Abilene Reporter News (Newspaper) - May 18, 1954, Abilene, Texas
WARMŒfje Abilene Reporter ~Jìehté MORNING"WITHOUT OR WITH OFFENSE TO FRIENDS OR FOES WE SKETCH YOUR WORLD EXACTLY AS IT GOES"—Byron
VOL. LXXIII, No. 335
Associated Press (AP)
ABILENE. TEXAS, TUESDAY MORNING, MAY 18, 1954—TWENTY PAGES IN TWO SECTIONS
PRICE DAILY 5c, SUNDAY 10cEisenhower Calls Halt to McCarthy-Army Hearings
WASHINGTON, May 17 (.^President Eisenhower brought the Me-Carthy-Army hearings to an unexpected, dramatic halt today—for a week at least, and maybe forever.
Taking a personal hand, the President issued an order forbidding Army witnesses to testify about the role of White House and other high officials in the televised controversy between Sen. McCarthy (R-Wis) and civilian Pentagon chiefs.
McCarthy cried “Iron Curtain!” Democrats raised a protest of “whitewash.” And in the end the Senate Investigations subcommit
tee voted to recess the public inquiry until next Monday to see if Eisenhower would withdraw or modify his secrecy clampdown.
Acting Chairman Mundt (R-SD) declared there is nothing about the recess which “even remotely implies a discontinuation of these hearings” for good. The Democrats, however, said it looked to them as if the hearings may well have blown sky high—unless the President should change his mind.
The chances of Eisenhower doing this appeared pretty slim.
The President said in today’s secrecy order, issued to Secretary
of Defense Charles E. Wilson, that his stand was taken “to maintain the proper separation of powers between the executive and legislative branches of the government in accordance with my responsibilities and duties under the Constitution.” And he said, too, in language that left little if any room for backtracking:
“This separation is vital to preclude the exercise of arbitrary power by any branch of the government.”
And so ended—for the time being, at least—18 days of unprecedented, nationally televised hear
ings that brought day after day of testimony from Secretary of the Army Robert T. Stevens and Army Counselor John G. Adams — but only brief, incidental trips to the witness stand by their main antagonists, McCarthy and his chief counsel, Roy M. Cohn.
Specifically, Eisenhower's order forbade Adams—who was still on the witness stand when the breakup came—to give any further details of a Jan. 21 meeting of White House and other top level officials which led to the Army’s head-on collision with McCarthy.
At the Jan. 21 meeting, in addi
tion to Army lawyer Adams, were Sherman Adams, assistant to President Eisenhower; Atty. Gen. Brow nell; Dep. Atty. Gen. William P. Rogers; Henry Cabot Lodge Jr., chief U. S. delegate io the United Nations and a part-time White House aide; and Gerald Morgan of the White House staff.
McCarthy contended he will be unable to present his case unless he can find out—and put on the record—what took place at that meeting and any subsequent meetings at which the Army’s course of action might have been planned.
The Wisconsin senator, who bit
terly protested Eisenhower’s secrecy order, said he must determine whether his real foes were Stevens and Adams or persons higher up in the administration.
“You can’t go on (with the hearings) with that order in effect,” he told reporters. “When the President has it explained to him what he signed, I am sure he will revoke it.
“I would like to know who foisted this order on the President. I think he is too essentially fair to do this on his own.”
The Democrats, while likewise
lamenting Eisenhower’s action, objected to a full week’s recess and tried unsuccessfully to have the hearings resume Wednesday morning. The final vote to call a halt until Monday was on strict party lines—four Republicans for, three Democrats against.
McCarthy, who had stepped off the subcommittee for purposes of this inquiry, said it made no difference to him how long the hearings recessed — so long as it gave time enough for the probers to seek a relaxation of the Eisenhower order.
Sen. Symington (D-Mo), however, blasted the week's delay as “a flagrant denial of fairness and justice” to the Pentagon side in the controversy.
McCarthy contended this entire “hassle”—as he called the hearings—was stirred up by “those who wanted to halt the exposure of Communists.”
And he declared he would not be able to show who these people were if the Eisenhower order stood.
“My hands would be completely tied,” McCarthy said.U.S. School Segregation Ban Brings Violent Reaction From Southland
High Court Rules With 9 to 0 Vote
WASHINGTON, May 17 (IP)—The Supreme Court ruled today that the states of the nation do not have the right to separate Negro and white pupils in different public schools.
By a unanimous 9-0 vote, the high court held that such segregation of the races is unconstitutional.
Chief Justice Warren read the historic decision to a packed but hushed gallery of spectators nearly two years after Negro residents of four states and the District of Columbia went before the court to
U.S. Protests Guatemala Arms (ache
WASHINGTON, May 17 (JV-The State Department announced today that an “important shipment of arms” from Soviet-controlled territory is now being unloaded in leftist Guatemala amid a steadily worsening situation in Central America.
The department, which has repeatedly charged the Guatemalan government is “playing the Communist game,” said it considers this a “development of gravity.”
In the background of the department’s announcement is mounting concern among American authorities over indications of increasing Communist activity to promote strife in various Central American countries.
A wildcat strike, now approaching its second week, is continuing to paralyze the entire northern sector of Guatemala’s southern neighbor, Honduras. Secretary of State Dulles suggested last week Guatemalan diplomatic agents may have triggered the unprecedented walkout.
challenge the principle of segregation.
The ruling does not end segregation at once. Further hearings were set for this fall to decide how and when to end the practice of segregation. Thus a lengthy delay is likely before the decision is carried out.
Dean Acheeon, secretary of state under former President Harry Truman, was in the courtroom to hear the ruling. He called It “great and statesmanlike.”
Atty. Gen. Brownell was also present. He declined comment immediately. Brownell and the Eisenhower administration, like Truman’s, opposed segregation.
For years 17 Southern and “border” states have imposed compulsory segregation on approximately two-thirds of the nation’s Negroes. Officials of some states already are on record as saying they will close the schools rather than permit them to be operated with Negro and white pupils in the same classrooms.
In its decision, the high court struck down the long standing “separate but equal” doctrine first laid down by the Supreme Court in 18% when it maintained that segregation was all right if equal facilities were made available for Negroes and whites.
Here is the heart of today’s decision as it deals with this hotly controverted doctrine:
“We come then to the question presented: Does segregation of children in public schools solely on the basis of race, even though the physical facilities and oiher ‘tangible’ factors may be equal, deprive the children of the minority group of eqqual education opportunities?
“We believe that it does.” Reaction from Capitol Hill was
See SUPREME, Page 3-A, Col. 5-6
JUSTICE WARREN . • . big decision
WASHINGTON, May 17 (^Texas congressmen were critical today at the Supreme Court decision on school segregation.
Sen. Price Daniel called the ruling “disappointing.”
Rep. Walter Rogers (D-Tex): “The decision is unconstitutional itself. In other words, the purport of the decision invades the rights of the states guaranteed by the Constitution. My wonderment is what has happened to the great crusade for states rights. This decision is another step toward the centralization of powers in the federal government, and the chipping away at the few rights the states have left.”
Rep. Burleson (D-Tex):
“It’ another part of this social revolution that has been taking place for a good many years.” Rep. Dowdy (D-Tex1:
“The decision is an intrusion of some powers that should be handled by the states. I don’t see why localities won’t be able to continue segregation through school zoning restrictions. The decision will present a lot of local problems, varying greatly in different areas within individual states.”
Second Thomason Case Goes to Jury Today
By GEORGIA NELSON Reporter-News Staff Writer
LUBBOCK. May 17, (RNS) — The second trial of Raymond Thomason, Sr., on charges of fraud will end here today.
Testimony and attorneys’ arguments before the jury were completed at 5:15 p. m. Monday and court was recessed until 9:30 a. m. today when Judge Joseph B. Dooley will give his charge to the jury.
This trial is expected to run less than halt as long as the one last week in which Thomason was found guilty by a U. S. court jury on similar charges.
The indictment on which he was convicted contained seven counts. He is now being tried on an indictment which originally had five counts. However before the trial opened Monday morning U. S. District Attorney Heard L. Floore asked Judge Dooley to ■trike one of the counts. This leaves four counts on which the defendant is being tried.
Fach count alleges that Thomason filed with the Veterans Ad
ministration a statement that a veteran applying for a VA housing loan had made a down payment of $150 toward a house which he intended to purchase. The indictment on which he was convicted alleged that the defendant had filed false credit reports on other veterans applying for loans.
The government rested its case at 2:55 p. m. after three hours and 15 minutes of testimony by six witnesses. Twenty - five documents were introduced in evidence.
After a 30-minute argument by attorneys Judge Dooley overruled
Womin'i naws......... 4
Sporti .............. 6-7
Comics .............. 3
Form ........ 7
Rodio & TV log 9
a defense motion for an instructed verdict of not guilty.
The defense used four witnesses, three of them being character witnesses.
Four veterans who testified for the government admitted from the stand that they sold for $50 each their rights to a G1 housing loan. But all denied that they had any contact with Thomason in the transactions.
These veterans are Monroe Freeman of Austin and Oran W. Huff, John E. Salmon and Edgar Ray Myers, all of Abilene. They all related similar stories about having received $50 from Weldon Russell for their GI housing loan rights. Russell is named in aU 10 counts of another indictment, four of the counts being based on these same transactions.
The veterans told of being cor tacted by George Douglas Graves and Bedford Forrest Carroll concerning the selling of their GI rights. They said they signed some of the papers in the loan applica-
See TRIAL, Page 3-A, Col. 4
Texas Faces Big Job With Schools
AUSTIN. May 17 if* — Official Texas reaction to the Supreme Court’s anti-segregation ruling today boiled down to this: “Making the change will be a big job. Let’s get on with it.”
Gov. Shivers asked the State Education Agency to speed up its s*udy of the mountainous problems erupted by the ruling that Texas and 16 other states must eventually stop separating white and Negro school children.
WHl Take Years?
Shivers said it would take “years” to comply with the decision.
“I don’t think anyone can estimate the seriousness of this decision—what it will cost—what it will do to the curriculum,” the governor said.
“Orderly compliance” with the ruling will require legislative action, to point the way, said J. W. Edgar, state education commissioner. Separation of white and Negro students in Texas public schools has both constitutional and statutory bases, Edgar said.
But no state official was ready to say yet whether a constitutional amendment would be required to bring Texas into line with the Supreme Court ruling. All agreed it presented the next legislature in January with an issue that will probably overshadow all others.
Atty. Gen. John Ben Shepperd said he wanted time to study the opinion before commenting.
One question not answered at once was what, if any, effect, the decision might have on racial barriers in state-supported colleges. Official sources wanted time to think that over.
Under the 1950 Supreme Court ruling involving Heman Sweatt, the Law School of the University of Texas admits Negro students, as do graduate divisions.
Students in these graduate divisions are already taking undergraduate courses. About 50 Negroes are enrolled in the university here. In summer school, the number is usually doubled.
Many state officials said they were relieved when they learned the Supreme Court’s decision may not have to go into effect for many months, perhaps years.
Fears for Children Shivers said the matters of timing and method of enforcement were “all important.”
“I hope that it can be worked out so as not to cause damage to the school children and so that the children themselves will not be placed at a disadvantage,” Shivers said.
“Sometimes those who seek reforms go so far that the evils of the reform movement are more ornerous than the evils they’re trying to remedy.”
Shivers said that the problems were by no means insurmountable, but that they could not be worked out in days or weeks or months.
“I know of nothing that can be done immediately except to intensify our study,” Shivers said.
Texas has 1,952 school districts, 864 have some kind of Negro school, 1,089 no Negro schools.
Only 51 of the state’s 254 counties have no negro schools.
About 1,770,000 school age children are in Texas, 228,838 of them Negroes.
Court Ruling to Be Discussed Al P-TA Meeting Here Friday
Some 429 Negro pupils stand to be affected if segregation is ended in the Abilene schools.
The 429 Negro pupils in school here compare with 9,050 white students attending the public schools.
Supt. of Schools A. E. Wells was not available Monday for comment on what effect the supreme court’s ruling might have on the system here. School Board President W. E. (Bill) Fraley declined comment.
Doesn’t Set Policy
Mrs. Jack Sparks, 1601 Cedar Crest Dr., president of the City Council of Parent-Teacher Associations, said the ruling would be an issue at the group meeting Friday.
She said Monday night, “Not being a policy making organization, the P-TA stands, as always, to support those policies which tend to make the public school system a vital factor in the under-girding of the educational life of our nation.”
The council will meet at 9:») a.m. Friday at the YMCA here. Presidents of the various schools’ P-TAs and principals of each of the schools are members of the council. Negro P-TA officials and principals here have not been in the habit of attending the council meetings in the past, but are free to do so if they wish, Mrs. Sparks said.
There are 185 Negro students attending the Woodson High School and 344 in Woodson Elementary School. The high school they are now attending was occupied for the first time in February of 1953.
Woodson High Principal E. F.
Green said Monday the school has six classrooms, three work rooms, a cafeteria, gymnasium-audit-rium, and two offices. There are 12 teachers on the Negro high school faculty.
The Negro population here is located primarily one the east side of Abilene in the Carver and Stephenson additions.
». s. department of commerce
ABILENE AND VICINITY — Partly cloudy and warm with Mattered thunder ■bower*, mostly in the late ntt«*moon and evening Tuesday and Wednesday. High Monday «3. low «5. High Wedneaday in the 80s
NORTH CENTRAL AND WEST TEXAS: Considerable cloudiness through Wedneaday with scattered showers and thunderstorms.
EAST AND SOUTH CENTRAL TEXAS: Partly cloudy and mild through Wednesday with scattered shower», mostly in
the north; local thunderstorms In the northwest Tuesday afternoon or night; moderate to fresh southeast to south
winds on the coast.
TEMPERATURES Mon.-A. M. Mou.-P. M.
m ............ 1:30 »3
68 ........ 2:30 w
87 ........... 3:30 *>
67 ............ 4:30 «6
60 ............ 9:30 S3
65 ............ 6 30 ....... S3
6» ........... 7:30 71
71 ............ « 30 ............ «7
75 ............ It30 ............ 74
7« ............ 10:30 71
SI ........ 11:30 —
*3 ............ 13:30 —
High and low temperatures for 34 hours ended at 6:30 pro.: «7 and 66.
High and low temperatures tame data i»«t year: 82 and 36 Sunset last night 7:33 p m. Sunrise today 8:30 a.m. Sunset tonight 7:33 p m. Barometer reading at 0:30 p.m. 30.10. Relative humidity at 1:30 p.m. 30 ptr cent.
Georgia to Fight, Talmodge Says
ATLANTA, May 17 (¿P)—White political leaders of the Deep South reacted all the way from bitter criticism and near defiance through milder anger and on to quiet caution
GOV. TALMADGE . . . bitter foe
Texans Give Mixed Views
By THE ASSOCIATED PRESS
A Negro spokesman said: “We can’t secede. My grandpappy did and found out two and a half years later it did no good.”
A Texas congressman said: “It’s an outrage.”
Those were sample reactions Monday to the Supreme Court decision outlawing segregation in public schools.
Church leaders hailed the ruling as in line with religious objectives and convictions. Most school officials said they’ll wait and see what the governor, the attorney general and the legislature do about it. Some added they didn’t think sending white and Negro children to the same classrooms would be a good idea.
The end of segregation in Texas still may be a long way off. The Supreme Court said that because the problem is so complex it won’t start trying to enforce its decision immediately. Gov. Shivers said it would take years to consolidate Negro and white schools.
Maceo Smith, president of the Texas Council of Negro Organizations, said in Dallas:
“We are very much pleased. The ruling indicates acceptance by the court of the true principles of
See TEXANS, Page S-A, Col. S
vowed, “There never will be mixed schools while I am governor,” was the most violent in his reaction, declaring, “The United States Supreme Court by its decision today has reduced our Constitution to a mere scrap of paper.” Byrnes Shocked And in a neighboring state, Gov.
James F. Byrnes of South Caro-! lina, a former Supreme Court jus- j tice, said because it has been held many times the separate but equal doctrine “was not violative ©t the Constitution, I am shocked to learn that the court has reversed itself.'’
While awaiting the final decree.
Byrnes who has been one of the leading advocates of segregation, urged “ail of our people, white and colored, to exercise restraint and preserve order.”
Gov. Charley Johns of Florida said “my present inclination is to call” a special session of the Legislature, and he asked his attorney general for an “exhaustive study” of the ruling.
Talmadge had this to say:
. “It (the court» has blatantly ignored all law and precedent and usurped from the Congress and the people the power to amend the Constitution and from the Congress the authority to make the laws of the land.
“Its action confirms the worst fears of the motives of the men who sit on its bench and raises a grave question as to the future of the nation.”
He said Georgians “will fight for their right under the U.S. and Georgia Constitutions to manage their own affairs” and added the Supereme Court “lowered itself to the level of common politics” in handing down its unanimous ruling.
Negroes Cheer Negro spokesmen cheered the historic decision and expressed belief it could be made effective with a minimum of dislocation—given good will in both races.
The border states where segre-
See TALMADGE, Page S-A, Col. 3
French Peace Plan Hits Geneva Snag
GENEVA, May 17 (J) — France laid a Western proposal for a quick peace in Indochina before the Geneva conference today, but most of the secret session was devoted to a wrangle over evacuation of Dien Bien Phu’s wounded.
The Western proposal was reported to outline detailed steps for ending hostilities, leaving political decisions for later. However, details of the plan were not made public. It was presented less than an hour before the session ended, and little debate was possible.
The question of evacuating the wounded from Dien Bien Phu was unsettled as the nine delegations ended their session. A reliable conference source said the Communists, headed by Soviet Foreign Minister V. M. Molotov and Red China's Chou En-lai, again tried to bring the French and Vietminh into direct negotiations on the question here.
Although sentiment among some members of the French delegation for entering such negotiations was reported, Foreign Minister Georges Bidault has consistently rejected this course. He rejected it again today, the informant said.
Big Spring Flood Covers 25 Blocks
BIG SPRING, May 17 — Four families were evacuated from their homes in west Big Spring about It) p.m. Monday night as rising water threatened a 25 block area.
The rain began about 9 p.m. Monday and about 10:07 p.m. the four iamilkii were evacuated by rescuers in boats. Other persons living in the heavily populated area in the lower portion of Big Spring fled the flood waters of their own accord. A total of 2.27 of an inch of rain had fallen by' midnight.
Most of the persons who were rescued were elderly, Big Spring Police Department radio dispatcher Stanley Bogard said.
Volunteers from the Big Spring National Guard. Red Cross, Salvation Army, and fire and police departments were standing by in the threatened area as rains were continuing near midnight.
Water was estimated as deep as seven feet in parts of the flooded area.
Fast rains, falling within five
minutes to an hour, dropped north
east of Abilene Monday afternoon
and night. They were accompanied
by light hail and heavy lightning.
No damage was reported
WHERE II RAINED
East of Alpine.......
BIG SPRING ..........
FORT DAVIS AREA .
. . . . 1.43
. . 2 60
ROCHESTER . .........
THROCKMORTON eat. .
Heaviest rainfall was northeast of Albany. Five inches fell on the Bob Green Ranch 10 miles from the city. East of Albany, 3.5 inches fell on the Earl Pickard Ranch. North of Albany, Lambshead Ranch reported a half inch. Albany itself received a half an inch in 15 minutes. Paint Creek received 2.6 inches.
A light shower fell in Abilene at 10:30 p. m., and the weatherman said scattered showers were possible Tuesday afternoon and Wednesday.
Seymour had 1.37 of an inch of rain in less than an hour beginning at 5:45 p.m. Large hail fell for the first 15 or 20 minutes. Fifteen miles from Seymour on the Fort Worth highway Bomar-ton had only a sprinkle.
Inch at Knox City Knox City got 143 inches be tween 4:45 and 6:30 p.m. Five or 10 minutes of light hall were reported, and water stood in the streets before running off, Throckmorton received rain esti-See FLOOD, Page 3-A, Col. 7