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Blytheville Courier News Newspaper Archives Apr 19 1937, Page 5

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Blytheville Courier News (Newspaper) - April 19, 1937, Blytheville, Arkansas Mon Dav april to 1937blytheville Ark courier news tics me a a a i photo copyright Harris and Ewing. Major William f. Friedman who solved the dictionary code without seeing the dictionary. Thomas in. Johnson murder in the courtroom a Brown Ann darts Forth. A Flash a crash a dark laced Man Falls from the witness chair Ham s Clute Bing wildly. Blood spatters the Steps before the seat of Justice. Above tire dying Man stands a second gripping a smoking pistol. His Ace also dark wears an expression of triumphant hatred. A a f ratio ii he snarls. But in that instant his Leer turns to a hideous Grimace. He spins about and Falls beside his victim. That second report from the rear of that tragic courtroom came from the .45 of United states marshal James b. Holohan later to become Walden of san Quentin Penitentiary. Calmly accurately he had fired Over the Heads of the panic stricken crowd to prevent further killings by a hindu fanatic. Ruphus ended in san f Francisco a world wide drama unique in the annals of american Justice. Unique also in the annals of the Black Artol cryptography. Of codes and ciphers of secret writing. I he Lull Story can be told lot the first time from tile Day when an american code and cipher expert scanned a Sheet of paper on which were typewritten rows and rows of figures 78 2-45 35 i 17 122 i 52 no gruesome hieroglyphics. Skulls and crossbones daggers. Just rows and rows of neatly typed Huiea. All arranged in groups of three. Vet they had a mean ing a sinister meaning thai hid an amazing Story Tor eign spies in America plot Ting invasion of India and revolt of its dark men against while men and women. How could that Story be read in time while the British intelligence service waited tensely an american Coda and cipher expert scanned the paper. A a dictionary code a he said tersely. But there were thousands of dictionaries of All suits in All languages. Of All those dictionaries which one had tile plotters used to conceal their messages to one another surely until one knew that it would be Idle to try to read tile message solve the mystery of those Long rows of seemingly incomprehensible figures. Yet that american cryptographer solved the mystery without knowing which dictionary it rant Chandra shot to death in court by his co plotter rant Singh. Was and without using either necromancy or magic. So far from being Black Art the cryptographer will Tell you that ins Woik is a fascinating science requiring much exact knowledge and hard work. I Oday secret writing is used More than Ever. Hall the cablegram from new Yolk Are encoded. Criminals use codes and ciphers so much that a special class of new York police detectives has been loaned to Bleak them. Every message lot one of Alcalaz prison s desperate prisoners is carefully scrutinized then changed and retyped. Urpha i particularly interesting and seemingly impossible piece of deciphering was done in the cipher department of the Riverbank Lair oratory at Geneva 111. In 1916 and 1917, this remarkable Bureau was the Only Aid the government had in solving the secret messages of foreign plotters in this country of spies and criminals. Col. George Fabyan patriotically loaned the services of its Start of 20. And when finally in 1918, the government founded its own a Black chamber in Washington it was largely on Riverbank data and records. Maj. Will Lam f. Friedman riverbanks head then joined g. I i. Q., a. E. F. At Chaumont France. Ai Lei the War he returned to head the War department code and cipher Section. He is author of the Aitrele on codes and ciphers in the new encyclopedia Britannica and recognized is one of the world s leading . Fie still looks Flack to the Day at Riverbank when. With the United states on the Brink of War they brought him a Long Sheet of paper filled with numbers in groups of three each. A the British have detected this message passing Between hindus in Berlin and their agents now in America plotting to Start a revolution in India with German Money Quot it was explained to him. A they Are violating american neutrality equipping an expedition Here gathering arms and making bombs lot a shipload of volunteers to sail rom an american Pacific port lot India where Al ready a thousand uniforms have been distributed secretly. A in America the plot involves Columbia University students. Buddhist priests and White women. The Corrip Ratois die commune murder in a courtroom Back in 1918 a and now for the first time the full Story can be told of How the amazing cleverness of an american deciphering expert thwarted a Gigantic spy plot but in that instant his Leer turns to a hideous Grimace. He spins about and Falls beside his victim. Cating with one another by codes ciphers and secret inks furnished try the German secret service but they write in English. What can you make of this a ajor Riedman studied the groups and columns of numbers. Lag Eily he pointed out three consecutive groups that Vevie typical 78 2-45 35 1-17 i 22 i-52. Quot look a he cried. Quot Here s a Clew i Quot a in each of the three groups the second figure the Central one is always either a one or a two. And. Look again the groups Are All composed of three numbers each both Clews Point to the same things a dictionary code. A for when two men or More communicate by this Means they agree that Hist they will select one dictionary and when they write letters they will use Only that one dictionary a meaning of course two copies of it. A a i Hen the Man who wants to write a letter looks up. In his copy of the dictionary each word that he wants to write but instead of writing the word he writes a group of numbers conveying that words exact location. Quot so tire first number that appears in the group will be the number of the Xiage in the dictionary and the last number will be tire location on that Page of the word itself i will mean it s the first word. I i it s the eleventh Etc. A ill their ate Eluee numbers in each group that Means that tile Page is divided into columns and the second number will be the number of the column on i lie Page. Now lets look at these groups the hindu plotters wrote. A Well Here Are number groups which All have three numbers. So they re using a dictionary that is divided into columns and As the second number is always i or 2, it s divided into two columns. I hat Narrows it Down but there Are hundreds of two column dictionaries. Searching for the one they used would he like searching for the celebrated Needle in the renowned Haystack. A a ohm Why bother lets just read the message Fiat my find the Book major i Rodman s uninitiated hearers gaped with amazement. A ooh that s no Miracle Quot said tire cryptographer lightly Quot Well just use the principles that govern frequency of letters and words. A Why. We can even Block of this or any dictionary into 26 sections corresponding to the numbers of words beginning with each different letter of the alphabet. Andre Langie the French cryptographer has discovered a it a words beginning with a form 6.43 per cent Quot words beginning with b form 5.35 per cent Quot words beginning with c form 9.82 per cent and so on. Quot perhaps you risk a so what a a the cryptographer continued. Quot Well if the numbers in this message extend from i to too then a number Between i and 6 will represent a word beginning with a a number Fie tween 7 and 12 will represent a word beginning with by a. Now you see done to you Quot i Hen began a Long laborious search by major Friedman and his assistants nothing spectacular nothing mystical just hard work. Picking out the Nurul it or groups that occurred most frequently lie began a detailed study and search for the common words so necessary that the plotters must have used them open est words like the. Of and. Stop or you. Altar hours of such painstaking labor they emerged triumphantly with the first positive Clew the number group 199-2-14 must mean you and so. In the dictionary the plotters had used the word you must be on Page 199, column 2. 14th word i 44 Yves be cracked the ice Quot major Fried Man cried. A now. What a the next step Why right Here is 199-2-17, and Here it occurs again and again. That must mean a different word from 199-2-14�?but it must be taken from the same Page and column of the same dictionary and probably Only a few words beyond you. What word could it mean Why. If we look through a few dictionaries Well find such words As Young your and you i i and 199-2-17 probably is following up those two leads by the same methods. Major Friedman gradually worked out one word after another. At last he had enough so that he could tackle a word group. Fie found that 78-2-45. 35-1-17, 122-1-52, which once looked so baffling must mean come a i once. And gradually adding Here a Little there a Little he found a meaning for each of the Many word groups in the Long message. So the code was broken. But when tire plotters went to trial in san Francisco in Early ram Singh Siam i i court Affer murdering a supposed traitor. 1918, major Friedman knew Iii Case would be stronger if he could actually show the jury the dictionary that was used. Then began a weary patient search. Day ofter Day major Friedman trudged from one second hand Bookstore to another. At last he visited the co operative books Ioie of the University of California at Berkeley. And there he found a dictionary that he had never seen before a two columned dictionary. He turned to Page 78. Hrs Eye slated to the second column. Carefully he counted Down to words 20 words 40 words�?45 words. What a this not yes it is come i now steady let s see Here on Page 3a is the seventeenth word at. Getting warmer. And Here on Page 122, lets count Down to. 20. 40, 50 52 words. What is or i once come Al once from Al the thousands of dictionaries in the world Quad found tile very one that the hindi Tilers had used. But he had found it month tier Ive had solved their messages. We 4 conspirators White and dark came to trial major Friedman showed the dictionary n cuu ii he explained tile meanings of Tbs code my sages. Fee had unravelled the dark skein Woven by Oriental guile and the great German Ciet service through painstaking hard work lather than through miracles. But the result seemed miraculous to one of the plotters ram Singh so miraculous that he was mile a Confederate had sold him out. On this ram Singh brooded until the last Day of the trial april 23, 1918. Fie shot ram Chandra dead and marshal Holohan who la gently retired As Warden of san Quentin prison so a him dead in turn. Hie just in a secret code had Cost him ins life.  3 be i s

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