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Adelaide Southern Cross Newspaper Archives Dec 22 1944, Page 2

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Adelaide Southern Cross (Newspaper) - December 22, 1944, Adelaide, South Australia National Library of Australia Salazar s View of european and world trends striking interview with . Newsman Hebe condensed from the saturday evening Post Philadelphia .a. Is an article of More than Ordinary interest on the revolutionary change that is taking place in european and world affairs. The article written by . Correspondent Henry j. Taylor reports an interview with Portugal s prime minister Salazar in which some exceedingly pertinent facts Are revealed in reference to the War time policy of both Portugal and Spain two countries which Are still the butt of facile newspaper men of the International socialist and big business Outlook. In october 13, 1943, Baron Oswald Hoy Ningen Huene the German minister in Lisbon Grey and shaken confronted Portugal s prime minister with the morning newspaper. The headline Churchill announces azores bases for Britain. Baron Huene stated that Germany s protest would be accompanied by or Ders for his recall. This he said is the end of German Diplo Macy German espionage German thoroughness had slipped and slipped badly. After three months of Anglo portuguese discussions in Lisbon Hitler had no inkling of the Deal until it was announced in the newspapers. Hoy Ningen Huene is an old Man never closely tied in with the nazis. If anyone from Berlin is going to stay Here Salazar said i would pre Fer to have you sitting in his office in the Palacio Sao Bento the prime minister asked Hoy Ningen Huene to Telephone Van Ribbentrop at the German foreign office. Von Ribbentrop was at the Reich chancellery with Hitler and the Lisbon Call was transferred there. Salazar spoke to both nazi leaders. He made a personal Appeal on behalf of Huene. The old Man was permitted to remain in Lisbon. Huene is convinced that Salazar literally saved his life. By november 1932, when Salazar was elevated to prime minister the quiet student from Viveiro had introduced compulsory education out lined the first Steps toward social legislation initiated workmen s compensation and insurance on a pay As you go basis and had established a programme of local Public works especially the people s houses projects underwritten by the Federal government but voted on and paid for by the local Community. In this connection Salazar addressed the Council of state on december 9. 1934. As our National welfare continues to improve we must continue to limit ourselves to a policy of Plain Good sense he said As opposed to a policy of too magnificent plans plans so vast and magnificent that All our Energy is spent in admiring them and no strength is left to carry them by now he was being quietly consulted by the statesmen of the world. With the collapse of the London eco nomic conference in 1933 he wrote to prime minister Ramsay Macdonald now there is nothing ahead in Europe but yet in the International Field Sala j Zar made it Clear from the beginning that he regarded the Anglo Portu Guese Alliance the oldest Alliance in j the world As the unchangeable foun i Dation of portuguese foreign policy j As Early As Hitler s attack on Poland in 1939, he foresaw a Long very Long struggle culminating in an Allied Victory instead of a Short War and a Pax germanic on the continent of Europe. Even with the fall of France and he made this Plain to me in our first meeting shortly afterwards he remained convinced that Germany would lose the War. Against All German boasts to the contrary he was convinced that England would stand and that United states would come in in time. Salazar s private office is a Small room hut comfortable. Tall win Dows look out on a quiet Garden. The Only decorations on the Walls Are a few prints and a Lovely French clock which stands on the mantel. The Beauty in this room is its easy naturalness. But it is not a Good place to de cide things Salazar will Tell you. The place for a Man to think is. In his yet if this seems to define a habitually austere Man it is inaccurate. On close Contact Salazar is warm and cheerful with smiling latin Eves and a quiet congenial laugh which comes easily to him and is very appealing. He is it Finger than you might expect for he is still Only 55. Jar the time of Salazar s arrange Merit last fall for Britain s use part upuese bases in the azores and elsewhere i was again in por Tugal. The negotiations were not conducted solely by the British ambassador sir Ronald Hugh Campbell. Or. Eden sent a special foreign office representative to Lisbon for the task. To the amazement of the British Salazar agreed in principle to the delivery of the bases immediately the request was made. When the representative had outlined the problem the prime minister said you place this request on the Structure of the Anglo portuguese treaty. I. Thought1 you would have come to me earlier. You might have known my answer two years ago if you had asked. Eng land shall have the bases. Negotiate the particulars with our military people and i shall see the foreign minister of Portugal s treaties with Spain presented a problem for Portugal s free action with great Britain for the internal treaties Between the two countries of the so called iberian bloc required Spanish consent to any such action in favor of one of the Belli Gerent Powers. Salazar left Lisbon at once for a rendezvous with count Francisco Gomez Jordana in Spain. He returned to Lisbon with Spain s agreement for Portugal s granting of bases to England. The United states had not appeared in the negotiations although Salazar assumed that great Britain s request for specific Sites harbours airfields military zones and what not included America s and Britain s Allied needs. This was not the Case. When the Lisbon arrangements were completed and or. Churchill announced the result to an interested world in his speech to parliament on october 12, 1943, Washington s plans had not been included in the Deal. American ambassador r. Henry Norweb was flown hurriedly from Lima Peru to Lisbon to begin fresh negotiations with Portugal on our behalf. He arrived on november 22. It was an awkward Mission for even so Able a Man because or. Salazar thought the bases matter was closed and he had just finished weathering Germany s resentment in the episode involving Baron Huene von Ribben trop and Hitler which i told at the beginning of this article. Ambassador Norweb broke the news of America s dilemma to or. Salazar on thanksgiving evening november 25. The prime minister took the Surprise in his stride. His consent could not rest on a treaty. There is no treaty Between Portugal and the United states. He could hardly increase the Grants Given great Britain because from a practical standpoint there were scarcely any More Sites to go around. Salazar did not obstruct America s wishes. He did what he could. Although eventually certain limited facilities were made available to us it was obvious that through faulty Liaison Between Washington and London America had in the main missed the boat. To my interview with Salazar that same night which he authorised me to publish As the second interview he has granted any Axis or Allied journalist during his career the prime minister expressed his views about american affairs. On this continent pressed for Cen Turies by fear of one Strong Power any one Power and always react ing in the same ways against this fear he said two immense land Powers Germany and Russia now stand established in an Eastern euro Pean tension zone As Germany and France stood in the past. By the very nature of things each is bound to survive in some Way As Germany and France did through their wars of yester years. To the smaller countries of Europe therefore the element of fear changes very Little through this latest conflict. Quite aside from Ideo Logies and in a historic manner As Germany is weakened and becomes prostrate the european countries which feared the All powerful Ger Many will then fear an All powerful Russia no Salazar saw Asiatic influences press ing Westward and revolting in Central Europe to the Long time embroil ment of the two great land Powers Russia and Germany far beyond the occur rence of peace after this War. The age Long history of this continent is the Story of tensions be tween land locked people and seafaring nations. As throughout All time the europeans Are in a larger sense fighting a rearguard action against the expanding Asiatic and teutonic elements at their backs. Accordingly from a geopolitical viewpoint i see the outlines of an Atlantic system emerging in another Circle Winch would readjust All previous geopolitical concepts and make the asian tic area of the future the equivalent of the Mediterranean of the we had walked Over to the High windows of the study. I think Salazar said this is the Way it will he traced a Large Circle on the window to indicate a new Centre of the european world As being pushed Westward toward the Atlantic into a Seaboard this Shore line Europe West Africa South America and North America he said requires a revived France and a healthy iberian Penin Sula Portugal and Spain plus the balancing element of expansion in Africa and Brazil for its geopolitical gravitation. Responding to this Suc Tion. The United states now enters the Whirlpool s orbit directly and irrevocably. The United states be comes to this Atlantic system As a whole what England used to be to the limited continent of Europe the detached but everlastingly involved Sentinel in which will rest the bal Ance of Power. Even with All Russia s vastness and her demonstrated potentialities the balance of Power cannot Centre in that land locked nation any More than the balance of Power previously rested in powerful Germany which it never did. It is equally evident As i see it that the balance of Power has now passed beyond the British Isles forever. The balance of Power for this Century will be in the United states. Unless Europe can see a new guid ing Light blazing with National integrity and consistently dedicated to International morality regardless of the opportunism in other Powers there is no Hope of a lasting peace. And from the Continental viewpoint remembering that both great Britain and Russia were sadly involved in the dilemmas of the past which led up to this War such a Beacon in foreign policy can come Tamly from the United tt0 a world properly suspicious of one Man Rule Salazar s regime Falls into the class of dictatorship and in some of its features it must qualify As such. But it is not quite j so simple As that. David Shillan i director of the British Institute in j Portugal expresses one european i Point of View. J the portuguese regime is authoritarian he stated recently in an address at Chatham House London. They make no Bones about it. But the regime is not totalitarian and they also make no Bones about the fact that Portugal has remained an Independent state for 800 years except for the Spanish occupation of 1581 to 1640is something unique in european Power politics. French culture rather than Spanish culture has been predominant. The National attitude has always been much closer to French liberalism than to Spanish feudalism. The French de Bacle in 1940 struck hard in Portugal and proved a Shock from which the portuguese have even now not fully recovered yet two words so important in the political philosophy of France. Great Britain and the United states demo Cracy and Freedom Are so differently understood in portuguese that their use there involves positive con fusion. Democracy was widely used in the Early chaotic stage of the ill fated 191 Republic and is taken to mean a condition approaching com plete anarchy. Freedom to a portuguese May mean Freedom from obligations free Dom from restraint duties or Law Freedom not to pay debts or to abide by any rules. If you ask an Urban portuguese whether he wants demo Cracy and Freedom he will shake his head and say if you ask a portuguese in the Back country he will show positive alarm. Complete self government in our land says Salazar is a problem of National education. If abroad i am called a dictator i can Only say that we have had a continuity in Portu Guese life of which we Are justly proud and i am Only a momentary part of that continuity. Crushed in the Western strip of the Peninsula Between powerful neighbors and the Ocean our existence has been necessarily one Long drama. But by the favor of Providence we can count eight centuries of toil and suffering struggles and Independence. And if the dangers remain the Miracle of our Independence remains and Salazar himself remains Large in an intellectual figure in the eyes of the people. He is vastly respected in a land where a scholar and a Celi Bate is a vastly respected Man in deed. He stands on no balconies he rides in no parades reviews no troops and greets no dignitaries in Public. The portuguese As a whole neither cheer him nor fear him. What they do not like about the govern ment they do not seem to blame directly on Salazar. And what they do like about the government they in a human Way attribute to them selves. The machinery which sustains Salazar s influence is the deference which the regional political leaders and the Council of state hold for the Success of his plans and his actions and their knowledge that his own de sire is to return to the University of Coimbra. South australian born bred and owned where your Money goes farthest John Martin s situated in bundle Street the heart of Adelaide s shopping Centre John Martin s is easily reached by rail Road and bus. The. Most modern store in South Australia in fact,.one of the most modern stores in Australia. John Martin s is Well Worth a visit for it is typically South australian having grown up with the state for 78 years. Everywhere in this great store you will find the spirit of hospitality sincere Courtesy and service. Rundle Street Adelaide. C4400

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