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Atlas (Newspaper) - December 8, 1838, London, Middlesex General i^eto^^aiJtr anXi gottrnal of atteratttre. TRANSMISSION OF "THE ATLAS" BY POST TO FOREIGN COUNTRIES. WTe are induced, by numerous applications on this subject, to state, for the information of our Subscribers, that " The Atlas" may be transmitted free of postage, through the General Post Offices, Antioua BOGOTA Bahamas Bakbadobs Bbrbiob Bermuda Bbazils Bbbubn Bcbnos Atbbs Canada Cabaocas Cabthaobna Cbphalonia Columbia Corfu Cdxhaven Dbmebara Denmark Dominica France to the following places : Gibraltak Hameuboh Jamaica Grenada (New) Hemgoland Laguira Gbeece Hondukas Malta Halifax Ionian Isles Montseurat St. Lucia St. Vincent's Tobago ibs dreubn , uabthaobna v^uahayish xnAnviu sj.a.t.i.1: ajt. ----- ------------------------------------- tobtola " The Atlas" can also be transmitted, upon payment of one penny, to India-Cape op Good Hope-New South Wales. To all other places it may be forwarded upon the payment of two penje. Nevis Newfoundland New Brunswick Nova Scotia Quebec Spain (via Cadiz) St. Domingo St. Kitt's Trinidad Zante No. 656. Vol. XIII.l SATURDAY, DECEMBER 8, 1838. r EARLY EDITION I IN TIME FOR POST THE ATLAS OF THIS DAY CONTAINS page The Politician................769 East Indian and Colonial Atlas.. 770 Indian Omnium................770 Foreign News ................771 Imperial Parliament ,.........772 Britisli News...................772 Ttfeetings...................... 772 Ireland........................772 Scotland......................772 Law Reports...................772 Police HepoTts................773 Accidents and Offences ........773 Omnium.......................774 Tb^trlcal Intelligence..........774 Tliird Report of the London Joint Stock Bank................774 Saturday's News................774 Weekly Retrospect of the Money Market...................... 775 Leading Articles..............775 Female Philosophy............ 776 I'heatrieals........;...........776 utbbatdeb. Bistoire de.PEloquence Politique etR�ligteuse en France......777 Cutch. or, Bandom Sketches taken during a Residence in one of the Northern Provinces of page Western India, interspersed with Legends and Traditions.. 777 Manuel de Philosophie, par Henri , Aiiguste Matthias, tradult de I'Allemand.................. 778 The Shores of the Mediterranean 778 The Works of Ben Jonson, with a Memoir of his Life, and Notes by Barry Cornwall..........779 Gerfaut. Par M. Charles, de Bernaid ....................779 A Book of the Passions ........780 The Religion ot Profane Anti^ quity........................780 Music and Musicians...........780 Fine Arts......................780 Literary and Scientiflc Institu* tions ........................780 University Intelligence.......... 781 The Army....................781 The Navy.....................781 Gazettes.......................781 Births, Marriages, and Deaths .. 781 Banking and Monetary Atlas.... 781 The Duties of Directors and Managers .................. 781 The Marketo...................782 Advertisements.............." 783 THE POLITICIAN. their solicitations, the East India Company were necessitated nominally to give up the trade. LAW AND PRACTICE OF INSANITY. MoNTHLy Chronicle.-^The time is within the memory of many of our readers, when the insane were treated in our asylums with worse rigours than the laws would permit to be exercised towards criminals. According to the ancient law persons who were deprived of their reason might be confined until they recovered their senses, without waiting for the forftis of a commission, or other authority from the crown.* But durin|f the period of their confinement (which was considered requisite for the safety of society rather than for their own restoration) they ai>pear to have been placed out of the pale of legal protection, and to have been regarded as individuals cut off from worldly intercourse, incapable of acute feelings, and insensible to privations. The whole object that seems to have been aimed at by those to whom their charge was confided might be comprised in the single word-coercion. Confinement, chains, stripes^ the whirling chair, and other cruelties of an agonizing and almost incredible description, constituted the entire system of treatment. The TRADE BETWEEN ENGLAND AND THE EAST INDIES. Alexander's East Indian Magazine.-however interested English readers may pretend to be in Indian affairs, there is not one in a thousand who either cares for, or will take the trouble to understand, the political relalions of oiar Eastern empire. The general fact, that an imagined Russian interjrerence with pur supremacy, bias caused the Govemor'^Getaeral to asseihble Jin army of 135,000 men, for the purppse of , placiiig Shoojah-pol-.Mbolk on the thrpue of Oabul, and taking up anew line of outposts, is sufficient for them. And mr be it from us to do aught to disturb the mental content which they ' enjoy. In imitation of our eontemporaries we might discourse lejarriiEsdlyoii the subject,-^n^^ being perfectly satisified that the Emperor of Russia jttas not the most distant idea, at present, of taking a mom-ing^s ride from St. Petersburgh to Calcutta, he having postponed his visit until he can travd by the rail-road, whien such a convenience is introduced into India by English capital. The pMahthropy of English merchants .towarik India, is ; the philanlxopy of pounds, shilling, and pence. If an investment will pay, the philantrbpy is iextreme,-if it will not piay, then the philauthrbiiy is nt7; and instead of endeavouring to discover the true cause, we [ tal]^ of-" The duty on sugar equalized,--the land revenue of the Upper Provinces put on a footing which admits the full investment of capital in agriculture, the judicial system reformed,-^and many other improvements made, or in progress, sdl tending to g^ve free scope to the resources of the countiyor advo-cate steam communication, in order "that a government education committee may keep the seminaries, under their control, regularly supplied with books." But the great interests of the country are completely disregarded, and conscience fully satisfied with small rigmarole on " improvement of the natives." Nothing can exceed the grandeur of the promises made by Enghmd of the benefits to be conferred on India, while the extreme of her liberality has consisted in sending out annually some six or seven hundred younger sons, and the cleansing of shops after a London season, at an hundred per cent, profit. Since the year 1813, the greater portion of which time has been passed in profound peace, there has been sufiicient � time to place the whole of our commercial relations on a secure footing. On the trade being first ojJened, under the Marquis of Hastings, much was done. During seven years of nis rule, in addition to 16j millions 6f merchandize imported to Calcutta. 23| millions of treasure were received: while, in the years 1826 to 1832, only six millions of treasure were imported, in addition to 17? millions of merchandize. In the former period, on the close of these years, 20 millions remained in Bengal,-on the latter period, three millions. The excuse, up to 1833, was, that the East India Company were engaged in the trade. Once, their monopoly was done away with! capital-the unlimited capital of Great Britain-was to flow into India! The great fear was, that mercantile men in India woiild not know what to do with so much money,-with such great resources. Five years have passed away , since.the last charter-since the discontinuance of the company's trade,-and in whose hands does it now rest ? Why, with the East India Company. With the venders of four millions of opium. With the remitters of four millions in bills, secured on shipments of indigo, and silk, and cotton. OPor, from the princely merchants of England -the possessors of unlimited capital,-the munificent in Sromises,-not a single thing has been received, in re-, emption of engagements morally entered into, when, at influence of kindness, of moral restraint, of gentle stratagems to win back the wandering mind into the associations of life, were never dreamt of. If it could subserve any useful end to recur in detail to these melancholy proofs of defective legislation and callous barbarity, a picture of such horrors might be drawn as would m^e the reader shuddier. In spme instances the insane were confined by rings in the wall in damp cells, where, for the want of muscular action, the limbs became cramped, and the whole frame enfeebled and decrepit. In other cases they were ^ kept in outhpuses under circumstances still more appalling. Sometimes they were imprisoned in cages, never allowed to see the light, nor to hear voices of their fellow men, receiving their daily allowance of food in silence through the bars; and it is upon record that in one large establishment, it was the custom for the keepers to make, holiday oh Sundays, which they were enabled to do by locking up. .the patients on Saturday night, leaving them enough of food for twenty-four hours, (which was, of course, eaten by the poor sufferers the moment it was given to them) and returning on Monday morning to resume their charge. These, and a thousand similar atrocities-such as forcing . food by excruciating processes, tying the violent maniac and lashing him into stillness, attempting to correct delusions by harsh threats, and carrying into effect a variety of punishments by way of a remedial course-might be exhibited as illustrations -�� � .  ^ . _ , it.________ THE SLAVERY-ABOLITIONISTS OF THE UNITED STATES. London and Westminster Review-It is a wide world that we live in, as wonderful in the diversity of its moral as of its natural features. A just survey of the whole can leave little doubt that the abolitionists of the United States are the greatest people now living, and moving in it.' There is beauty in the devotedness of, the domestic life of every land; there is beauty in the liberality of the philosophers of the earth, in the laborious-ness of statesmen, in the benificence of the wealthy, in the faith and charity of the poor. AH these j^aces flourish among this martyr company, and others^ with them, which it is melting to the very soul to contemplate. To appreciate them fully, one must be among them. One must hear their diversity of tongue,-from the quaint Scripture phraseology of the pilgrims to the classical language of the scholar-to estimate their liberality. One must witness the eagerness with which each strives to bring down the storm upon his own head to save his neighbour, and to direct any transient sunshine into his friend's house rather than his own, to understand their generosity. One must see the manly father weeping over is son's blighted prospects, and the son vindicating his mother's insulted name, to appreciate their disinterestedness. One must experience something of the soul-sickness and misgiving cajised by popular hatred, and of the of the system that was formerly acted upon in the management of insanity: but the amplest narrative of these revolting practices could only leiad, by a' more distressing route, to that conviction which the mere indication of them must sufficiently establish, namely^ that when those modes of treatment (if treatment it can be called) were permitted to be employed, the disease had not engaged the attention of the medical profession, was gener^y considered to be incurable, and was, therefore, passed over with comparative indifference, if, indeed, it were not entirely neglected, by the legislature.  * * By the 2 and 3 of Will. tV. c. 107 the Lord Chancellor is empowered to appoint annually not less than fifteen, nor more than twenty persons, to be commissioners for licensing and visiting houses for the reception of the insane, within a jurisdiction embracing the cities of London and Westminster, and seven miles thereof, and the county of Middlesex; four or five of which commissioners to be physicians, and two barristers. This board, entitled the " Metropolitan Commissioners in Lunacy,"t exercise within their jurisdiction a complete surveillance over the asylums; and before a license is granted under the act, a plan of the house must be submitted to the commissioners, and approved of. They have also the right of visiting the houses at all times during the day, and even at night, when there is any ground, upon accredited testimony, to suspect malpractices. They can refuse to grant a license or to renew a license, and have the further power of recommending licenses already granted to be revoked, in all cases where they discover sufficient reason for doing so. In all other parts of England similar powers are delegated to the justices in general or quarter sessions of granting licenses and appointing visitors; and notices of all such licenses are forwarded and lodged in the office of the Metropolitan Commissioners, so that a central point is established, where a complete record of all the asylums in the kingdom is regularly preserved. awful pangs of an apprehended violent death, to enter fully into their heroism. Those who are living in peace afar off can form but a faint conception of what it is to have no respite, no prospect of rest, of security, of success, within any calculable time. The grave, whether it yawns beneath their feet, or lies on the far horizon, is, as they well know, their only resting-place : adversity "is all around them, like the whirlwind of the desert. But, if all this can be scarcely conceived of at a distance, neithei can their bright faces be seen there. Nowhere but among such an array of countenances be beheld so little lower than the angels'. Ordinary social life is spoiled to them; but another which is far better has grown up among them. They had more life than others to begin with, as the very fact df their enterprise shows: and to them that have much shall more be given. They are living fast and loftily. The weakest of them who drops into the grave worn out, and the youngest that lies murdered on his native republican soil, has enjoyed a richer harvest of time, a larger gift .out of eternity, than the octogenarian self-seeker, however he may have attained his ends. These things, as branches of general truths, may be understood at the distance of half the globe. Let us not, therefore, wait, as it has been the worM's custom to wait, for another century to greet the confessors and martyrs w-ho stretch out their strong arms to bring down Heaven upon our earth; but even now, before they have stripped off care and sorrow with their mortal frame,-even now, while sympathy may cheer and thanks may animate, let * Blackstone. t We believe the following is a correct list of the present commissioners in lunacy:-Lord Seymour. Lord Ashley, J. A. Smitli, Esq.. Robert Gordon, Esq B v. Smlfh, Esq., Colonel Clitlierow, Lieut.-Colonel Sykcs,^ Ucut.-Colo'nel Clive, E. Halswell, Esq., G. Acklom, Esq., Rev. G. Shepherd, p.p., James W. Mytne. Esq.,Barrister-at-Law.Bryan W. Proctor Esq^Barrister-at-Law, T. Turner, M.d., J. Bright, M.d., Henry H. Southey, M.d., J. R. Hume, m.d., B. j. Seymour, m.d, Seyretary-e. 9h Bois ,B�q. us make our reverent congratulations heard over the ocean which divides us from the spiritual potentates of our age. law of divorce in england and scotland. Monthly Law Magazine-There exists a wide difference betwixt the English law of divorce and that of other Protestant communities. In a former number we took occasion to notice the distinguishing features of our own law; and it is sufficient for our present purpose merely to observe, that in two of the integral parts of our empire a valid marriage cannot be annulled for any subsequent cause except by an act of the legislature; which is a plain proof that, in the eye of our law, the contract is indissoluble. On the other hand, in the rest of Protestant Europe, including Scotland, the established courts have rtuthority to declare the tie to be at an end. And it is remarkable, that scarcely two countries professing the reformed faith agree in recognizing the same grounds of divorce; while in a few the judge merely sits to record the pleasure of the parties to be released from their vow. The Parliament of England has never annulled a marriage except for adultery. In the Scotch Court of Session the desertion of the one party by the other for a period of four years or upwards is in every respect as good a plea for terminating the contract; and it is sufficient if this period has elapsed when the judge is called oh to pronounce his decree. Besides this, it is only required that the one party should ascertain the presence of the other in Scotland, as a residence of forty days there has been held to give the Scotch courts jurisdiction. And as, by a fiction or rule of law, the wife must answer to whatever courts her husband is bound to answer to, the forum of the wife, to use the language of the civilians follows the forum of the husband; and the husband has it in his power at any time to draw his partner to a Scotch tribunal by merely residing for a short time within the Scotch territory, and then to proceed against her for an absolute divorce  * * The Scotch courts are ready to divorce all who, siae in them, of whatever country they may be subjects, and however shprt ipay h^ive tjeen their ^psid,epce in Scotland, ;