Ada Evening News (Newspaper) - January 17, 1946, Ada, Oklahoma
—- W-r* "* M «"»-■ ■*■*. «- ^ » ».> «— » ■■■ port, of Hm city Hw> o Hoi__________„ nylons
Fair tonight and Friday, warmer except in Panhandle; lowest tonight 30-35
THE ADA EVENING NEWS
BUY MORE WAR BONDS
ADA, OKLAHOMA, THURSDAY. JANUARY 17, IMS
City Lets Contract For Paving in Ada
H. S. Moore Low Bidder on Six Projects; Work on First One or Two Expected to Begin on or Before Feb. 15
At 2 o’clock Thursday afternoon, city commissioners let a contract for $46,175 for the paving of 10J blocks in Ada, Mayor Guy Thrash announced.
General Electric Workers Walk Out
five cents the copy
City, County Included In Road Plan
Stote Announces Frog rom For Vest Rood, Urban Work For Coming Two Teats
* H. S. Moore, local contractor and the man who was low bidder on three blocks of paving on Broadway, placed the low bid, which was lust $700 lower than the next lowest bidder.
An Ardmore contracting firm placed a bid of $46,886.23 for the entire project. The Ardmore firm bid right along with Moore on almost every item until the cost of coment was listed and the big difference showed up.
Others Bid, Too Other bidders on the project were Ed Hunter Contracting company and Rex Bentley. One other firm was listed, but did not make a bid. The highest bid was about $30,000 and the next highest was around the $20,000 mark higher than the low bid.
The new paving may seem spotted to some people, but when
OKLAHOMA CITY, Jan., 17,
Construction and improvement of 1,152 miles of roads and urban projects at a cost of $27,482,180 was announced for 1946 by the state highway commission.
The commission yesterday an-. . -----------------
nouneed six programs which will *be amount of paving that is con-virtually complete highway con- j mooted by the various projects
struction under Gov. Robert S. i^ entire project grows in size
Kerr’s administration which goes 2T benefits to the city, says out of office next January. j Thresh. '
The programs include 1946 and < South Francis
1947 postwar projects on the pri- I Included in the letting is two
mary federal aid system, the state and a half blocks on South Fran-aid program to be financed with i cis, connecting with existing pav-state funds, the first part of the ing at both ends. The strip of farm - to - market programs andJ paving will alleviate a traffic $4,000,000 for urban construction I rough spot on the one paved on which specific projects are through street in that section of
Two blocks on East Fifteenth from Mississippi to Center avenue will also connect with paving at both ends and make another through street in the Southeast part of Ada.
Near Washington School Two blocks near Washington school, one along south side of grounds on Seventeenth, the other from Seventeenth to Eighteenth on Oak Avenue. These two blocks will connect Washington school with the paving
yet to be designated With the exception of the farm-to-market program, the programs
The 1946 postwar program, calling for total expenditures of $6,-519,863. as it was submitted to the public roads administration:
Craig, US 60, 9.5 miles of gravel b^se and double bituminous surfacing, junction of US 66, five miles west of Vinita northwest,
Paving On Highway 13 McClain and Pontotoc, SH 13,
10.3 miles of concrete paving and two bridges, beginning 8.5 miles northwest of Ada and extending northwest to SH 18, $355,400.
Noble, SH 40, 6.5 miles of grading and concrete paving, Kay county line south to concrete paving. $290,000.
Noble, SH 40, 6 miles of grading and drainage and concrete paving, junction of SH north $22,-000.
The 1947 postwar program calls for total expenditure of $7,472,363, and includes:
Washington, US 75, 21 miles of grading, drainage, ten bridges and concrete paving, Dewey south to Ramona, $2,544,000. _ „ _
The program also includes Laster, secretary, said
$143,963 for statew ide highway I discussion indicated the delegates
J I felt **’“* - --— —*—* «*
Truman Calls In His
GM and OO Leaden Med
Pickets Watch Empty Pens
Packing bouto Workers
Fad Board Named In Heal Dispute
WASHINGTON. Jan. 17, Secretary of Labor Schwellen-bach today appointed a fact-finding board to investigate the wage Look to Mooting At Week- dispute in th« meat packing in-
in,**, for Strike Settle- dus,ry
President'* Top Leber Ad* risers Abe et Conference, Truman Urging Decision
^^necta^^tant^f1 C^CT«l"lSeSri^iu^'gCTeraf'w/lkoir? o? UniSSfti* ,m5in *ate to the
The Electrical Workers are demanding . day waie mcVease H*St.r,ca!. W.or!‘^ began.
France in Death of
Demand For Regime Heads
(Continued on Page 2 Column
OFU Says Peace Time MttHary Training Is Waste
OKLAHOMA CITY, Jan. 17.— CP)—The Oklahoma Farmers Union opposed compulsory military training in peacetime as *‘a waste of time’* in a resolution passed yesterday, it was announced today.
State Aid Program
that a year in school would be worth more to the country.
The state aid program which Im war. time, than a year in will be financed entirely w'ith training.”
state money will include *40 projects at an estimated cost of $6 -068,300. ’
The projects include:
We’re moving so fast,” Lawler continued, “developing new weapons and new methods at such a rate that most men would
Guidance (enter For Veto Okayed For East Central
East Central State college has received approved contract for the establishment of a guidance center to help returning veterans with their educational problems. The guidance center will open February I.
The Veterans’ Administration will send the college three full time counselors and some secretarial help.
These representatives of the Veterans* Administration will be assisted by three full time faculty members. Professors E. H. Nelson. T. K. Treadwell and Luther G. Edge will devote all their time to the testing and counseling program.
These faculty members were chosen to work on this project because of their considerable experience in testing programs.
Offices for the guidance center will be opened on the second floor of Science Hall.
Also Asks Punishment For ♦ Hundreds of Thou sends In Terror Organizations
GERMAN CRIMES LISTED
Wounded Vet Hooding French Prosecutors Brings Fear to Facts of Defendants
By JAMES F. KING
MacArthur Warns Against Cutting Forces Too Low
WASHINGTON. •Tan , 17, (.V>— Congress received from. General Douglas MacArthur today a warning that any attempt to cut
NUERNBERG, Jan.. 17, <.**>— Pacific forces below the 400.000 France asked death today for the j slreiJgth contemplated by July I 22 ring leaders of the Nazi regime ^ °uld “weaken to a dangerous and for punishment of hundreds degree military controls over of thousands of members of Gar-1 JaPan and Korea.
man terror organizations.
Francois De Menthon, wounded war veteran who is the French prosecutor, denounced Hitlerism and all it stands for a fervor that brought fear to the faces of Hermann Goering and other prisoners before the international military tribunal.
“Civilization requires from you after this unleashing of barbar-
an equal opportunity for schools” and was repeated in a specific announcement of policy. Directors of the union gather-
Blaine, SH 51, 18.3 ‘ miles of ?ave *? Mnlearn everything they grade, drainage, bridges, right’of , - n. An a year a military way. Oil base, single bituminous r££in* there is a new war.” surface. Canton to Okeene in- , he resolution came as a part eluding North Canadian river 12 a .*eneral educational demand bridge. $614,500. *or
Caddo, SH 8. 11.5 miles of oil base, single bituminous surface,
reshaping, from 2.5 miles south of a j * * -----------
Anadarko south to Cyril $230 - today 10 analyze the whole
500. * * * j hst of resolutions with the idea
Commanche SH 17, 9 miles of °* designating particular items oil base, single bituminous sur- on uhlch to w°rk during the facing, reshaping, Elgin east to cor2,1!ng year.
Sterling $240,500 Equalization of tax rates to
On Highway 19 Produce revenue for school pur-
Garvin and McClain, SH 76 P°sfs* Passage of a graduated 16 miles of grading drainage and *21 J to “break up large _
right of way from SH 19 west of 1 hidings 0f ]ancj an(j same j head
Lindsay north on new location ;Lme replace the revenue lost also traffic bound surface and Q i brough homestead exemption” miles from SH 19 west of Lindsay ■ Wiere, stressed in the educational 2nnth’ traffic bound surface, $37,- pIank*
The farmers approved federal Craig, US 59. 11.5 miles of era- ruJal electrification programs
vel base, double bituminous sur- I urdevelopment of river facing, reshaping, Vin ta north VaIleys ^re P^hle for cheap $202,100. norin* power similar to TV A”
Grady, SH 39, 5.7 miles of re- tT}}ey akso asked for expansion shaping oil base rock asnhait « new federal farm-to-mar-US 62 east to Asphalt surfacing 5 kft..road program and expansion $111,100. g j °f the soil conservation services
Ottawa county, farm to market *
road, reshaping, full width gravel Transfef °f surplus army base, double bituminous surfac- ° con1?^mers; Park
ing, Missouri state line west to cularly heavy machinery to “oth-
Baby Being Hewn On IMO Mile Flight
Tiny Australian Rushed To U. S. for Treatment To Save Hor Life
BRISBANE, Australia, Jan., 17, OI*)-—Eight W'eeks old Cherylene Helen Robinson, daughter of a former Kansas sailor and an Australian mother, will begin an 8,000-mile aerial dash to the United States tomorrow for treatment physicians hope will save her life.
Failure of the baby’s fontanelle opening at the crown of her to close normally would
sort of supreme warning, Menthon said.
“Justice must strike those guilty of the enterprise of barbarism from w'hich we have just escaped. The rein of justice is the most exact expression of great human hope. Your decision can mark a decisive state in its difficult pursuit.”
The chief French prosecutor said that perhaps the punishment of hundreds of thousands of men who belonged to such terror organizations as the SS, the SD, the SA and the Gestapo “awakens some objection” but warned:
“Without the existence of these organizations, without the spirit which animated them, one would not succceed in understands h°w so many atrocities coul have been perpetrated. The systematic war of criminality could not have been carried out by Nazi Germany without th^se organizations and without the men who composed them.
“The major Nazi culprits had their orders carried out in divers Nazi organizations which we ask you to declare
A cable from the supreme allied commander in the Pacific, contained this warning, was laid before a senate committee by General Dwight D. Eisenhower, army chief of staff.
Eisenhower appeared before the special senate military subcommittee to explain further the army s demoblization policies, which he had outlined to an in-
a verdict which will be a formal session of representatives nf ciinvomo ;— ’» T'- and senators on Tuesday.
At that meeting, Eisenhower had said the army strength in the Pacific theater would be pared to 375,000 by July I. The 400.000 figure used today apparently included an additional 32,-000 who would be stationed in Alaska and the China area on that date.
Schwellenbach said the panel would meet later today with representatives of the CIO and the ruirjcn t «*> in n i AFL unions and meat packing By HAROLD W. WARD CHICAGO Jan.. 17, Pack- companies who are involved rn WASHINGTON, Jan , 17, *.P>—
ingilouse Workers maintained the dispute. President Truman conferred with
picket lines around empty pensj The new panel is headed by * bls steel fact-finding board today in most of the country s stock- Edwin E. Witte, former public as CIO President Philip Murray
yards today as they looked to member of the national war la- and U. S. Steel Corp.. President
ashington for Settlement of a hor board. Other members are Benjamin F. Fairless resumed paralyzing strike in the meat C’lark Kerr, chairman of the now) their White House talks on a pos-
$ Au j defunct war labor board’s meat s*ble settlement of the steel wage
Leaders of the CIO and AFL packing commission, and chief dispute.
unions involved in the huge J justice Raymond W. Starr of the! Th« three - man fact-finding
walkout—affecting some 153,000 Michigan supreme court. board met the president at 2 p. m
workers and representatives of Schellenbach will take part in shortly afterward. Murray and the four major packers heeded this afternoon’s meeting. Fairless arrived to reopen their
appeals of government uncial* to Kerr is an impartial umpire in discussions in the White Housa meet in an attempt to reach agre- the meat packing field and now cabinet room, ement on the wage dispute. One is on the University of California Th® president’s three top labor
?Iiv J? 2LnM71# a p‘ace feculty- Judge Starr is from advisers met with them.
talk ready to modify its wage de-, Grand Rapids, Mich. J These are reconversion direc-
man *• Witte, who has served at var- Jot John W. Snyder, Secretary of
« fill ilut*'m15!n3;Pa.cV J°us Vm.es ?.s a member of federal Eabor Schwellenbach and John
R- Steelman, special presidential assistant.
None of the principals had anything to say about the status of the negotiations. Fairless told re
st principal markets dwindled.
Curren Supplies Dwindle
Current supplies were shrinking rapidly and continuation of the strike, which started Tuesday, threatened to reduce the country’s fresh meat supply to far below wartime rationing. Reports from throughout the nation indicated supplies probably would be exhausted from within two to IO days.
Going into today s Washington
Ford, CIO-UAW Fail, WHI Meal Again an Friday
DETROIT. Jan. 17.—The
porters, however, that he had not seen Murray overnight.
Mr. Truman’s sudden summons of the fact-finding board led to the belief that Mr. Truman might ask an agreement from both parties to abide by the board’s eventual recommendation, due February IO.
________ President Truman gave the two
Ford Motor Company and the I Pr,lJ5*PaJ* in the threatened steel CIO United Auto Workers, two ,!..\eM[_ _sI/hance to^ay to
conference, the AFT. Amalgamist- cents apart in* their wageVhipuTe!! ^’°/k °'u an agreement together ed Meat Cutters and Butchers failed to break their deadlock in" I J ® Preposes a way to end
Workmen, were prepared to set-! another session today but will deadlock.
tie for a wage increase of 15 cents nieet again tomorrow. 1 , J he president gave CIO Presi*
an hour and had urged the CIOj Today’s session, second of the • J; h,7p Murray and Benja-
Lnited Packinghouse Workers to three previously scheduled for ^airfe3S* D. S. steel head,
~lLa Slmilar proposal. \ this week, was described as 11 li}!s aftemoon to settle their
For Cents “friendly” by participants. v;a*f d,^p^e-
. CIO union, however, has> . After about an hours discus- .^hould they fail, he said, he held out for a 174 cents an hour sions with Ford representatives 1 st*? in with "a proposal in
the union group held a caucus I the pifr,lic inters** over what a spokesman called al Over It
“top drawer secret pertaining to 1 , *r1_Tfuman ur«ed the two men wages.” He declined to give any 112 before they left the White details. j House last night after a day of
Abandon Bargaining I *riJJtfess talks, to “sleep over it c, .. 4. it , and pray over it and do their ut-
Shortly thereafter the bargain- i most to get together and
ter negotiations on an additional 7 2 cents, and did not comment on the AFL union’s action in lowering its demand. Original demands were for 25 cents an hour pay hikes.
Earl W. Jimerson.
Of the AFL union,'said thfoHer ln*1?essl°n WM adjourned. by packers of IO cents an hour1 „ c°mpany. whose offer of was “very inadequate.” He said * • ? ,cc,nt per hour bo°st was
the union was ready to accept an ' r.ejeCjed by the UAW, was be-offer of 15 cents and promised l!f to have no intention of m-normal operations by next Mom I ^!!®asin8 the amount to meet the day in all plants where its mem-1 p 2 .cen#l ^ raise suggested by1 hers are on strike. Piesident Trumans fact-finding J
The AFL estimated about 70 -! 2?ard in tbe General Motors 0 of its members had walked FP ’ Wage dlspute-
. , v ----- coma
hack again at two o'clock tomorrow afternoon.’*
Both said they would.
rh^r^sideAtiaL Press Secretary Chai les G. Ross described the leave-taking.
. Eisenhower told the committee I its 193,000 members he had:: | strike.
Directed all theater commanders to “get down to rock bottom”
out while the CIO claimed all! A similar amount was demand-
its IQI non —i ____Cd I
were on I tors
by the union s Ford negotia-
Instead, informed sources agreed
SH IO, S80.000. "eSt *°
The urban programs do not include any specific projects but the sum of money to be spent in the different cities on the federal highways.
(Ada city officials said
Thursday morning that plans are being drafted for Ada’s participation in the 1946 and 1947 allocation of urban construction funds but that the project plans have not yet been completed).
anie «l21?us2IIocation includes: ADA, $-a0,000; Muskogee, $400 -
ant«,$300’000; McAlester, S-05,000: Blackwell, $100,000:
P^huska, $100,000; Woodward
$100,000: Stillwater, $200 000*
Bartlesville, $300,000, a total of
(Continued on Page 2 Column 27
OKLAHOMA—Fair tonight and Friday, warmer except in Panhandle: lowest tonight 30-35 except 25-28 Panhandle.
er agencies of government such as the soil conservation service without the use of middlemen taking profits” also was asked.
Fmka SapHeHas Real Job on Hands
TULSA, OKLA., Jan., 17, (A*)— Henry F|nka, who built five consecutive bowl teams as Tulsa University’s football coachy is convinced he “has a real job on my hands” in attempting to put together a similar machine at Tulane.
Just back from a survey trip to New Orleans, Frnka said he looked over prospects at Tulane, his new assignment, and realized “the terrific schedule and the big re-building job there is to be done there.”
“There isn’t much talent ort hand to open with next fall and I only hope we can get things straightened around and on a winning basis in the next couple of years,” he added. '
Frnka will formally take up his duties at Tulane February
Discharge Speed Some Discontent-
lead to Cherylene’s death within 60 days, doctors said, unless American specialists could be reached.
The baby and her mother flew here from their perth home and are due in San Francisco 48 hours
aT7e'C7hTldsBrlfthneer. Robert (Continued 2 Column 2)
James Robinson of Virgil, Kas, has never seen her.
Passage for the mother and daughter was authorized by Washington when informed by Rear Adm. C. E. Van Hook, commander of United States naval forces in Australia, that the infant’s best chance for survival was in America.
McAlester Man Is Drowned in Slough
CLAYTON, Okla.. Jan. 17.—LF)
—The highway patrol announced a man identified as Carl Hoffman of McAlester, Okla., drowned when a ^ car he was driving, plunged into a slough one mile south of here.
Two high school girls yesterday noticed a radio aerial protruding from the slough and in-formed police who pulled the car out. Troopers Jack Larmour and Cecil Snapp said it appeared !!T1an, hissed the road. went off the shoulder, down a 15-foot embankment and sank under a culvert.
Hoffmjin was last heard from Monday night.
— k --
Cop Shoots Self
TULSA, Okla., Jan. 17.—
Police Capt. Harry L. ? ? * * of the department’s technical division, accidentally shot himself through the hand today.
by releasing every possible surplus man and officer^
Ordered a halt to all mass demonstrations by soldiers against demoblization delays.
Directed army inspector generals to visit all army installations and listen to individual complaints of all “junior officers and men who believe they are not essential and being retained.
Korean Issue Unsettled
SEOUL, Korea, Jan. 17.—' P)— The American-Russian joint commission on restoration of independence for Korea held its second meeting behind closed doors in the governor geenral’s build-
order that each ?r,minal in in* today but a hoped-for com-be kUretnLd and^umsh! | Se. °" reSU“S fai‘Cd ma‘
Read the Ada News Want Ads.
!EL««1?LLe:T HUTMENTS , the con?pany would fey to g e t
be SET UP IN CITY I spme definite agreements from
TULSA, Okla., Jan. 17.— j UAW on the matter of comite city commission has agreed I p?ny security. Its , latest wage
to revise zoning regulations suf- I °”er made last Friday tied the
Tiaently to permit location of Pr°posed increase in with “work-
Even Had lo Salute Jeeps of Generals
On Some Pacific Islands Soldiers Ordered to Solute Even lf General Not in It
j°me ?00 army hutments in resi dential sections for not more than six years.
Roy Morgan, Tulsa builder, acquired the surplus army structures for sale to returning soldiers but soon found that under present ordinances there was no place to put them.
Mayor Olney F. Flynn intervened and the commission will act tomorrow.
C H UNG KING^ ~Jaiv IT (_
t hinrse authorities in Nanking announced today that 21 warships were being turned over to China by the United States and Great Britain—eight by the former.
able agreements with the union’
WASHINGTON. Jan. 17 -Rep. Rees (R-Kasi told
Up Back Of
Br JAMES MARLOW
WASHINGTON. Jan. 17.—CPL-Here is a quick look at General Eisenhower’s explanation, given to congress, for the army’s slowdown in releasing men.
1. The army has released far more—since the war with Japan and Germany ended—than it had planned.
2. If it kept up that rate, it would run out of men necessary to carry out the army’s job in JaDan and Germany.
3. Replacements for those overseas veterans—through the draft or volunteering—have not been fast enough.
The general said:
“If we were to continue shipping men home at the rate we reached during the past few months, about April we would have nothing left but a woefully inadequate number of volunteers —we would literally have ‘run out of army.* **
What Army Has Done
Yet, in order to keep discharges to a high rate, the general said the army has done these things: •
I. It has made every effort to
to replace vet-
had at that time.
By next July I the army will
thur MacAr- have released another 2.750.000
ll ,n Japan and General Mc- men who were in the army when Nary in Germany to cut their Germany quit soldier requirements to the bone.! Thus by neit July' I the army 3. It has cut the training of will have left only 500 000 of the new men in this country from 17 3.300.000 it had in service last
mmm in service___
May. All the rest will be new draftees or recruits. #
The general said the speed up
to 13 weeks
Why The Excitement
He gave this explanation for I of dtefiSSTbrfwe^sStaX? he exctement over demobil.za-1 and the end of
I Mrtri #u * * j doubtcdly helped create confu-
_Th*send. of the war started sion by stimulating optimism
Kerr Slays on To Seek Equipment
an emotional wave to get men out of the army.
2. The “almost incredible
among srvicemen and their families.
He added that recruiting 5.000
speed; of the war department in men today doesn’t mean 5 000
of Japan and" | “"rYex" monV“forT‘
General Eisenhower eave these reason: ™"“h a"d for th,s
figures to show the army’s speed j It takes thre* in civ-in demobilization and how it had make a soldier of a recruit ready
feZ men °W" °r°m'SeS *° ^ *"«> > «^dy
It had planned to let 2.500 000 nla^mern, no'w toc°in*V'arm'v' men go between Sepf. I and Dec. ' * * - K inp armv
31. 1945. Actually. in that time it released 4.165.000 or 1.665.000 more than its plans called for.
Altogether, since Germany fell La*t May. the army has released
5,000.000 of the 8,300,000 men it i charge rate.
is due to the shortage of drafted men and volunteers in the last six months of 1945.
“Because they did not come in fast enough.” the general said. “we must slow down our dis-
productivity S”Uri,y a"d w”k*r I ^>^7Cl”’on’a'sm^* io”taV'to,i* *: Wash,n*ton na‘- ord"‘-d to 1alutendj£t7 ,wp“
a a*as-OTAtt: £rin‘ -SWE
CIO objections to the appoint-! “I thought the house shm.M ment of Gerald D. Reilly as trial I know,” Recs said “that it has leato«*ri«n r f “ni°n s charges; gotten to the place where out
rn go^^th undLfrtht0 ba,rga"l' ^°y,„mUSt not 0lYly saIute olheen n good iaith under the national but their empty jeeps as well ’*
labor relations act. Refs declined to ^y where tho
order was issued, but read it into the congressional record as follows:
“All army vehicles bearing tho i ^ hjte star of a general officer will be saluted whether it is occupied by a general or not. Tho WASHINGTON. Jan. 17 —LD—i veh,cle ^f11 be saluted if it pass-Gov. Robert S. Kerr of Oklahoma I? * Id.ler, on. the <>r if
remained in Washington today to lr*:*1* ls stationary and the continue his efforts to have con- ^dier passes it. The soldier iii
Kress pass pending bills making 11 v*h!lY aJLoffker? ridln* surplus machinery available to * ,^ben saluting, the
soil conservation districts. fu should turn his head in
Kerr yesterday heared approx- Erection of the vehicle or imately IOO delegates from *31 ?k‘C<7 a#nd look, directly at the states to the White House where » jec,L hls salute- All salutes he asked President Truman's S?u d ,ue rendered wholeheart-help in getting the necessary £?Iy Wl h, snap and Prjcision and legislation. The “march on Wash- ' military manner.” ington” was promoted bv Kerr.
No better opportunity ever existed in the history of a government to turn swords into plowshares,” Kerr asserted.
The governor told a reporter he had not attended to any business solely for Oklahoma since he arrived here Monday.
HOMMA IS CHARGED WITH DEATH OF JUSTICE
MAN HJV. Jan.. 17, GB—Lt.
Gen. Masaharu Homma today was charged with direct responsibility for the death of Jose A-bad Santos, former Philippines supreme court chief justice.
Salvador Abad Santos, the dead man s brother, told the military commission hearing was crimes charges against Homma that he had been informed by Jose P.
Laurel, puppet Philippines president, that the Japanese commander signed the judge’s death warrant and later refused to grant clemency.
The largest living animal, the sulphur-bottom whale, attains a length of about 110 feet.
■7 Bat alaska, Jaw
Don’t try Y fool folks by pretendin’ t’ be somethin’ you re not—it can’t be done unless your associates 're all morons er idiots.
Wed rather remain cold than t’ have somebody drop in an’ turn on th* hot air.