Cedar Rapids Gazette (Newspaper) - August 28, 1974, Cedar Rapids, Iowa
10A The Cedar Rapids Gazetie: Wed.. Aa* 28. 1974Geothermal Energy Old Stuff in Oregon
reheated and tin* cycle repeats itself
The water also heats the home’s tap water in a pipe w ithin-a-pipe arrangement that eliminates the need for a conventional water heater.
Oregon Tech’s system is essentially the same, but its wells take hot water out of the ground, pump it directly through heat transfers, then dump it into a nearby lake The school is outside city limits.
Townspeople grumble that the college is sapping the heat out of the geothermal reservoir beneath the city. But Bowen says their fears are rooted in a misconception of where geothermal energy comes from
He says a new body of geophysical theory points to two sources, both virtually inexhaustible Natural decay of radioactive material in the earth's crust, and friction from migrating crustal plates.
The crust is not the static, lifeless shell it was once thought to be. but a dynamic system of endlessly shifting plates, he says.
The Pacific ocean floor, for example, is shifting eastward and by about an inch per year is colliding with and wedging itself under the continental shelf of the West ('oast.
The friction created by this movement produces incredible amounts of heat, capable of melting the surrounding bedrock to bubbling liquid that expands and seeps upward through faults and fissures
This heat, combined with that from radioactive decay, is conducted upward through layers of rock. It heats reservoirs of ground water in its path to many times the surface boiling point. But the water, under tons of geologic pressure, doesn’t boil. It remains liquid.
A well tapped into such a pressurized chamber of superheated water brings the liquid rocketing to the surface like an oil gusher On contact with atmospheric pressure, it flashes or turns instantly to steam
Occasionally, the subterranean water gets so hot it boils thousands of feet down and surfaces as dry steam, packing more pressure and generating more power than wet steam produced by flashing The dry steam converts more readily to electricity
In either form, natural high-pressure steam is a valuable resource because it can produce electricity with virtually no intermediate processing. This is what the geothermal energy boom is all about.
Commercial generation of electricity with natural steam is not an innovation A geothermal plant in Lar-darello, Italy, was doing it over 50 years ago. But it was not taken seriously.
Today, geothermal generating plants are operating in California, New Zealand. Russia, Japan, Mexico and Iceland. Technological advances spurred by the recent energy crisis suggest, however, few if any of these plants is operating near potential and all of them combined are tapping only a minute fraction of the geothermal energy available.
Bowen, says about $4 5 million has been spent in Oregon on preliminary exploration, of which Gulf Oil Co. spent $4 million.
“We’re a profit-oriented company and we hope to make some money for Gulf.’’ says Phil Scott, Gulf’s Denver-based geothermal operations coordinator. “Generation of
electricity is the big gent her mal money maker
“We want to take the prime fuels — oil and gas — out of the generating plants and use them for transportation.” he said “The demand for electricity is doubling every 8 to 12 years.”
Last year Gulf completed a 5,500-foot-deep test hole in Lake county, 70 miles east of here The well was capped, the drilling crew moved on and the results are a big secret. Gulf won’t say what they found.
Oregon law requires drillers to file a detailed log on every hole they sink. Because of competition, which is fierce, the state promises to hold such reports in confidence for two years.
Scott said Gulf was sufficiently encouraged by its test that it is holding onto all its leases. He says these are considerable, but wont be specific.
Also actively searching for steam in Oregon is Magma Power, partner in the Geysers Geothermal Generating Plant near San Francisco.
Joe Aid 11 n, a Magma spokesman in Los Angeles, says the company drilled some test wells in Lake county in the mid-1960s “but we were looking for pure steam then and all we found was hot water We still hold our lease there, and we intend to do some deeper drilling.
“There seems to be one big hot belt stretching across eastern Oregon and western Idaho,’’ Aidlin said. “The impression now is that it will be rather substantial. We’re very enthusiastic.”
In areas of California, New Mexico. Arizona, Nevada, Washington and Wyoming geothermal energy is so abundant drilling rigs don’t have to go very deep for superhot steam.
lf you have a
26"or 27 "JCPenney bike ‘made in Austria” it may have a safety problem.
Please check your JCPenney bike immediately
lf it has a decal that says made in Austria and the front fork is not chrome plated, there is a potential problem.
lf you have such a bike, we urge you to bring it in as soon as possible We will replace the front fork at no
cost to you.
As carefully as JCPenney checks the quality of the merchandise it offers, a problem has developed which might make these bicycles unsafe muse.
We started selling these bikes in the Fall of 1972. lf you have one. bring it in to the nearest JCPenney store selling bicycles or to the in-store catalog sales center where it was purchased
And if you re at all uncertain whether or not your JCPenney bike requires a new fork, please contact us
We first made this announcement on May 16 While we ve gotten back a number of bikes, we want to make certain we get yours, if it requires replacement.
We re sorry to inconvenience you But our reputation for quality has been hard earned over many years And we intend to keep it.
JC Penney Patio Shop Corner 2nd Ave. & 5th St. S.I.
Fr*« Delivery Free Forking in Bear Phone 363-359
31 I 3rd Ave. SE Downtown Cedar Rapic
For William Levesque of North Adams, Mass., the illusion is all he needs. He fashioned a paper block of ice to sit under on hot August days. Paper ice doesn’t drip
352,000 Pounds of Free Textbooks for Pakistan
HAYWARD, Calif. (UPI) -Thanks to Earl Dawes’ persistence and a lot of help from fellow Rotarians, 352.AOI) pounds of textbooks worth $2 million are on their way to needy countries for use in schools.
And the whole project didn t cost a cent — except perhaps a lot of dimes for phone calls.
“I kind of thought it would be impossible because of the weight and volume of the books,” Dawes said. but with the help of fellow members of the Rotary club, the impossible was accomplished
Out of Date
The story began last spring when Dawes served as host for a group of Pakistanis, including businessman Kasim Dada As part of Dada’s visit, he toured the local plant of book publisher Harper and Row and learned that thousands of textbooks were going to be shredded and recycled because they were out of date When Dada told him of Pakistan's need for books. Dawes went to work He called Rotarian Jerry Boyle, who manages the publishing plant Boyle said the books could be given away if Harper and Row had assurance they would be taken out of the country and not sold Next, another Rotarian, Jerry Nicholson Oakland.
arranged to get the books to London through an airline
“Kell Off Chair’’
But at this point, the big project multiplied Instead of 30,000 pounds of books. Boyle reported, he had 352,OOO pounds available — 176 tons, or enough for 16 truck and trailer loads.
“When I called Nicholson back, he fell off his chair,” Dawes said But nonetheless the arrangements were made by the next day.
Then, more phone calls Rotarian Ben Nutter of the Port of Oakland contributed warehouse space, and three other Rotary club members in the transportation business found trucks to get the books to the warehouse.
Finally, to get the books on to needy countries after they reached London. Rotary District Governor Mike Kutsuris called Rotary’s international headquarters and they made arrangements for distribution by the British Ranfurly Library Service, which regularly ships IO.(HH) books a week to 70 countries, Dawes said.
It is estimated that the average American consumes 12 sheep during his lifetime
To Report Drug Violation
Telephone Michael Dooley
Jv Allen Nacheman
KLAMATH FALLS, Ore (AP) — Klamath Basin, a high-rolling prairie in tilt* shadow of the Cascade mountains in southern Oregon, is the focus of a new American land rush
It has nothing to do with farming or precious minerals, but with hot water.
Geologists believe this region sits atop one of the earth’s richest stores of geothermal energy: Vast. subterranean reservoirs of high-pressure steam and hot water capable of spinning turbine generators, producing electricity, powering industry and easing the burden on dwindling fossil fuel supplies.
Equals All Oil
“More heat energy lies within one mile of the surface in southeastern Oregon than in all of America’s oil fields,” said Dick Bowen economic geologist with the Oregon department of geology and mineral industries. “Of course, we can’t recover all of that But even if we could tap I-blooth of it. it would be significant — something on the order of the North Slope of Alaska”
Early this year, after prodding from scientists, industry leaders and politicians, the U. S. Bureau of Land Management began accepting applications for leases to explore for geothermal energy on the vast tracts of federal land in its domain
The bureau was deluged In the first four months of 1974, bureau regional offices in the western states received 3,598
geothermal lease applications, covering 7.768,776 acres
Applications tame from many of the large oil companies — Mobil, Gulf, Chevron, Phillips, Sun — and dozens of smaller, lesser-known ones They include firms whose names suggest they were formed solely to apply for geothermal leases, and they include hundreds of individuals. many with the same family names and mailing addresses.
Geothermal energy is nothing new in these parts A hundred years ago the Klamath Indians were using hot surface springs to cook their food and soothe arthritic limbs
In the early 1929s. crude
wells were dug and subsurface hid water was tapped for home heating.
Today, geothermal wells in this town of 16,900 provide clean, and almost cost-free heat for some 500 homes, schools and businesses along what is (ailed the Hot Springs Belt — an area of several square miles that outlines a vast hot-water reservoir 3(8) to 4(8) feet down This is believed to be the most extensive use of geothermal home heating anywhere
The economic savings of geothermal energy, even at the fundamental level of direct hot water heating, can be considerable:
Oregon Institute of Technology, a four-year, state-owned college on the outskirts of Klamath Falls, was spending $94.0(8) a year for heating oil. Today, on a new, larger campus heated by geothermal wells, the annual heating bill is about $8 OOO, most of which goes for maintenance and electricity for the well pumps Klamath Falls heats 6 of its IO public schools with hot-water wells. The annual bill in a conventionally heated school is $3,5(8) compared to $1(8) for the same-sized school with a hot water well.
Three Cents a Day
School Supt Earl Ferguson heats his own home with a hot-water well and says it costs him about 3 cents a day “I’m the type of person who tends to pinch pennies, to keep the thermostats turned down and be careful with the hot water,” he said. “But since I moved into this house I just don't worry about it I use all the heat and hot water I want.” Ferguson’s geothermal system takes no hot water out of the ground. A city ordinance bans it to prevent depletion of supplies Instead, in what is called a down-hole exchanger, cold water is piped into the well, heated to near boiling within the pipe by the hot ground water, then piped back j up and into the house The exchange water, which never leaves a closed pipe svs- I tem. goes through a heat transfer device similar to a car radiator, through which air is forced by a fan The heated air is channeled through the house by ducts \\ hen the circuit is complete, , the spent exchange water is I piped back down the well to b<
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