and Rote. And even run for office Quot plan a with All deliberate the mobs came in the fall of 1957. At Little Rock ark., nine Black children entered Central High school and to the horror of the nation Federal troops had to put Down the violence. 1116 next year Little Rock closed its schools. The Black South squirmed in the Halter tantalized by an Equality denied no longer by Law but yet by terror. A if we As a race do nothing about it Quot spoke Martin Luther King a then nothing will be done for the White Man has shown both in the North As Well As the South that time does no to change his thinking but action so he went into the weathered old Black churches of the South and reached deep into Black souls with an eloquence and an Anthem a we shall he led them out of the pews and into the streets and from the streets into the jails and made the jails a temples of he gave his Black disciples a new dignity and a new Hope and his White adversaries a new message a do to us what you will and we will still love you. You May bomb our Homes and spit on our children and we will still love you. But be assured that we will Wear you Down with our capacity to emboldened four students from a Black College in Greensboro n.c., on Jan. 30,1960, went to the dime store and sat Down at the lunch counter. They were not served. Next Day 75 students joined them. Spontaneously students in other cities did the same by the hundreds by the thousands. They sat in Knelt in swam in read a prayed a and soon getting hauled off to jail became a rite of passage for Black youths everywhere. When groups of Blacks and Whites bought tickets aboard interstate buses and Rode in mobs with bats and pipes and chains clubbed them to the ground at segregated terminals across the South. The nation watched at Anniston. Ala., a White mob firebombed the bus and slashed its tires. At Birmingham police chief Eugene Bull Connor cursed them As a out of town meddlers Quot and did nothing to halt the mob. At Montgomery one of the riders John Seigenthaler an aide to atty. Gen Robert Kennedy Lay Quot la e be come a Long nay. Hut where Quot Semi conscious on the Street for half an hour. The nation watched and the interstate Commerce commission ordered waiting rooms at its terminals integrated. A break this City Quot said Martin Luther King from a a Mingham pulpit a and we break the again the nation watched. It watched Bull Connors police dogs and fire hoses and cattle prods at work on human beings. It watched thousands of Blacks children among them fill the jails with their bruised bodies and their Freedom songs. It watched bombs burst across Dixie and fires Burn it watched Martin Luther King Lead 200,000 people to the Lincoln memorial and Tell them of his dreams of brotherhood four weeks later it watched sickened when a bomb took the Young lives of four Black girls in a Birmingham Church in the dust and rubble of that explosion amid the smoke and anguish an Anonymous Black voice cried out a love pm love pm i hate Mem Quot the next year on july 2, 1964, president Lyndon b. Johnson signed the civil rights act it was the most sweeping affirmation of democratic rights in the nations history. It was not enough in the brooding Mississippi Delta and the Georgia can brakes and the Moss Hung lowlands of Louisiana Blacks were still systematically refused the ballot. They were Given tests. They were told the office was closed one in Mississippi was rejected because of a an error in spilling Quot swarms of students Black and White came Down from the North to help in the registration campaigns during summer vacations. Many were threatened. Some were beaten. Two accompanied by a local Mississippi youth were murdered All three bodies hidden in an earthen dam. A Bull Connor gave us the civil rights act a said Martin Luther King. A Jim Clark will give us a voting rights sheriff James g. Clark of Dallas county Ala., wore a Lapel pin that said his mounted posse wore helmets of steel with steel ear flaps and carried whips. Martin Luther King wore a White starched Collar and a dark suit. The hundreds who marched daily with King from an old Church to the Dallas county courthouse in Selma to attempt to Register to vote wore the faded Denim and work brogans of the Southern negro. To dramatize the fight for voting rights King on March 7, 1965, began a March from Selma to the state capital in Montgomery 50 Miles away Down the Jefferson Davis Highway. At the Edmund Pettus Bridge that spans the Alabama River at the Selma City limits a combined Force of state troopers and the mounted posse of Jim Clark met the marchers. On signal the lawmen waded in with horses and whips and Billy Sticks and searing tear . Two Days later a gang beat to death a White minister from Boston. Its ranks swollen with sympathizers from the North Martin Luther King s army of protest marched on to Montgomery and up the Hill to the Capitol Steps. There by the thousands they linked arms and swayed to the rhythm of a we shall inside George Wallace watched through venetian blinds. That night a White woman was murdered. On March 15, president Johnson spoke to the country a it is not just negroes but really it is All of us who must overcome the crippling legacy of bigotry and injustice. A and Quot he said a we shall before the Cotton bloomed in Dixie Quot the self righteous Liberal North is More segregated than the Feudal re necked the president signed the voting rights act of 1965. And that finally was enough. In the South. Starting from Square one the upward strides of the Southern Black were visible and dramatic. The Jim Crow signs were Down. The schools under court orders were integrating. The voting Booth was open and registration Rolls began to grow fat with names of Blacks. In the North however Blacks looked out at their crowded ghettos and saw Little change. They were still largely isolated still mired in poverty. The a dinner cities Quot grew larger the a Urban blight Quot Grimmer the Walls to the promised land higher. The first to let go was Watts. On aug. 12, six Days after the voting rights act guaranteed the franchise to Southern Blacks the sprawling negro Section of los Angeles erupted in an orgy of arson and looting and killing. A terrible new slogan replaced the South so we shall it was a Burn baby Burn a in the next 24 months the frustration and despair of generations erupted from beneath the steaming sidewalks of Boston Buffalo Cincinnati Chicago Newark Rochester new York Detroit. To its dismay America Learned that the process of emancipation did not end with a ballot and an integrated school. Lyndon Johnson a southerner said a you do not take a Man who for years has been hobbled by chains liberate him bring him to the starting line of a race saying a you Are free to compete with All the others and still justly believe you have been completely and so it came to pass. Mrs. Linda Brown Smith now has two children. They go to an integrated school in Topeka a Block away from Home. The principal at Central High Little Rock is Black. The student body is nearly half Black half White. The University of Mississippi now has 446 Blacks among its 7,800 students. Two of its football stars Are Black. In 1962, it took two deaths Many injuries and thousands of troops and marshals to get one Black student James Meredith admitted to Ole miss. The University of Alabama where George Wallace once Quot stood in the schoolhouse door Quot to defy the Federal Effort to admit two Black students now has about 600 the football team is half Black a recent guest lecturer on the a Bama Campus was Angela Davis the Black marxist. At Summerton s c., where one of the Pivotal cases began that led to Brown the situation is reversed from 20 years ago. Then not a single Black went to school with a White. Now Only three Whites Are in the Public school system with 1900 Blacks the White have fled to a private segregated school. To the degree that it exists in Summerton however that extreme pattern prevails in Only a few Southern areas where the Black population heavily outnumbers the White. In the South As a whole 46 per cent of the Black pupils Are in schools with a White majority and fewer than nine per cent Are still in All Black schools. In the North and West 28 per cent of the Blacks attend White majority schools and la per cent Are in All Black schools. In the nation As a whole since 1960, the proportion of Black students receiving High school diplomas Rose from 42 to 68 per cent. The number getting College degrees doubled from six to 12 per cent. Integration advances have not come without Cost. Consolidating Black and White students into previously All White schools has meant a loss of Black not a ooh maybe about 300.�?� the restaurant opened to everyone. In 1952, in Washington ga., one team in the Black Little league had a crisis on the evening of a big game. Its shortstop was . A White boy was recruited As an emergency replacement. He was allowed to play Only with permission of the town Council. And who is that sometime shortstop today he is Wyche Fowler president of the Atlanta City Council. Two years ago a Young Black lawyer was turned Down for membership in the Atlanta lawyers club for the fourth time. And who is that Black lawyer today he is Maynard Jackson the mayor of Atlanta. Occasion to cheer gov. George Wallace of Alabama congratulates Terry Points newly elected Homecoming Queen of the University of Alabama in no White teachers. The National Urban league calculates the Black teaching Iob loss at 31,584 in 17 Southern and Border states. Twenty years ago a Black preacher named Henry Grant rented an entire theater in Denmark. S.c., to show some Church films to Black students. They had to sit in the Balcony although the orchestra was empty. Today the Rev. Henry Grant can sit in any part of any theater he chooses in the South Jim Crow is dead. Eight years ago in Charleston s.c., Henry Grant had to travel too Miles to find a Beach open to Black men. Today he can use any Beach. The Atlantic Ocean is integrated. A and it you Don t get a Good spot on the Sand Quot he says a it Only Means you re slow not ten years ago in a desperate Effort to avoid integration they were plugging up the holes of Golf courses in the South Quot i he two races in the South now Grope for a new relationship to Repine one More than 35 1 years old. In the North they Grope for their first draining swimming pools removing seats from lunch counter stools. In Jackson miss., which William Tecumseh Sherman once burned you were beaten to the floor and kicked in the head if you were Black and tried to have lunch downtown. Today All facilities in Jackson Are integrated. And on Capitol Street the heart of downtown there Are Black mannequins in the windows and Black dolls inside along with Black clerks and that is no Small thing in Detroit George Crockett a Young lawyer could not eat with other attorneys downtown because he was Black. Now George Crockett can eat anywhere not Only because he is a municipal judge but because the practice of Jim Crow in the North where there were no Laws is As dead As in the South where there were. A in the South at least in the old Days they had signs to warn you Quot Crockett recalls. A in the North they had no signs to save you from Public humiliation. They just serve you. In some places in the South especially Rural areas some White doctors still have segregated waiting rooms and in some stores a Black Man there first is kept waiting for a White customer to be served. But these Are the shrinking redoubts last december in Selma Ala., a restaurant refused service to several Black visitors who did no to have a membership the word quickly got around. The Rev. James Robinson a local priest and Black Leader phoned the restaurant for reservations. A yes father How Many in your party a Start program in Lowndes county. A and that is unlike two generations of restless Blacks before them the powells have chosen to stay in Alabama and raise their family there. In adjoining Dallas county former Selma police chief Wilsoh Baker has replaced Jim Clark As sheriff. Blacks helped elect Baker. He wears no uniform no gun no stick. And he has no posse. On his Force Black and White deputies ride together in patrol cars. In All those bloody years of lynchings it seems the Burden of unequal Justice was in a less violent sense also borne by the White Man. Said sheriff Baker a enforcing the Law impartially makes Law enforcement much vember of 1973. Ten years earlier the governor had vowed Quot segregation today. Segregation tomorrow. Segregation forever a and what do Fowler and Jackson and All of Atlanta and All of the integrated world of baseball fans in the whole wide universe have in common they have Hank Aaron of Atlanta that a a a Way Down South in the land of Cotton old times there Are not forgotten.,.�?� the Story once was told of a Black Man found in a deep South River log Gong chains wrapped around his body. Said the sheriff a that boy had no a the Brown decision changed the behaviour of men if not the hearts of men. It ended legalized Jim business stealing More Chain than he could swim an a act study shows that from the emancipation proclamation to world War ii a total of 2,771 Blacks a were the victims of mob violence in the Standard recreational pattern of Public Lynching a a since world War ii not one of the 50 bombings of Black property in Birmingham has been solved including the Church bombing that killed four Black girls in 1963. Today there Are sporadic reports of police brutality against Blacks in the South As everywhere. But in Dixie the Era of routine violence against Blacks has ended a never no More will that Ever happen again a said or. John Cashin a Black political activist from Huntsville Ala. Quot Blacks Are not going to take that any Blacks in police uniforms have become a commonplace in Dixie. Also there Are 60 Black justices of the peace and nearly two dozen other Black judges and magistrates. According to . Civil rights commission figures there is Only one other Black Justice of the peace in All the other states armed with the ballot these were the first offices Long terrorized Blacks sought to control. A decade ago Lowndes county Ala., was so sternly White controlled the sheriff did no to have to go out and arrest a Black Man. He just sent for him. Today the sheriff is Black. A was recently As i960 not a single Black was registered to vote in Lowndes county Ala., or withal county miss., or Fayette county term. A Blacks Are not afraid of Whites any More a said mrs. Marie Powell a Black Mother of two who works with the head politically the Black half of the population of Selma Ala., did t exist to years ago. Negroes seeking the vote were clubbed and whipped. A today i have twice the town to be mayor of a said Joe Smitherman then and now the White mayor of Selma. In practical terms this Means that half the town Council is Black the number of police patrol cars has risen from three to six the Black areas Are patrolled and their streets Are paved and lighted. By any barometer the Rise of Black voters in the South has been spectacular. On Andy Youngs it is traced this Way a when there were no Black registered voters the White politician tried to a out Nigger each other. When 20 per cent became registered they began to say a when 40 per cent were registered they Learned How to say now. Where there Are More than 60 per cent registered across the South All White politicians Are proud to share platforms and be associated with their Black in one 10-year period in the South Black registered voters doubled. In the same period outside the South the proportion of eligible Blacks who registered dropped from 72 to 67 per cent. They re turning on in the South off in the North. There Are now nearly 3,000 Black elected officials in the country but that represents Only one half of one per cent of the nations elective jobs. Black America makes up la per cent of the total population. There Are now 1.307 Blacks in elective jobs in the South. Before the voting rights act was passed in 1965. There were 72. Among the newcomers is Chris Mcnair a state representative in lab a whose daughter was killed in the bombing of the Birmingham Church in 1963. Mississippi now has 174 Black elected officials the most of any Southern state. Mississippi has four Black mayors. New York has none. Pennsylvania has none. Massachusetts has none. Conversely those Northern states have four Blacks in Congress. Mississippi has none. The Quot new Mississippi is now governed by William Waller whose political Rise reflected profound changes in the South. It was Waller a White Man who twice prosecuted the White Man charged with the murder of a the most hated Black Many in Mississippi a Medgar Evers. The two trials ended in Hung juries. But the prosecutor had tried hard for a conviction. And still became governor. The trials were also rendered memorable for this Exchange a do you think it is a crime for a White Man to kill a Nigger in Mississippi Quot Waller asked a prospective juror. A what was his answer Quot asked the judge. A a he a thinking it Over Quot Waller said. In 1787, the new Constitution of the United states for the purpose of Quot nowhere in history is there to be encountered an Effort to bring a suppressed people into the mainstream of society in parable to the Public and private initiatives on behalf of negro americans in recent years. A representation counted a Black Man As three fifths of a White Man. Today the per capita income of Blacks has not reached three fifths that of Whites. Today in Alabama 40 per cent of Black Homes Lack plumbing. Today in America for every 40 White Collar jobs Only one goes to a Black. Poverty remains the Black Many a Burden. A every item we re fighting for now is a Cost item Quot said Jesse Jackson. A it costs to go to the school of your Choice. It costs to live in the neighbourhood of your Choice. A in to years the movement has gone from fighting for the right of survival to fighting for the Means of Jesse Jackson marched with Martin Luther King in the South during the 1960s. Now he Heads an anti poverty organization in Chicago where vacant lots still scar West Madison Street reminders of an explosive night of Black frustration six years ago. In the 20 years since Brown the Black slice of americans economic pie Hasni to gotten much bigger. Back then Black income was 54 per cent of White income. Today it is 59 per cent and nearly a third of the nations 23 million Blacks live in what the government Calls poverty conditions. In 20 years the unemployment pattern Hasni to changed either. The Black rate is still double the White. In the worst ghettos it is Frozen at depression Levels 18 per cent in the Watts Section of los Angeles 20 per cent in the Hunters Point slums of san Francisco 25 per cent in Chicago a Woodlawn District. A steady migration Over the years sent 3.5 million Blacks northward before new opportunities at Home slowed the flow to a trickle. Some found Success and status in the cities and joined an expanding Black Middle class. But most just traded Rural poverty for Urban poverty and Southern for Northern segregation. The White Rush to the suburbs was dramatic and revealing. In a wealthy Section of Westchester county a new York suburb the population from 1960 to 1966 increased by 20,000 Whites and one Black. Six major cities now have Black majorities. Eight others Are 40 per cent Quot sometimes i just get awfully tired trying to save the White Man s soul. A Black or More. The inexorable division Between Black City and White suburb Means that 20 years after Brown social and economic obstacles to its implementation remain in the North firmly entrenched. In City after City poverty Ridden ghettos grow steadily More grim. Much of the debris of a Long hot Summers remains. Boarded up stores and abandoned tenements Are lairs for junkies and winos. Crime and drugs frighten Blacks even More than Whites. Blacks Are the most frequent victims. In Watts where 34 were killed in the 1965 riot and $40 million Worth of buildings destroyed 103rd Street is remembered today As a charcoal not much has changed in Watts. The rubble is still there. What is new Are prowling youth gangs. Kids in Wool knit Caps belonging to gangs with names like the crips and the Bounty Hunters prey on shoppers e conclude that in the i eld of p u Blic education the doctrine of separate but equal has no place. Separate educational facilities Are inherently unequal. And bleed merchants for a a Protection Money. A Black reporter was charged $2.50 for a six pack of Beer $1,50 for the Beer and a $1 a Entrance feel for the six sullen Blacks lurking outside. At the elementary and High schools in Watts last year half the student expulsions were for gun Possession. Since Federal spending on anti poverty projects flattened out in the 1970s, not much new building is visible in Watts. However a new shopping Center is going up. It is to be called the one fifteenth Center named for the first and fifteenth of the month when the welfare checks arrive. The escape routes for Blacks living in Watts and other big City ghettos Are limited. New Laws since Brown make housing discrimination illegal. Illegal or not census figures seem to belie the notion that Blacks could move out if they had the Money. Four out of five poor Black families Are confined to the inner City. Nearly half of All White families in the same income Range live in the suburbs. A the evidence Quot says the . Civil rights commission a indicates that segregation by race is More widespread than segregation by a business is Good a said the White bartender Ai me keynote a mint spot in Montgomery Ala. A see for the joint was jumping. Blacks and Whites were dancing together. In Jackson miss., Blacks give news Quot if we As a race do nothing about it then nothing will be done for the White Man has shown both in the North As Well As the South that time does t change his thinking but action casts on All three local television stations. In Little Rock the cover design of the phone Book is a photograph of Black and see 20 years on 3c % f a

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