Cincinnati Weekly Enquirer in Cincinnati, Ohio 19 Sep 1877
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Cincinnati Weekly Enquirer (Newspaper) - September 19, 1877, Cincinnati, OhioVol. Xxxvii no. Wednesday morning september 1877. Wii Ole no. 2102.through Stanley the great explorer the West coast. Fer a journey untold horror through the ii ear i the continent and m it Etc ion heretofore untrodden by the foot civil lived non the 1 error the Jungle along the line the Kun torn reset by in Inge t non tinle he i Iglich i Wey Aero the continent a narrowly a Toni it i it a death by Nln Wintion and frequent can Unity. Porcial dispatch to the Eru Izirer. London september 16.�?after month anxious a Spense during which the gravest fear were curtained for Tho safety the Gallant explorer the Welcome news has come that Henry m. Stan Gay the special commissioner the new York Lerald and the London daily Telegraph Haar ived the West coast Africa after a tick iii ble journey across the continent Dong the line the la amp Laba and the Congo livers. Stanley s letters Are dated from Embo rna go River West coast Africa August 10th, and inform us that he arrived at that Point a ust 8th from Zanzibar with Only 115 souls and in an awful condition from the Long and i Stiblo journey through the heart the Linean continent. After completing the ex->1�?~> ratio n Lake Tanganika and settling definitely by actual Survey the question tie out Low the Lake by what was believed to be the Tiver Lauga but which he has proved to be Only i Creek draining into the Lake except where he Waters Tho great Inland sea attain a extraordinary Lead. Stanley and hib fol Owers pushed across the country to nya Ngwe in the Lua Laba. This was the most northerly rent reached by Cameron when he attempted to Olve the mystery the Congo and its identity with the main drainage line the Lua Laba Basin. Stanley left by augue the 16th november 1876, and travelled Overland through Regga with Lis party. The Sisk penetrating the unexplored wilds that stretched before Bim to the Westward was cal plated to impress him with a sense danger that Lothing but the Stern Call duty and the prompt mrs ambitious Resolution could overcome. He a Ras about to plunge into a Region where he would lie As completely Cut off from Hope Succour if Fortune did not favor him in his journey As if he was Yva Dering Oil the surface another planet. After i arduous March Many Days through a country filled with difficulties and being compelled to trans put t the shoulders his men every Pound amp provisions and other stores necessary for the transcontinental journey and beside carrying in s similar Vanlier the sections the lady Alice exploring boat and the arms and ammunition his party. Stanley found himself brought to a stand by immense tracts dense forests through which All attempts at Progress were futile. Finding that he could not Advance along the line he had first intended to follow. A Stanley crossed the Lua Laba and journey along the left Bank the River Pussini through the District known As North East Lukusa. On this route he endeavoured to find an outlet Westward but the Jungle was so dense and the fatigues the Maich so harassing that it seemed impossible for him to succeed in passing the tremendous Barrier the Forest. To add to the horrors his position in these Central african wilds Stanley found himself opposed at every step by tie hostile Cannibal natives. The Savages filled the Woods and Day and night poured flights poisoned arrows his party which killed and fatally wounded Many his men. From every tree and Rock along the route the deadly missiles winged their fatal course and the heavily Laden bearers fell dead under their loads in the dark Forest. Only now and then could Stanley and his men reply to this silent al e with their rifles for the Savages kept under the densest cover and rarely exposed themselves. Stanley s March through these Cannibal regions soon became almost hopeless. There was no cessation to the fighting Day night. An attempt at cum Ping merely concentrated the ravages and rendered their Are far More deadly. The Advance was a succession charges in rude skirmishing order by an Advance guard whose duty it was to Clear the Road for the main body. A rear guard covered in like manner Tho Retreat for although advancing against Ope enemy the movement was a Retreat from another. All Stanley a efforts to appease the Savages were unavailing. They would listen to no overtures disregarded All signals Friendship and mildness Inte and ution refused to be pacified with gifts. The patient behaviour Stanley a men they regarded As cowardice so that no course remained open to the explorer but to fight ims Way Onward and with As Little loss As possible. To Render Stanley a position still More deplorable his escort one Hundred and forty natives whom he had engaged for the service at nya Ngwe refused to proceed further the journey and deserted him. They were so overawed by the terrors the Forest and the continuous struggle that they believed de Sti notion was certain to overtake the whole party and prudently resolved not to be destroyed. Finding that his ranks were thinned by the desertion the nya Ngwe the hostile natives concentrated for a grand attack Stanley with the object completely crushing him. It became necessary therefore to organize a desperate resistance which fats happily successful so far that it repulsed the Savages for the Siuse being and gave the explorer a Chance to reconsider his plans and make arrange Menta to adopt them to his trying situation. There a As Only one Way to escape from the hapless position in which Stanley found himself unless he accepted the alternative returning to nya Ngwe and abandoning the grand work which he bad undertaken. This was to make use canoes. With the lady Alice As a last Reliance and Good canoes for the party. Stanley concluded that to could Advance with better Prospect Success than in any other Way. Although he had a decided advantage Over Tho Savages the water . Stanley still found that each Days Advance was but a repetition the struggle the Day previous. It was desperate fighting All the time who la pushing Down the River with might and main. Fortunately it was still the Rifle against the Bow but then the Bow was covered by the dense Woods and the Rifle was a a posed in the open Canoe in the Midat these not a Sive struggles Stanley s journey the River was interrupted by a series great cataracts not far apart from each other and just North and South the Equator. To pass these obstacle be had to Cut Bis Way through Over thirteen Melee dense Forest and Dmn hts eighteen canoes and the ill exploring boat lady Alice Overland. This enormous labor entailed the most exhausting efforts and they had frequently to abandon the a and drag rope for their rifles to defend themselves against the continuous assaults the hostile natives. After passing the cataracts Stanley and his party had a Long breathing pause from the toil dragging their boats through the Forest. They were also comparatively secure from attack and took measures to recruit their exhausted strength before again encountering the dangers the journey Westward. Although fighting his Way continuously Stanley did not neglect tie objects his journey and found Opportunity to note All the interesting changes and physical characteristics the route. At two degrees North latitude he found that the course the great Lua Laba swerved trom its almost northerly direction to the North Westward to the Westward Aud then to Tho South Westward developing into a Broad Stream varying in Width feb in two to ten Miles and choked with islands. In order to avoid the struggles with the Grilies desperate cannibals that inhabited the Mainland each Side the River Stanley a Canoe Fleet led by the lady Alice paddled along Between the islands taking advantage the cover they afforded As a Protection from attack. In this Way Many Miles Down the Stream were made by the party unmolested by the natives. But this safety from attack was purchased by much suffering. Cut Oil from supplies in the Middle the great River starvation threatened to destroy tie expedition. The most extreme hunger was endured by the party which passed three entire Days absolutely without any Lood. This terrible state things could not tie any longer endured. To Stanley resolved to meet his Fate the main land rather than by hunger the River. He therefore turned his course to the loft Bank the Lun Luba and with the singular Good Fortune that has generally attended him reached the Village a tribe acquainted with Trade these people had four muskets which they obtained from the West coast. They represent in a degree the Advance guard civilization toward the Interior the continent. They called the great River Sauta a Congo. With these Friendly natives Stanley Aud his party made a blood brotherhood a and purchased from them an abundance provisions which were sorely needed by the famished exploring party. Alter a Brief rest Stanley endeavoured to continue his course along the left Bank the River but three Days after his departure from the Village the Friendly natives he came to tie country a powerful tribe whose warriors were armed with muskets. Here the first time since leaving nya Ngwe Stanley had to contend with an enemy an almost equal footing us to arms. He therefore prepared his party for the struggle the Issue which was decidedly doubtful. No sooner did these natives discover the approach Stanley a Expedy lion than they Muune fifty four Large canoes and put off from tie River Bank to attack it. It was not until after three his men were killed that Stanley desisted in iii efforts to make tie natives understand that he and his party were friends. He cried out to them to that effect he hollered them clothes and peace gifts but the Savages refused to be conciliated and the Light proceeded with unabated fury. For twelve Miles Down the struggle went Aud it proved to be the greatest and most desperate fight this terrible River. It was maintained by Stanley s followers with great courage and was the last save one thirty two Battles i ought since the expedition had left nya Ngwe. The Lua Laba which River changes its name scores times now As it App cached the Atlantic Ocean became known As the Quango and the Soure. As tie River runs through the great Basin which lies Between �6 Deg. And 17 Deg. East Longitude it has an uninterrupted course Over seven Hundred Miles with magnificent affluent especially the Southern Side. Thence Clearing the Broad belts mountains Between the great Basin the Atlantic Ocean the River descends by about thirty Falls Aud furious rapids to tie great River Between the Falls Zellalah Aud the Atlantic. Stanley a losses during the Long and terrible journey across the continent from nya Ngwe have been very severe. The continuous fighting in the forests and the River reduced tie strength the expedition daily until it became a question whether any its members would Ever reach the coast. Stanley states in his dispatch a my grief is still new Over the loss my last White assistant the Brave and pious Young englishman Francis Pocock who was swept Over the Falls the Cassasa the 3d last he adds a my faithful companion Kalulu is also among the Stanley a narrow e8cape9. On the same Day that Pocock was lost Stanley with seven men were almost drawn into the whirlpools the Moa Falls and six weeks later himself with the entire Crew Tho lady Alice were swept Over the Falls Belo whence Only by a Miracle they escaped. The explorer writes �?�1 make the expedition from Boma by Steamer to Calinda and proceed thence to st. Paul de Lando. Or. Price the firm Hatton amp Cookson Liverpool takes my letter to you via Angola. Quot Henry m. president s tift to the invalid senator. Ai Reeung Nemes in the Kirk chamber a senator Norton endorse is yes a administration a detailed statement the senators conditions very might Hope i ultimate recovery nevertheless he relieve that he will to to Congress in Lle Cember. Cboft�?T8 cak0c8al. His a Cleveland bar tender shoots wife and attempt suicide. Special i Titch to the ten Ourer. Cleveland . September 14.�?at eight clock this morning a bar tender named Charles Croft occupying rooms at no. 23 Prospect Street returned Home from an All nights Carousel and began to abuse his wife. The affair ended in Crofts drawing a pistol and shooting at the woman the Ball entering her left Sido just above the hip. He then pointed the weapon at his own person and pulled the trigger the shot taking effect in the left Side the Bead and becoming imbedded near the brain. The police were attracted by the noise and upon discovering the cause medical Aid was sent for. The physician after making an Examina Tion ascertained that the woman s wound was slight but that the Many a was far More serious although he continued to walk about the room manifesting utile concern. He was immediately conveyed to Charity quot Hospital the woman remaining at the rooms. Both persons in this affair Are not the Best repute As they Are said to have been engaged in squabbles since the Day their marriage not six months ago. Croft obtained a divorce from a former wife about a year ago in order to marry this woman. Poverty and unhappiness Are undoubtedly the causes and this desperate attempt the part Croft is thought to have been entirely premeditated. The phys clans give no Hopes the Maui a recovery. A fatal prescription. Tiffin o., september 12.�?a diabolical crime was committed near this place yesterday at the farm John Austin just North Tiffin. A tramp stopped at . Austin s Bouse for something to eat Aud while being fed found that . Austin was afflicted with rheumatism and recommended to him Tea made a Maon Weed As a sure cure. Or. Austin without second thought had some Tea made a recommended and drank some it. And in Law than ten minutes was a Corpse altar buffering in old agony. I lit special dispatch to the enquirer. Richmond ind., september 13.�?there is no denying the fact that Short something like a Miracle the Days Oliver p. Morton in the United states Senate Are numbered. Draw a string from your right Arm pit to the base the brain the left Side consider every thing below practically dead and everything above constantly liable to an instant extinguish ment and you have in a word senator Morton a condition. When presided Hayes to Dav kissed him us it the forehead and with choking sobs bade him Good by it was Only a reasonable conclusion to which the lookers arrived that it was a last a Long Farewell Ami that his excellency had in common with Many the acute observers this Little City arrived at the conclusion that senator Morton a Days Earth Are practically numbered. That the president did a Graceful thing in thus coming out his Way to visit the dying senator his late opponent in the. Fight for the presidential nomination and the Champion the policy which lie has been at no Little pains and toil to Root out no one will deny and that the senator did As Grace Ful and Noble an act in endorsing the pre Identa a policy and promising it his support should his life be spared every body must admit hence the visit with its results was a remarkable one and will be Long remembered both in the history this cheerful Little City and in the annals the country at Large. The a a special bearing the president and party arrived from Dayton this morning at precisely 9 30 clock. It consisted an engine a baggage car and the private coach general manager Brown the Cincinnati 8<ndusu> and Cleveland Road the quot Queen City a a Palace wheels. The party consisted president Hayes his son Rutherford Jun. General Carroll United states army . C. Pease Dayton manager d. W. C. Brown the Sandusky Road d. W. C. Brown Jun. J. F. Mack the Sandusky Register . Loomis the Coin Mercial and . Bulla the associated pre s. The presidents request that no formal demonstration be made was grudgingly complied with but the citizens turned out in Masse to meet the party at the depot and greeted them their arrival with Hearty enthusiasm. Taking carriages which were in waiting the party were driven to the residence governor Burbank brother in Law senator Morton where he has been lying Ever since nis return from California the Central Loca Tion his own Home Indianapolis being considered unsuitable for his critical situation. The streets traversed by the party the Way to the residence were crowded with citizens whose honors to the party As they passed were cordial but in the Light the grave event which h a called the president to their midst subdued. Arriving at the residence the president and party were warmly received by governor Burbank and ushered into the reception room. An elegant apartment fronting West upon eighth Street and handsomely Aud tastefully furnished. The president anxiously inquired after the condition senator Morton and was assured that he had passed a very comfortable night and was anxiously awaiting his arrival. After an introduction to the ladies and a few pleasant words the president was shown to the sick chamber the bulk the party remaining behind. The interview Between the president aed senator Morton was most touching. Mrs. Morton and governor Burbank who had been in the apartment conversing with and Reading to the senator withdrew As the president entered leaving him alone with the senator and hts physician . Thompson. Entering rapidly from the front door to the bedside with quivering lip and evidences Strong mental emotion the president grasped the warm right hand the senator and with the single exclamation a my dear dear Friend a bowed his Manly head Over the Semi prostrate form the great Man and kissed his forehead while tears Manly emotion fell from his eyes and be deed the Pillow upon which rested the head the Only living portion the slowly dying statesman. Tears responded to tears and the eyes the Stern senator unused to the moisture emotion filled and overflowed and for a moment the two great men whose voices have swayed the nation were silent unable to speak. Then the voice the senator was heard husky and struggling with emotion As he said a my dear Hayes . President. I am glad very glad to see quot no More so than in was the presidents reply As his grasp again tightened upon the senator s hand and he Sank into a seat to Calm for a moment his emotions. Then the conversation ran for a few minutes the president assuring senator Morton that his thoughts had been with him daily Aud that he had anxiously looked Forward to the time when he might be permitted to visit him. The reply was Earnest and grateful and the kindness and social regard touching. Then the president referred with evident pleasure to the warm Earnest feeling expressed every where for Tho welfare the senator and Tho unreserved wish that he might be spared to his place in the Senate and to a life usefulness. The reply was characteristic that he Felt a deep inter est in Tho aft irs the country and that he Hoffed to be Able to take his seat in Congress in december next quot to assist a he said a you . President and support your Wise policy for Tho welfare the this kindly allusion to the policy so much Adverse to Tho principles formerly advocated by senator Morton greatly affected tie president and he was silent for a few moments As the senator proceeded with some remarks upon the protectively prosperous condition the country and his Joy and gratitude in the knowledge this fact. Then the president after speaking the events his trip and the evidences Prosperity he had every where met referred to the Ator s present condition congratulating upon the fact that he had changed Little in appearance and expire sing Earnest Hope for hts Early recovery. Or. Morton replied in a hopeful Strain saying that he to Day for the first time since his sickness had an unmixed Hope recovery. The conversation then again turned upon Nat Loual topics when . Thompson gently interfered saying that the welfare Bis patient would not allow further conversation. Then the presidents emotion again overpowered him. Great choking sobs swelled up in his Throat the tears chased one another Down Bis Cheeks he vainly tried toe prets his feelings in words and sen him but an seizing the senators hand he pressed it Long Between his own imparted another kiss upon his forehead and with choking utterances hade him an Earnest agonizing Farewell and hurried from the room sobbing aloud. For some minutes. After the interview the president was Umble to speak. He resumed his seat in the reception room sobbing aloud while a silence fell Over the company who with All their respect for the presidents kindly heart toward his friends were not prepared for so violent expressions grief. During this time general Bittler who had with his party soldiers Home directors arrived the regular train from Dayton reached the House and was granted a Short interview with the senator. There were in this no special developments interest the Gen eral expressing a Hope for senator Morton a recovery and return to his work and congratulating him upon tie Little change in his healthful appearance which his Long and severe illness had caused. One two other persons were admitted to the sick room for a few minutes and spoke briefly with . Morton. All expressed Surprise at his healthful appearance and lock emaciation and weakness which i his Long illness and abstinence from All solid food was sex petted to have caused. After a Short tune sent in conversation upon the condition past und present the senator and the prospects for the future lunch was served and the i party took the carriages for the depot the president his son Rutherford colonel Holloway and Irving Reed occupying the first Carriage and general Butler and other members the party the second. Along the line followed by the carriages from the residence to the depot thousands citizens had gathered and their enthusiasm was manifested by cheers waving handkerchiefs and Calls for a speech from the president. On the Way to the depot the carriages were stopped by a number the prominent ladies the City who presented the president and party with Beautiful bouquets und after receiving their thanks fell Back in Good order. And allowed the carriages to pass . While passing a Large school building fifth Street Tho president ordered his Carriage stopped Aud addressed a few words to tie crowds children gathered in Ide the Yards. The carriages passed to the depot Tho party took to their Palace car the crowd cheered the president stood the platform waved his hat bowed smiled and a stood off the Calls for a speech and the train moved out and Back to Dayton arriving there at nine. There mrs. Hayes was added to the number Board the ear and it sped to Fremont where a reunion Hayes old regiment occurs to Morrow. Regarding the condition senator Morton there has been until to Day a great Deal uncertainty w High uncertainty has indeed not yet entirely disappeared. That there Lias been a studied and continued Effort to conceal the True facts in the is Evi Dmit. Not a Day Lias passed since his serious almost fatal attack some two weeks ago in which the members the family the physicians have not said that he was improving. This is the Gene al reply a the is better than he was yet though each Day growing a better a and. Though he has been reported sitting in his chair at times his physician to Day stated that he was not in a condition in which i he the physician could give his consent to his sitting up at All. Liis does not have the api Tearance a constant daily improvement As Bull tined by his friends end the associated press. Another indication. Indeed i May say proof a studied concealment facts is shown in the senator a a statement. And also that his physician that until today he himself had despaired recovery. The almost daily statement heretofore has been that quot the senator is cheerful and confident his physician said to Day a until to Day he has been despondent and expressed the belief t i t he would not recover a and in his interview with the president the senator himself said a today for the fist time since my illness 1 am led to believe that f vill thus the people Here Are led to doubt any thing and every thing Given them from official family sources relative to the matter. Another strange Point in the affair is the fact that no one Here not even his most intimate friends have been allowed to see him Dur ing his illness and not a single physician Here though Many them Are the Best standing and also warm personal friends the senator has been allowed to get sight him. To Day. However two three friends besides the president and general Butler were admitted to his . Groesbeck the Silver Dollar. Rival ii Cooks. The secret which one woman con tilled to another. Special Pisi it atch to the in Jitter. Pottsville pf.nn., september 15.�?a startling sensation occurred yesterday in one tie principal mining towns the Schuylkill Coal Region the facts which i Are As follows st. Clair is situated three Miles from this place and contains about four thousand inhabitants. The two principal physicians Are doctors Carr and Halbauer who have been at loggerheads Ever since the Advent the latter. Carry a practice is to june extensive but since Halbauer located in the same town the patronage has been divided. Many altercations have occurred Between the two and their names have frequently figured in the newspapers. A few Days ago a mrs. Housknecht took sick at her Home at Gilbertown a Smull town North st. Clair. As she grew weaker she became More troubled in her mind and emed to have a Load her conscience which she would gladly rid herself . At length she could Bear it no longer and asked the lady who attended her to become the repository her secret. The lady consented and much relieved in her mind. Mrs. House Nellit made the following statement one night some time ago her husband told her that had promised him a pistol and a sum Money if he would shoot Halbauer giving As a reason that . Halbauer was taking away ail his practice from him. The plan he proposed to her husband was that late some dark night he was to go to . Halbauer a House and Knock at the door. The doctor would course put his head out the window and de Mand him what was wanted he should reply that he was a messenger that wanted him to go and see a sick woman. When he came out he could then shoot him. The lady to whom the information was communicated w is a relative . Halbauer and she course immediately put him in Possession the facts. On the strength this the doctor at once swore out a warrant for . Carry a arrest alleging among other things that he was afraid Carr would do him bodily harm. House Nellit was taken before a Squire Burwell. And. Upon being sworn stated that . Carr had made a proposition to him three years ago to the effect that if he would put Halbauer out the Way he Carr would make it All right with him. His Story differed from that his wife inasmuch As Carr did not offer him any Money a pistol. The affair caused great excitement As both physicians Are widely known and heretofore highly respected. Death he oldest Catholic priest in the United it Kuttes. Parr Stino penn., september 12.�?word has been received Here the death this morning at Frederick md., Rev. Father John Mcelroy the oldest Catholic priest in the United states. He was born in Enniskillen province Ulster county Fer Menaugh Ireland in 1782. Coming to America in 1803. He was ordained priest in 1817. He built the Church the immaculate in Boston and the great Church st. John was one the two chaplains in our army in the mexican War. During the late strike he did More than any other Man to suppress the prospective riot the Washington Branch the Baltimore add Ohio Railroad. The Young est prisoner in record. Owen ton kv., september 12.�?a new prisoner arrived at the Owen county jail last night mrs. Fannie Horton confined a charge murder and awaiting indictment was delivered a healthy male child. As court meets in about three weeks it is thought she will hardly be ready for trial although Mother and child Are doing Well. He Envor re monetization and the payment the in Hole debt in Milvor iii Able argument the rouble Landard a Bell Vrr isl before the banker a convention in new York thurs any. The people the United states have taken up the question Money to give it a careful consideration. From the beginning the government until 1874 Gold and Silver were equally unlimited Legal tender for the payment All debts National and individual Public and private. In 1874 Silver was de monetized and Gold alone was put in the place previously occupied by the two metals. It is unnecessary to inquire How this was done it is enough to say it we not done up n full patient and careful consideration. Such consideration the subject is now to receive. Shull this new policy stand shall we return to our eld historical position this is a great question to be decided not for Bankers bondholders credit is debtors for any single Clas but for the equal Benefit All. No other decision will be sati factory final. Many books have been written upon Tlle subject Money and it would be absurd to attempt a full presentation it in a single address. I shall Only consider those aspects it which Are special interest at the present time and All i propose to say May be presented under two inquiries. 1. Is it Safe to use Silver As Well As Gold for unlimited Legal tender and is it better to ure both than either one 2. Is there any thing in the present financial condition the United states which should be taken into consideration in deciding this question Legal tender Money should be something that will pay fairly and finally. For services and property and discharge fairly and finally All pecuniary obligations pubic and private. It should be something which will be always Safe something which has intrinsic Cost and whose value is study and unchangeable As it is possible to make it. No Promise whether National individual has these qualities. A Mere Promise can not be a finl payment for there is always something beyond the Promise yet to be done. It is unnecessary to refer to individual promises. Even National promises Are too unsafe and changeable to answer the purposes Legal tender Money. What is the Greenback Turkey Worth at the present time what the Promise the recent Southern confederacy what has been the history our own Greenback today nearly at Par at one time Worth less than fifty cents the Dollar where May it not have been if the re Sultz it Gettysburg had been different where May it not be under the trials and temptations the fume if continued As a permanent policy but what the Coin Turkey the nation May be destroyed her Coin will survive. Our own government May be destroyed our Coin will remain unimpaired in value. A Hundred Adverse get tvs bugs could not reduce its value 1 nor cent. That is the something which is properly Money. It is a reality and it should be for labor Industry and Enterprise Are realities and their rewards should be real Nna More than a Promise whether National individual. Irredeemable National promises greenbacks Are nothing new. There have been ancient greenbacks and modern greenbacks. They Are the common resort and desperate expedient nations in peril. They Are born War and never in tiie healthful times peace and solid Prosperity and however Large the pledge to secure them they have always depreciated and have been oftener repudiated than redeemed. No Peop e has Ever yet prospered Long with in irredeemable Legal tender paper currency and no sensible people should permanently us it it into their financial policy. So our fathers thought. They had used greenbacks in their War for National Independence and though they succeeded in the War their greenbacks perished. With this additional experience the sure tendency to depreciation and Worth Les Ness All such , they provided that Coin Nione should be Legal tender. Such was their Clear purpose and so the Constitution was understood and interpreted by our courts and Legislatures and by our leading statesmen and jurists i believe without an exception. From the time its adoption Down to our recent civil War. During that War we for the second time in our history resorted to greenbacks Legal tender Treasury notes. Their constitutionality was challenged Aud is still denied. There have been two decisions unon it by our supreme court. The first declared that the making notes Bills credit a Legal tender was unconstitutional. This decision was made at december term 18 19, when there were but eight judges the Bench. There was one vacancy. Soon after tie decision one the judges who concurred in it resigned thus making another vacancy. These two vacancies it acre promptly filled a new new Case presented and at the december term 87u, the court reversed it. Former decision and held that such notes Iven constitutional. Five judges concurred in the first decision and three dissented five judges concurred in the second decision and four Dis enter. If we count the opinions in the two cases we find there Ocie nine against and eight in favor the constitutionality such notes. The opinion Justice Bradley is sometimes referred to. It was Justice Strong who spoke for the court and what Justice Bradley said is no More binding upon the court than tie opinion any Able lawyer Given at his office desk. The question is not yet finally and satisfactorily settled. The Greenback the War was a desperate and temporary expedient and its Only allowable justification is that it was resorted to in Articulo mortis and to save our National life. There is a disposition to be acquiescent Aud not too critical about a policy adopted amid the beating Drums and the thundering Cannon and in the peril dangerous War. War is violence and does not cure for constitutions desperate War is always Lawless however we May try to restrain it and after All it is too much to ask a great government to submit to die rather than strike a forbidden blow for its life. In such an extremity we lean to the justification any policy that will save us and what we May do is scarcely a fit precedent for our conduct when in a condition safety and ease. However we May regard the decision quot i have referred to let us not mistake the stand the court. It is not decided that any Greenback would be constitutional. What is a judicial decision it is a decision by a court the exact Case brought before it. That is its utmost reach. A court can not decide what is not before it. What was before the court it the Case decided i quote from the decision a before we can hold the Legal tender acts constitutional Ltd we must inquire whether they were when enacted appropriate instrumental ties for executing any Tho known Powers Congress any department government. Plainly to this inquiry a consideration the time when they were enacted and the circumstances in which we then stood is important. It is not denied that acts May be adapted to the exercise lawful Power and appropriate to it in seasons exigency which would be inappropriate at other immediately following this utterance the court proceeds to state the Case before it in substance As follows civil War was raging Large expenditures far beyond the capacity Ordinary sources Supply were required for Large armies and the Navy our bunks were about exhausted and were compelled to suspend we had no foreign Reso Aice and taxation was inadequate and we were too hard pressed to wait it our daily expenditures exceeded 81,000,000, and All the coir in the country if poured into the Treasury would not have kept it supplied for three months our Treasury was nearly empty and our soldiers in the Field unpaid and Public Confidence in the ability the government to maintain itself was rapidly weakening and its actual overthrow seriously threatened. A it was at such a time and in such an emergency that the Legal tender acts were that and that Only was the Case that was decided and the decision is not satisfactory. Suppose we should at the present time resort to Legal tender Treasury note and the question their constitutionality should be raised. What would be the ease before the court the War is ended and we Are at peace our Ordinary supplies exceed our expenditures our taxation is adequate Aud not too slow and our credit at Home and abroad is Good the daily requirements to administer the government have been greatly reduced the Soldier has been paid and our great armies have been disbanded and the Treasury is not emmy and there is no pressing demand upon us and the government is no longer endangered. This is not the Case that has been decided it is very different Aud lust the opposite in All its conditions. Let it be admitted that the court As now organized would reaffirm the constitutionality the War Greenback. It does not follow nor la it probable that it would affirm the constitutionality a peace Greenback nor is it probable there will be any further legislation authorising such a currency while we Are at peace during the present Century. Let me explain again and in this connection what i mean by a Greenback. I mean by it a note letter credit issued by the government not convertible into Coin and made a Legal tender. It is not Wise to struggle longer to establish such a currency and we should All be prepared by this time to realize that there is no greater embarrassment now upon the country than our present condition delay and uncertainty As to what shall be our financial policy. Labor is waiting for it capital is waiting Lor it. And Enterprise every kind is impatient to know it. We can not too soon fix and declare it. What shall it be Coin alone is to be our Legal tender Money. This brings me to the Fin to question i propose to consider. Is it Safe to use Silver As Well As Gold for unlimited Legal tender und is it better to use both than either one in deciding upon either policy which is to effect seriously tie condition the people it is always a duty to avoid dangerous and unnecessary risks and As far As we can. Take counsel experience. Let us then consult it and first All our own Home experience. From the beginning Dur government Down to 1874, both Gold and Silver were full Legal tender Lor All debts National Aud individual Public and private. That was a Long experience and a fair trial and what were its results during All that time Gold and Silver kept about evenly together and their fluctuations were so slight As never to amount to a serious disturbance it happened that the relation to each other under which we equalized them was slightly different from that which prevailed among the nations Europe and As we were Young and but starting our com Mercial career and they old and Well advanced in theirs their relation was More controlling than ours. In tiie beginning and Down to 1834, we did not value Gold As High As they did the consequence was our Gold left us and went to them where it had More Power than Here but our Silver remained and answered our purposes just tas Well and the same us if it had been Gold since 1834, and Down to 1874, we did not value our Silver As High As they did and therefore it left us but our Gold remained and answered our purposes just As Well and the same As if it had been Silver. And when our Gold Silver left us it was to serve us either to pay our debts to Send Back to us in Exchange for themselves their full equivalent in merchandise. Our condition would not have been in the least better if we had used but a single Metal whereas having the two whenever a demand came from abroad for either one we had always the other As a Reserve and so we were saved Iron the danger exhaustion it is enough to say that throughout a he period i have referred to tie two metals served us for All our transactions abroad quite As Well us we would have been served if we had used but one. How was it at Home this is a far More interesting inquiry. Not a merchant manufacturer banker was injured embarrassed hindered in hi9 business because we had made both metals a regal tender and not a merchant manufacturer banker would have prospered More if we had used Gold Silver alone. Not a creditor debtor uttered a complaint sought a change Nota labourer Farmer Mechanic was dissatisfied. Such was our experience in the equal use both metals As Money Aud the Liat in was n a condition absolute rest and. Acquiescence in its Long tried policy. In 1873 Aud 1874, 1 believe without a Singie recommendation from the in Ress from boards Trade Chambers Commerce from any other direction Aud , Lor the first time our Public debt had become heavier and burdensome and private indebtedness was larger than Ever before and we were in a state suspension upon a currency amounting to More than seven Hundred millions in sue i exigency and with the knowledge that we were Richer in mines Silver than any nation the Globe we threw our Silver away and set in Gold alone. In View our condition at the time More trying than any we had before experienced and tiie financial hardships gathering before us and demanding a careful husbandry our utmost resources it was most extraordinary that we should throw any them away. But this is our new and yet untried policy. Three causes Are u ged in its justification one. The excessive production Silver another the de monetization Silver in Europe and the third a decreased demand for it in Asia. Let us briefly examine them what tie alleged excessive production Silver in the search Lor it which commenced in Tho far Distant past As Early As the formation nations and has been kept up to tiie present time it May be said that All the Earth that is Acee Sibla has now been carefully explored. We have accounts the mines Asia to the East Persia Egypt Nubia and South Africa Greece and her colonies Italy Spain and Portugal France and Sardinia Bohemia and Hungary Saxony Hanover und Prussia Sweden uni Norway Britain and Ireland Russia aus italia and North and South America. And we have accounts mining in ancient and modern times and during the Middle Ages. The report this Long eager and laborious exploration is before us. It would be interesting to dwell upon it in some detail but for want time i shall confine in Seif to the statement conclusions Only. First All then we May dismiss As not requiring particular notice nearly All the known mines the w rid but those Russia Autralia Aud America. Very Many tiie others have been exhausted abandoned and the product the few that Are still worked is nut Large enough to be a disturbing Factor in the problem we Are now considering. This Narrows our inquiry very much and As All Are agreed to continue tie use Gold we May narrow it still further and leave out View the mines Russia and Australia for they Are Gold mines. This leaves for consideration Little else than those America the larger product which is Silver. I shall not undertake to give the amount Gold and Silver that was gathered and used As Money during the past Een tut ies. The statements about it vary but this we know with certainty there was never too much them either them and from time to time and not in frequently Tipiere was not enough. We May assume with entire safety that up to tie opening the present Century tie world Lead never been Trofi bled with an excess Coin. Tie same May be said its condition up to the Middle the Century. There is no doubt the accuracy this statement. I that prior to the year 1850 there never had teen a movement any where looking to the general de monetization Silver Gold that there never had been an intimation that either was produced in excess Aud that no writer statesman government had recommended the abandonment either. Up to that time the world used both and was satisfied some nations using one Metal some the other but All substantially using both. What then has happened and has there been since 1850 such an excessive production Silver As to justify its de monetization i proceed to that inquiry. The following table gives the estimated production Gold and Silver throughout the world from 1852 to 1875, both inclusive also the shipments Silver to India and China during the same period. The table is taken from appendix no. 6 a to the report made to the House commons in july 1870. The amounts Are Given in Duglish currency tiie table being a copy total product and Oriental absorption Gold and is 1852-1875. In Pound Sterling. A g 11 i 3 a quot i 1�oi a 1 p s ii111 r. I l f 11� a i s i i 5 i i a ge5��� a a a age is Joi 4� a w to co p p p so p acc Pepe be 00 be Pepo per 8��f 55ll$$ in in in a in a a sgt i aci wow Mim if tool quot a a quot a a a a a quot a a a 85 ��"�i"���8��� cd to �<ieocfccotcokot4<is0e j a a qd035��04i4.ai3 g go 11 111 a i 11 i this table was furnished to the English commission by sir Hector Hay a Bullion broker. Upon being questioned he states that he hed devoted considerable attention to collecting these statistics and that they were the Best he could obtain from the authorities extant his statement was made in March 1r7c. If we reduce it to dollars allowing ave to the Pound Sterling we have the result in our Owtis currency As follows total production Gold.12.863,975,000 total production Silver. 1.209,450,000 let Roe give another statement for the same period from the Paris journal Des economists Luderman. Director our mint tells us ill at Ric statement is claimed to be Correct by the journal
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