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Carlisle American Volunteer (Newspaper) - December 14, 1865, Carlisle, PennsylvaniaOf of. 52.Carlisle, a. Thursday december 14,1865. No. 36. M of up incan Tolu steer. It bit to Nixa or i Tea Tow amp Kennedt. R terms. A it a a ,iv�s�m8bi>tiob.�?two a Quot Para pad within tho two dollars and fifty cents if not paid year. Theao terms will to rigidly and every instance. No subscription Dis a Ibsh to of until All arrearage Aro paid unless at of the editor.1 a a a ttys tisk Jien tsp accompanied by the can and a Ono Square will to inserted three to Otto of a a $2.00, and Twenty five cents for each insertion. Those of a greater length in Jan of such As a ted Bills posting Bills Pampa if blinks labels a. Ac., executed with a a tear any void at lie shortest notice. A .s�t�r5tb�� a. At toil be y al t lj1 Fly a. A Carlisle. A. Shearer Esq. I via of rib with you. J. 16.65�?ly. .c.graham,. A t 0 11 n e y at Law fori Nerly occupied by judge Giacam f i a a ii to tfx fico Novor Street Carlisle. Sept. 7, �?T6j-ly we al cd a a a. F. Sauler l -wwrt0rnbir at Lala 4?j$�psfe Carlisle a. Of Quot a a Jefe amp to Volu Toor building Scute Hanover a a Seffl Tepi 1801�?ly. Fyke �?~mm5 M. , Sornev at Law tit. in South inn Over Street in the Vij >3l�?Tiooin formerly Neo pied by a. B. Sharpo. A Urf Jet torn b y at Law t a a a ssh fit Ioe a with we. Ii. Miller Esq., South. A Corner of Hanover and Poi fret it reota.ublslflrdoq.22, 1862�?tf__ r a a , ii. Newsham Torney at a a w. A a Motoe in in Hoeps building just opposite Innuso. A to ail tote Mareb 13, 18s2�?ly. R. A -0&� son al i Nee in it to a Eek Jei w bit a Vijil Dod to. A a. M. C. Herman Quot of. X ��ojjjjj�0 Torney at Law. N a Quot in Rhooms building in Eliot of tho court House,.next door to the bin by i a Offiel Carlisle. Fob 4�ja the a of James a. De Babl i Torney at Law. Fob. 6. 1863. Carlisle a. Two i Pijl is Jacw. A a l_6ffihai�nexi-door_t�-tlie_aiiiqman.p Rin Ting office a a few Bra West of he Nuong a hotel. A t Ajir Ilta 1864�?lyr a f. E. i a ii Tixsey and counsellor at la Itjen Carlisle. Penn a. 0n la boo arrangement with the Patent office Clem me Emilio securing Patent rights. Ert i a aet 1864-Lv a Biliyc Quot a ���?T./1tr.i Jill. I a oreo. 8. Sellig i Trow met a Bill Dunye Colley of dental surgery a a a,., a Tybo residence of his Mother East Louth 1 Terr t>-, at i fit Folpe on South Ila Naver Street oppo i i vhf site Bontz a Storo. 1 a nit y3qa>tuaiard33c322118m.&Quot 9r. I a. Lio Oslis Dea. List yer 0�r�e�/ throw doors below Bedford Oal of Ndah a e til a Cidar a has re noved from 8outh Stanover Street to West Hupf min pm Ray Fri i Street opposite tho female High school a to of Rivale a april 28, 1864. So pension examining surgeon �?�3iva. For of a Arviele and adjacent country re gift. A it a Tolfe. J. C. Kinkle office up stairs in pwn Ltd 4m�er0\building, South East Corner of Markol . Kov. 2, �?T05-tf. A i or m pm Gini lumber Yard. 1 ps�j8?t 80pcr avin2 leased the Yard j.,u Jim a mercy occupied by Armstrong amp Hoffer and till a sed the Stock of u \ i go l and lumber us , together with an immense now Stock f. Willihan it constantly on band and Fern Ian to order in. A a Quot Menta a la pm till Quality of Soas Onod Tumser a boards a Quot. U a scantling tort us Kame Stupi. yall Ngy fostering lath Shippling lath worked , weather boarding poets and fails -1 and query article that belongs to a lumber Yard. L a kinds of shingles to wit Whit opine Hom a blk and Oah qualities., haying cars of mxh5 Toan. Furnish Billo to order of any A / Isnit amp in a Iso at the Shohet not Lee and on the i not Mostyka Spnable terms. My world to boards will be Kenic under cover so theyo a to furnish Lod dry at w Ito Haimov. To Lett f j be ooh stantly on band ail kinds of by co 41. Under cover which i will deliver clean f to an Pitt of tho Borough. To wit Lyons Val a s Ley. Broken egg stoic and nut Luke fiddler. By. Trev do Locust Mountain lob Bory which i self to sell at tho lowest prices. Bes Quality of Iseih a a Kur a tirs a7i goal. Tint always Edh band which i will Soli at the lowest Flag in of Tutu Wost Side of grammar school main Dio d a a Sec o Andrew h. Blair. , still retain the same position of Delancy amp Blair which will Boas energetically a Over be their old Lar to Gas House. As oar Pur bases will Oget Bor at to head of the Market to end by. So doing to to Able to a commo customers and tho Publio on the most i o Tornas. Having relinquished the Tan la Doo to my entire attention to. The Coal Nyber business a kinds of goal and kept of stantly on hand and in the Best a. The lumber Yard will to managed by of. Zoloft whose experience and skill Swoll tho Community. By strict. Attention to Short profits and a desire to do right we euro a Liberal share of Public patronage. An Diu of h. Blair. Go amp 1865-tf a a 11 ains.�?600 Paire of traces chains kinds with a larg assortment of a Iru Bains Halto Nahins a a. A fifth a a. A pm a a Toncae a spreads or it the cheap Hadaro Szturo of ap�27 13s h. Saxton. In Aills of every Disori Pitun in Large and a , in Sleod Oil ac., at Ahw for president s message. A pkg a Oil g in a Zens of the Senate an Ltd House of representatives to express gratitude to god in the name of the people for tho preservation of the United slates is my first duty in addressing you. Our thoughts next revert to tho death of tho late president by an of parricide a treason. The grief of the nation is still Presb it finds some Solano in the consideration that to lived to enjoy the highest proof of its Confidence by entering on tho renewed term of the chief magistracy to which he had been elected that he brought the civil War substantially to a close that his loss was deplored in All parts of the Union and that foreign nations Justice to his memory. Ilis removal cast upon to a heavier weight of Caros than Ever devolved upon any one of his predecessors. To fulfil my Trust i need the support and Confidence of All who Are associated with we in the various departments of government and the support and Confidence of the people. There is but one Way in which i can Hope to Gam their necessary Aid it is to state with frankness the principles which guide my conduct and their application to the present state of affairs Well aware that the efficiency of my labors will in a great measure depend on your and their a divided approbation. The Union of the United states of America Yin s in tended by its authors to last As Long As the states themselves shall last. A a the Union shall be perpetual Are the words of the confederation. A a to form a More per feet Union a by an ordinance of the people of the United states is the declared purpose of the Constitution. The hand of divine a to Fidenco was never More plainly visible in the affairs of men than in the framing and the adopting of that instrument. It is beyond comparison the greatest event in american history Aud indeed is it not of All events in modern times the most pregnant with consequence a for every people of the Earth ? the members of the convention which prepared it brought to tho work the experience of the confederation of their several states and of other Republican governments old and new but they needed and they obtained a Wisdom Superior to experience. And when for its Validity who approval of a people that occupied a Large part of 41 continent and noted separately in Many distinct conventions what is More wonderful than that after Earnest capt option and Long discussion All feelings and All opinions were ultimately drawn in Ono Way to its the Constitution to which life was thus imparted contains within itself Ain Plo resources for its own preservation. It has Power to enforce the Laws punish treason and ensure Domestic Tranquility. In Case of the usurpation of the government of a state by one Man or an oligarchy it becomes a duly of tho United states to make Good the guar Anteo to that state of a Republican form of government and so to maintain the homage Neou sucks of All. Does the lapse of time reveal defects ? a simple Moda is provided Constitution itself so that its conditions can always be made to conform to the requirements of advancing civilization. No room is allowed even for tho thought of a possibility of its coming to in end. And these Powers of self preservation have always Deen asserted in their Complete integrity by every patriotic chief magistrate by Jeffer. Son and less than by a Washington and Madison. The parting advices of the father of Hia country while yet president to the Poole of the United states was mint a the free Constitution which was the work of their hands might be Sao redly maintained a and the inaugural words of president Jefferson had up a a the preservation of tho general government in its constitutional vigor As the Sheet Anchor of our Penco it Homo and safety the Constitution is the work of a a the people of tho United states a and it should be As indestructible As the people. Is it not strange that tho framers of the Constitution which had no Model in the past should not have fully comprehended the sex of their own work. Fresh from a struggle against arbitrary Power Many patriots suffered from harassing ears of an absorption of the state governments by tho general government and Many Freri a dread that the states would break away from their orbits. But the very greatness of our country should allay tho apprehension of encroachments by the general the subjects that come unquestionably within its jurisdiction Are so numerous that it must Ever naturally refuse to be embraced by questions thai lie boy Odd if. Were it otherwise the executive would sink. Beneath the Burdon the channels of Justice would be choked legislation would be obstructed by excess to that there is n greater temptation to exercise some of the functions of the general government through the states than to trespass on their rightful sphere. A a the absolute acquiescence in the do visions of the majority was at the beginning of tho Century enforced by Jefferson y As the vital principle of republics and the events of the last four years have established we will Hope forever that there lies no Appeal to Force. T the maintenance of the Union brings with it the support of a a the state governments Iii All their right a but it in not one of the rights of any state government to renounce its own place in the Union or to nullify the Laws of tho Union the largest Liberty is to be maintained in the Dis Mission of the acts of the of Coral government but there is no Appeal from its Laws except to branches of that government it Elf or to the people who Grant to the members of the legislature and of tho executive departments no tenure but a limited Ono and in that manner always retain the Powers of redress. A the sovereignty of the states is the language of the confederacy and not the language of the Constitution the latter contains the emphatic words a the Constitution and tho Laws of tho United states which shall to made in pursuance thereof and All treaties made or which shall be made under the authority of the United states shall be the supreme Law of tho land and tho judges in every state shall be bound thereby anything in the Constitution or Laws of any state to the contrary certainly the government of the United states is a limited government and so is every state government a limited government. Quot with us the idea of la citation spreads through Ever form of administration general state and municipal and rests on the great distinguishing principle of the recognition of tho rights of Man the ancient republics absorbed the individual in the state proscribed his religion and controlled his activity. The american system rests on the assertion of tho equal right of every Man to life Liberty and the Pursuit of happiness to Freedom of conscience to tho culture and Erer Oiso of All his facilities. As a Conee quench tho state Pover Mont is limited As to the general government in tho interest of tho Union As to the individual citizen in the interest of Freedom. States with proper limitations of Power Are essential to the existence of tho Constitution of the United states. At the very commencement when to assumed a place among the Powers of the Earth tho declaration of Independence was adopted by states so also were tho articles of confederation and a tho people of the United states ordained and established the Constitution it was the assent of the states Ono by one which gave it vitality. In tho event too of any amendment to the Constitution the proposition of Congress needs the confirmation of states. Without states Ono great Branch old the legislative government a Udd be Ami. If to look beyond in let Crof the c m Stit ution to the character of our Cou itry its capacity for comprehending within it jurisdiction a vast Continental Empire is duo to the system of states. The Best Security for the perpetual of the states is the supreme authority of the Constitution of the United states. The perpetuity of the. with it tho porno Tuitt of tho states their Mutual relation makes us what we Are and in our political system their connection is indissoluble. The whole cannot exit without the parts nor the parts without the whole. So Long ask tho Constitution of the United states endures the states will endure the destruction of the one is the destruction of tho other the preservation of the Ono is the preservation of the Oiler. I have thus explained my views of the Mutual relations of the Constitution and the states because they unfold tho principles on which i have sought to solve the momentous questions and Over Homo tho appalling difficulties that met me at tho very coins peo ment of my adminis trat on. It has been my steadfast object to escape from tho a Way of momentary passions and to derive a Healing policy irom tho fundamental and uric banging principles of the Cousin tuition. I found tho shiite a finale Rizig from tho often to of a civil War. Resistance to the general government appeared to have exhausted itself. The United states had received Possession of their forts and arsenals Aud their armies were in the occupation of every stale which had attempted to secede. Whether he territory within the limits of those states should be held As conquered territory under military authority emanating from the president As the head of to army was the first question that presented itself for decision. Now military governments established for an indefinite period would have offered no Security for the Early suppression of discontent would have divided tho people into tho vanquish ers and the vanquished and would Lyvo Enven Omed hatred rather than have restored affection. Once established no precise limit to their continuance was conceivable. They would have occasioned an Ineal Cable and exhausting espouse. Peaceful emigration to and from that portion of tho country is Ono of the l 2st Means that can be thought of for the restoration of Harmony and that emigration would have Boon prevented y for Quot what pm Grau of in it b Road i Ulfat industrious citizen at Home would place himself willingly under military Rule tho chief persons who would Havo followed in the train of the army would Lyvo been dependents on the general go Ament or men who expected profit from the miseries of their erring fellow citizens tho Powers of patrol a and Rulo which would have Boon exercised under the president Over a vast and populous and naturally wealthy Region Are greater than unless extreme necessity i should be willing to entrust to any one Man they Are such As for myself i could never. Uncle Don occasions of great emergency consent to exercise. The wilful use of such Powers it continued through a period of years would have endangered the purity of the general administration and the liberties of the states which remained Joyal. Besides the policy of military Rule Over a pm queued territory would have implied that the states whose inhabitants May have taken Dart id tho rebellion had by he of those , ceased to exist. But the True theory is that All pretended acts of secession were from the beginning null and the Stai Ltd cannot commit reason nor screen the individual citizens who May have committed treat on any More than they can make valid treaties or in it ago in lawful com Mere with any foreign Power. The states attempting to secede placed themselves in a condition where their vitality was impaired but not extinguished their fun Otic is suspended b pfc not destroyed. But if any state neglects or refuses to perform its offices there is tho More need that the general government should maintain All its authority and As soon As practicable resume the exercise of All its functions. On this principle i have acted and have gradually and quietly add by almost imperceptible Steps sought to restore tho rightful Energy of the general government and of the states. To that end. Provisional governors have been appointed for the states called governors elected Legislatures assembled Enid senators and representatives chosen to the Congress of the United states. At the same time the courts of the United states As far no could be done have Boon reopened so that the Laws of the United states May be enforced through their Agency. The blockade has been removed and the custom houses established in ports of entry so that the Revenue of the United states be collected. Tho Pont office department Renews its Cen Seleb activity and tho general government is thereby enabled to communicate promptly with its officers and agents. The courts bring Security to persons and property the opening of the ports invites tho restoration nod co Morco the Post office Renews the facilities of social Intercourse and of business. And is it not Happy for us All that the restoration of each Ono of those functions of the general government brings with it a Blessing to the states Over which they Are extended ? is it not a sure Promise of Harmony and renewed attachment to the Union that after All that has happened the return of the general government is known Only As a Beneficence i know very Well that this policy is al tended with some risk that for its Success it requires at least the acquiescence of the states which it concerns that it implies in invitation to those states by renewing their Alje Giunco to the United states to resume their functions As states of the Union. But it is a risk that must be to Kendo tho Choice of difficulties it is the smallest risk and to diminish and if. Possible to remove All danger i have Felt it incumbent on to to assert Ono other Power of the general government tho Power to Pardon. As no state can throw a defense Over the crime of treason the Power of Pardon is exclusively vested in the executive government of the United states. In exercising that Power i have taken every precaution to come of if with the clearest recognition of the binding Force of the Laws of the United states and an unqualified of the Groat social change of condition in regard to slavery which has grown out of tho War. Tho nex step which i Havo taken to restore the constitutional relations of the states has been a invitation to them to participate in tho High office of amending tho Constitution. Every Patriot must wish for a general amnesty it tho earliest epoch consistent with Public safety. For this great and there is need of a concurrence of All opinions and the spirit of Mutual conciliation. All parties in the late terrible conflict must work together in Harmony if is not too much to ask in the name of tho whole people that on the one Side the plan of restoration shall Proe Eod in conformity with a willingness to East tho disorders of toe past into oblivion and that on tho other tho evidence of sincerity in the future maintenance of the Union shall be put beyond any doubt by the ratification of the proposed amendment to the Constitution which pro Vides for tho abolition of slavery forever within the limits of our country. So Long As the adoption of this amendment is delayed so Long will doubt and jealousy and uncertainty prevail. This is the measure which will efface the sad memory of tho past this is the measure which will most certainly Call population and capital and Security to those a parts of the Union that Ned them most. Indeed it is not too much to ask of the states which arc now resuming their places in tho family of tho Union to give this pledge of perpetual loyalty and peace. Until it is done to past however much Ivy May Delire in will not be forgotten. Tho adoption of tho amendment. Reunites us beyond All Power or disruption. It heals tho a fund that is still imperfectly closed it removes so Ivory tho element which has so Long perplexed and divided the country it makes of a once Moro a United people Veu ewed and strengthened bound Moro than Over to Mutual to infection and support. Tic at Ilie Constitution being adopted it would remain for tho states Whoso Powers have been so Long in abeyance to resume their places in tho two branches of tho National legislature and thereby completo the work of restoration. Here it is for you fellow citizens of tho Senate and for you fellow citizens of the House of representatives to judge each of you for yourselves of tho elections returns and qualifications of your own members. A tho full assertion of tho Powers of the general government requires the holding of circuit courts of the United states within the districts where their authority 1ms been interrupted. In the present posture of our Public affairs Strong objections have been urged to Lio Diug those courts in any of tho states where tho rebellion has existed and it was ascertained by inquiry that the circuit court of the United states would not to held within the District of Virginia during the autumn or Early Winter nor until Congress Pho old have a a an Opportunity to consider and on tho whole to your deliberations tho restoration of this in Vicli y t the civil authority of the United states is therefore necessarily referred with tho Hopfl that Eaily provision will to made for tho resumption of All its functions. It is Manifest that treason most flagrant in character has been committed. Persons who Are charged with its commission should have fair and impartial trials in the highest civil tribunals of tho county in order that the Constitution and the jaws May be fully vindicated tho truth clearly established and affirmed that treason is a crime that traitors should to Puii shed and tho offence Pride infamous and the same time that the question May be judicially settled finally and forever that no state of its own has the right to renounce its place in the Union. The relations of the general government towards tho four millions of inhabitants whom the War has called into Freedom has engaged my most soriou3 consideration. On the propriety of attempting to make the freedmen electors by the proclamation of the executive i took for my counsel the Constitution itself the interpretations of that instrument by its authors and their contemporaries and recent isolation by Congress. When at the first mov Moeut towards Independence Congress of tho United states instructed the Sev-3ral states to Institute Gore ments of their own they left each state to decide for itself tho conditions for enjoyment of to elective franchise. During the period of the confederacy there continued to exist a very Grent diversity in tho qualification of electors in the several states and even within a state a distinction of qualification prevailed with regard to the officers who were to be chosen. The Constitution of the United states recognizes thess diversities when it enjoys that in tha Choice of members of the House of representatives of the United states a the electors in each state shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of the most numerous Branch of the state after tho formation of the Constitution it remained As before the uniform usage for each state to enlarge the body of its electors according to its own judgment and under their system one state after another has proceeded to increase tho Humber of its electors until now Universal suffrage or something very near it is tho general Rule. So fixed was this reservation of Power in the habits of the people and so unquestioned has been the interpretation of the Constitution that during tho War the Lute president never harboured the purpose certainly never avowed the purpose of disregarding it and in tho acts of co Gross. During that period nothing can be found which during the continuance of hostilities much less after their close would have sanctioned any departure by the executive from a policy which has been so uniformly obtained. Moreover a o passion of the elective fran Chiseyo the freedmen by Nutof the president of the United states must have been extended to All coloured men wherever found and so must have established a change of suffrage in the Northern Middle and Western states not less than in the Southern and southwestern. Such an would have created a new class of voters and would have been an Assumption of Prever by the. President which i nothing in uj0 Constitution or Laws of the United states would have warranted. On the other hand every danger of conflict is avoided when the settlement of the questions is referred to the several states. They can each for itself decide on the measure and whether it is to to adopted . Once and absolutely or introduced gradually and with conditions. In my judgment the freed men if they show patience and Manly Virtues a will sooner obtain a participation in the elective franchise through Testate than through the general government even if it had Power to intervene. When the tumult of emotions that Havo been raised by tho suddenness of tho social change shall have subs ded Traa prove that they will receive to kind Liest usage from some of those on whom they have heretofore most closely depended. But while i Havo no doubt that now after tho close of the War it is not compete pfc for the general govern Menic to extend tho Clicc Tive franchise in the several states it is equally Clear that Good Faith requires tho Security of the Frood Raeh in their Liberty and their property their right of labor and their right to claim the just return of their labor. I cannot too strongly urge a dispassionate treat cont of this subject which should be carefully kept aloof from All party strife. To must equally avoid Hasty assumptions of any natural impossibility for tho two races to live Side by Side in a state of Mutual Benefit and Good will. The us in no inconsistency Jet us then go on and make that Experiment in Good Faith and not to too easily disheartened. Tho country is in need of labor and the freedmen Are in need of employment culture and Protection. Wii Ilo their right of voluntary migration and expatriation is not to be 1 questioned i would not Adkiso their forced removal and colonization. Let us rather cd Ocura go Thorn to honorable and useful Industry where it May be beneficial to themselves and to the country and instead of Hasty anticipation of the Cert Ivity of failure let there be nothing wanting to tho fair trial of the Ope Rimert. The Chango in their condition is tho substitution of labor by contract for the status of slavery. Tho rec men cannot fairly to accused of unwillingness to work so Long As a doubt remains about his Freedom of Choice in his pursuits and the of his recovering his stipulated wages. In this to interests of the employer and the employed coincide. Tho employer desires in his workmen spirit and alacrity and those can be permanently soc Rcd in no other Why. And if the Uno ought to to Able to enforce the contract so ought the other. Tho Public interest will to Best promoted if the several states will provide adequate Protection and remedies for the fre Oumou. Until Liis is in some Way accomplished there is no Chanco for the advantageous use of their labor and the blame of ill Success will not rest on them. 1 know that sincere philanthropy is Earnest for tho Immediato realization of it remotest Aims but Lime is always a element in Reform. It is Ono of the greatest acts on record to have brought four millions of people into Freedom. The career of Lyoo Industry must be fairly opened to them and their future Prosperity and condition must after All rest mainly in themselves. If they fail and co perish away let us be careful that the failure shall not be attributable to any denial of Justice. In All that Relatos to tho destiny of tho freedmen we need not to too anxious to read the future Many incidents which from a Saccu Lutiva Point of View might raise alarm will quietly Settle themselves. Now that so Ivory is at an end or near its end tho greatness of its evil in the Point of View of Public Economy becomes More and More apparent. Slavery was essentially a monopoly labor Andas such locked tho states where it prevailed against tho incoming of labor was the property of the capitalist Man was excluded from employment or bad but tho Arcond Best Chunco of finding it and the foreign Emigrant turned away from the Region where Ilia condition would be so precarious. With tho of instruction of the monopoly Froe labor will hasten from All parts of the civilized world to assist in developing various and immeasurable resources which Hare hitherto lain d run pfc. Tho eight or nine stale a nearest tho Gulf of Mexico have a soil of exuberant Fertility a climate Friendly to Long Lite and can sustain a denser population than is found As yet in any part of our country. And the future influx of population to Thorn will be mainly the North or irom the most cultivated nations in Europe. From tho sufferings that have attended them during our late struggle let us look away to tho future which is sure to be Laden for them with greater Prosperity than hns Ever to Foro Boon known. The removal of tho monopoly of Giuy labor is a pledge that those regions will be peopled by a numerous an 1 enter Pming population when will vie with any it tho Union in compactness inventive Genius wealth and Industry. A our government Springs from and want made for the people not the people for the government. To them it owes allegiance from them it must derive its courage strength and Wisdom. But while the govern Montr is bound to defer to to people from whom it derives Jan existence it should from the very consideration of its origin be Strong in its origin to Strong in its Power of resistance to the establishment of inequalities. Monopolies per equities and class legislation Are contrary to the Genius of free government and ought not to to allowed. Here there is no room for favored classes or monopolies tho principle of our. Government is that of equal Laws and Freedom . Wherever monopoly attains a foothold it is sure to be a source of danger discord and trouble. To shall but fulfil our duties As legislators by according a a equal and exact Justice to All men a special privileges to none. The government is subordinate to the people but As the agent and the representative of the people it must be held Superior to. Mono plies which in themselves ought never to be granted and which whore they exist must he subordinate and yield to tho government. Tho Constitution confers on Congress the right to regulate Commerce among the several states. If is of the first necessity for the maintenance of the Union that thac Commerce should to free and obstructed. No state can be justified in any device to tax the transit of travel and Commerce Between states. The position of Many states is Buoh that if they were allowed to take advantage of it for purposes of local Revenue tho Commerce Between states might he injuriously burdened or even virtually prohibited. It is Best while the country is still Young and while the tendency to dangerous monopolies of Thiv kind is still feeble to use the Power of Congress Roas to prevent any selfish impediment to tho free circulation of men and merchandise. A travel and merchant Dise in their tramis constitutes one of the worst forms of the evil is in Erci ired it coupled with a denial of tho oho ico of route. When the vast extent of our noun try is considered it is Plain that every obstacle to the Freo circulation of Commerce Between the states ought to to sternly guarded against by appropriate legislation within tho limits of the Constitution. A the report of the Socrat Ary of tho Interior explains the condition of tho Publio lands inc t a sanctions of tho Patent office and the pension Bureau the management of our Indian affairs the Progress made in tho con struck Ciup of the Pacific Railroad and furnishes i Famia Ion i i j of a Ronce to masters of local interest in the District of Columbia. It also presents evidence of the successful 1 operation of Kite Homestead att under the provisions of which 1,1g0,533 afros of the Public lands wore entered during the last fiscal year More than one fourth of the whole number of acres sold or otherwise disposed of during that period. It is estimated that the receipts derived from this a Turco Are sufficient to cover the expenses Ino Idonat to the Survey and disposal of tho lands entered under this and that payments in Cash to the extent of from forty to fifty per cent will be made by settlers who May thus at any time acquire title before the expiration of the period at which it would otherwise Vest. The Homo Stead pm icy was established Only after Long and Earnest a experience proves its Wisdom. Thomnas in the hands of industrious settlers Whoso labor creates wealth and contributes to tho Public resource a Are Worth Mure to the United states than if they had been reserved As a Solitude for future purchasers. The mine Stablo events of the last four years and the sacrifices made by tho Gallant men of our army and Navy Havo swelled tho records of tho pension Bureau to an unprecedented of tent. On tho 30th Day last tho total number of pensioners was 85,986, requiring for their annual pay exclusive of expo eos tho sum of $8,023,445. Tho number of applications that Hyvo been allowed since that Date will a require a Quot Large increase of this amount for the next fiscal year. Tho Means for tho payment of the stipends duo under existing Laws to our disabled soldiers and sailors and to the families of such As have perished to the service of the country will no to cheerfully and promptly granted. A grateful people will not hesitate to Sanction any measures having for their tho Relief of soldiers mutilated and families made fatherless in the efforts to preserve our National existence. The report of the postmaster general presents an encouraging exhibit of the operations of the Post office department during the year. Tho to venues of the pay pc year from tho Loyal states alone exceeded the Maxim uni annual receipts from All the Suteb previous to the rebellion in tho sum of $g,038,091 and the annual average increase of Revenue during the last four years compared with the Rove Guenof tho four years immediately preceding the rebellion was $3,033,845. The revenues of the last fiscal year amounted to $14.552,158, and tho expenditures to $13,094,728 leaving a Surpluss of receipts Over expenditures of$8gl,430. Progreso has been made in restoring tho postal service in the Southern states. Tho views presented by tho postmaster general the policy of granting subsidies to Ocean and mail s Eam ship lines upon established routes Aud in favor of continuing the present system which limits the compensation for Ocean service to the postage earnings Are recommended to tho careful consideration of Congress. ,. S it appears from tho report of the Secretary of the Navy Attiat while at the commencement of the present year Thoro were in commission 530 vessels of All classes Aud descriptions acied with�?3000�?guns�?and manned with 51,000 men tho number of Vos eels at present in commission is 117, with 830 guns Aud 12,128 men. By this prompt reduction of the naval forces tho expenses of the government have been largely diminished and a number of vessels purchased for naval purposes from tho me Rohanic Marine Havo Boon returned to tho peaceful pursuits of Commerce. A since the suppression of a Trio hostilities our foreign squadrons Hayo been re established and consist of Vossou much More efficient than those employed on similar sir vice previous to the rebellion the suggestion for tho enlargement of tho Navy Yards and especially for the establishment of one in fresh water for Iron Clad vessels is deserving of consideration As is also the recommendation for a different location Abdu Oro amnio grounds for the naval Academy. In the. Report of tho Secretary of Yar a general summary is Given of the military campaigns of 1864 and 18g5, ending in tho suppression of armed vests Mono to tie National authority a tho insurgent states. Tho operations of tho general administrative bureaus of the. Wry department during tho past year Are de Tallad andean estimate made it the appropriations that will be required for military purposes in tho fiscal year commencing tho 3��h Day of june 1853. The National military Force on tho 1st. Of. May isg5, numbered 1,000,516 men. It a proposed to reduce tho military establishment to a peace footing comprehending fifty thousand troops of till arms organized s us to admit an enlargement by filling up the ranks to eighty two thousand six Hundred if the circumstances of the country should require an augmentation of tho army. The. Volunteer Force has already been reduced by the discharge from service of Over eight Hundred thousand troops and the department is proceeding rapidly in the work of further reduction. The War estimates Are reduced from $�lg,240,131 to $33,814,461, which amount in tho opinion of the department is adequate for a Peaco establishment. The measures of retrenchment in each Bureau and breach of the service exhibit a diligent Economy worthy of commendation. Reference is also made in the report to Iho necessity of providing for a uniform militia system and to the propriety of making suitable provision for wounded and disabled officers and soldiers. Tho Revenue system of tho country is a subject of vital interest to its Honor and Prosperity and should command tho Earnest consideration of Congress. The Secretary of the Treasury will Lay Bosforo you a full and do tailed report of tho receipts and disbursements of the last fiscal year of the first Quarter of tho present fiscal year of the probable receipts and expenditures for the other three quarters and the estimates for tho year following the 30th 1866. I might Content myself with a reference to thac report in which you will find All the information required for your deliberations and but the Paramount importance of the subject so presses itself on my own mind that i cab not but Lay before views of the measures which Are required for tho Good Olar after Aud i might also say fur the existence of this people. Tho life of a Republic lies certainly in the Energy virtue and intelligence of its citizens but it is equally True that a Good re venue system is the life of an organized government. I meet you at a time when the nation has voluntarily burdened itself with a debt unprecedented in our in Nils. Vast As is its amount it fades away into nothing when with tho. Countless blessings that will be conferred a pin our country and upon Man by the preservation of the nations life. Now on the first occasion of the meeting of Congress since the return of peace it u of the utmost importation to inaugurate a just policy which shall at once he put in motion and which shall commend itself to those who Homo after us for its continuance. Eye must aim at nothing less than tho Complete effacement a of the financial evils that necessarily followed a state of civil War. Ivo must Endeavor to apply the earliest Ron Iedy to the deranged state of the currency and riot shrink from dovish no a policy which without being oppressive to tiie people Ohall Umrao Dittly begin to effect a j eduction of tho debt and if , discharge if fully within a definitely fixed number of years. It is our first duty to prepare in earn out for our recovery from the Ever i Norasing by a in of an erred cd if Oblo currency without revulsion and vet without untimely procrastination. For that end to must each in our respective positions prepare the Way. I hold it the duty of. Tho executive to insist upon frugality in tho expenditures and a sparing Economy is. Itself a great National resource. Of the Banks to which authority has Beon Given to Issue notes secured by bond8oftho United slates to May require tho greatest moderation and Prudenco and to Law Iris at he rigidly enforced when its limit Are exceeded. A two May each of us counsel our Active and enterprising countrymen to be constantly on their guard to liquidate debts contracted in a paper currency and by sundust ing business As nearly As possible of a system of Cash payments or Short credits to. Bold a themselves prepared to return to the stand Ard of Gold and Silver. To Aid our fellow citizens in tho prudent management of their monetary affairs the duty Dov Ulics on us to diminish by Law the amount of paper Mousy now in circulation. Five years ago tho Bank note circulation of the country amounted to not much Moro than $200,000,000. Now the circulation Bank and National exceeds $700,00.0,000. The simple statement of tho fact recommends More strongly than any words of mine could do the necessity of our restraining this expat Ian a. The gradual reduction of the cur Roins a is the Only too sure that can save tho business of the country from dial amorous calamities and this can be almost import Jeptie Bly accomplished by gradually funding the National circulation in born cities that was to made redeemable at the pleasure of the government. A our debt is doubly secure Firstin the Shual a Gulch and a ill greater undeveloped resources of the country next in the character of our institutions. The. Most intelligent observers among political Chou mists Havo not failed to remark that tho pm hic a oct retry is Safe in proportion its people Are free that a debt of a Republic is the safest of All. Our history confirms and establishes tho theory and in i firmly believe destined to give it a still More signal illustration. A 1 the secret of this superiority Springs nov merely from tho fact that in a Republic tho National obligations Are distributed More widely through countless numbers in of classes of society it lies its oppt in tho Ohai Ficler of hero All men contribute to the Publio welfare and Bear Thor fair i share of the Public burdens. During the War under tho impulses of patriotism the Mon of the great body of tho people without regard to their own comparative want of wealth thronged to oar armies arid filled our fleets of War and held themselves ready to offer their lives fur tho Public Good. A now in their turn the property and Aricom of tho country should Bear their just proportion of tho Burden of taxation while in our impost system through. Moans of which increased vitality is incident ally imparted to All the Industrial interest Sci the nation a the duties so adjusted As to fall most h easily on Chioles of luxury leaving the necessaries of life As free front taxation As the absolute wants of tho government economically will justify. No favored class should demand Freedom from assessment and the taxes so bund be so distributed As not to fall unduly on Fie poor but rather on the cd Waltn of the country. tho National debt just As it is not As Blessing but. As a heavy Burden on the., Industry of tho country Tubo discharged without unnecessary delay. R a it is estimated by the Secretary of tho Treasury that the expenditures fur the fiscal year ending the 3pth of june 1866, will exceed the receipts $112,194,947. It is Gratifying however to state that it is also Estima a a ted thus the Revenue fur the year onding the 30th , 1807, will cd died the expenditures i the sum of $111,082,818, this amount or so much As May be deemed sufficient for tho purpose May be applied to tho reduction of the Publio Dot which a in tha 31flt Day of october 1865, was $2,740,854,750. Quot every reduction will diminish tho total amount of iut Crest to to paid and so enlarger the Means of still further reductions a until the whole shall be liquidated nod this As will to seen from the estimates of the Secre tary of the Treasury May be accomplished by annual payments even within a period Noi exceeding thirty years. I Havo Faith thac we shall do All this within a reasonable time that As to have amazed tho world by tho suppression of a civil War which was thought to be beyond tho control of any government so we shall equally Siow tho superiority of our institutions by the prompt arid faithful discharge of our National obligations. A a the department of agriculture under its present direction is. Accomplishing much in Dovo loping and utiiizmg.4hc,Rast agricultural capabilities of tho country Rind for info. Mation respecting the Kotada of its manage ment reference is made to the annual report of tho commissioner. A i have dwelt thus fully on our Domestic affairs because of their transcendent importance. Under any circumstances our Afriat extent a of territory and variety of climate producing almost everything that is be Costa by for tho wants and even tho comforts of Man make us singularly Independent of tho varying policy of foreign Powers and pro Quot text us against Evory temptation to a a Eri can Glod alliances a while it tho present moment the to Stubli Shinnot of Harmony and ther strength that conies from Harmony. Will to our Best Security against a a nations who feel Power and f a got right for invt of. It has been and it will Boroy constant aim to promote Ponce and Amity with All foreign nations and Powers and i Havo every reason to believe that1 they All without exception Are Ohio rated by the same disposition our relations with the emperor of China so recent in their origin arc my Sec Friendly. Our Commerce with his Dominion is receiving new developments and it very pleasing to find that tho govern Menic of that great Empire i a roses satisfaction with our policy and reposes just Confidence in the Lair nobs which Marks our inter Lourue. # y thou Brokon Harmony bet Ween the United _ s a Quot is and the emperor of Russia is receiving a new support from an Enterprise Dev signed to carry telegraphic lines across the continent of Asia through.,his dominions and to to connect with ally Europe by amp new Channel of Intercourse. Our co Morco with Continos 9� a cond

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