Abilene Reporter News (Newspaper) - March 18, 1954, Abilene, Texas
H-Bomb No. 2: Unbelievable Power
REP. COLE . . . ready to go
WASHINGTON. March 17 —
Shattering power hundreds of times greater than any previous man - made explosion was unleashed when the United States set off its H-bomb No. 2.
That detonation in the mid-Pa-cific proving grounds two weeks ago also:
1. Left scientific measuring instruments unable to record the full effects of the unpredicted force.
2. Apparently pushed radioactive debris and moisture out beyond the safety zone boundary of the test area.
3. Jarred an island 176 miles distant.
This information came today from a variety of sources—including direct statements by congressional committee members and
comments by other well qualified sources who could not be named.
Of high significance was the fact that all described the March 1 explosion as that of an actual weapon, capable of being dropped on an enemy.
Rep. Durham (D-NC), ranking Democrat on the Joint Congressional Atomic Energy Committee, told reporters, conservatively, that the explosion was many times greater than the other thermonuclear blast detonated at the Pacific proving grounds in November, 1952.
Another equally informed source said it was three or four times mightier than the atomic weaponeers conducting the test had expected; at least 600 times jnore powerful than the wartime nuclear fission bomb dropped on Hir
oshima—which released energy equivalent to 20,000 tons of tnt.
Some estimates, still to be evaluated on the basis of whatever scientific recordings could be made, ran the power of the March 1 shot to a thousand times or more that of the 1952 test of a hydrogen gadget.
Out of the welter of preliminary estimates and guesses, there emerged one certain fact: President Eisenhower nmd*> an understatement when he said last Feb. 17 that the thermoculear weapons “dwarfs in destructive power all atomic weapons.”
The President was asked today at his weekly news conference about a statement last night by Rep. W. Sterling Cole (R-NY), chairman of the joint congressional committee, that the United
States now has a deliverable thermonuclear weapon (not merely a test device transfixed to a steel tower for experiment.' The President didn’t want to comment now but said he would reply at next week’s session with newsmen.
Long generally overlooked is the fact that the Atomic Energy Commission does not use officially the word "hydrogen” bomb, beir| careful to identify such material as “thermonuclear,'' which means heat generated by fusion of atonss. Hydrogen thus appears to have now only a minor or possibly no part at all in the ingredients that go into the weapon.
On the other hand, at least one member of the commission itself. Thomas E. Murray, has suggested that it might be well for observers, including foreigners, to
see an H-weapnn test as an object lesson of the urgent need to keep world peace.
Even Soviet Premier Georgi Malenkov, whose nation also has the secret of hydrogen explosives, talked last week of the dangers of "preparations for a new world slaughter which with the existence of modern means of destruction would mean the end of world civilization.”
There has been no official announcement telling at which of the two locations in the Marshall Island proving ground the big explosion was set off—at Eniwetok Atoll which was set up as a proving ground in 1948 or at Rikini Atoll, to the eastward, where the first postwar experiments were conducted in 1946.
The U. S. personnel and natives
who were touched by radioactive material after they had been moved from the test area presumably were on an atoll to the east or southeast of Bikini, perhaps the atoll of Rongelap. The AF,C said they suffered no bums and w'ere In good health.
The Japanese fishermen who were said by their captain to have been burned by atomic ash reported their position as 80 miles to the east of Bikini when the ash descended on their ship.
These factors give rise to belief that thp tremendous force of the March 1 shot hurled radioactive debris and steam so high that it was above the prevailing trade winds which normally would carry the material toward the open sea northwestward of Bikini.
REP. DURHAM ,.. no comparison
COOLERŒhe Üïbtlme Reporter-Betos
VOL. LXXIIÏ, No. 275
Associated Press (AP)
ABILENE, TEXAS, THURSDAY MORNING, MARCH 18. 1954—TWENTY-TWO PAGES IN TWO SECTIONS
PRICE DAILY 5c, SUNDAY 10c
Ike's Side Gaining in Tax Fight
WASHINGTON, March 17 W-Republicans appeared to be gaining ground steadily late today In a House floor battle against a Democratic drive to give everybody a new income tax cut.
After five hours of bitter partisan debate, GOP leaders expressed strong and growing optimism that a showdown vote tomorrow would defeat a Democratic proposal to increase individual income tax exemptions for each taxpayer and each dependent by $100.
Several Democratic leaders, who earlier had predicted victory for their side, conceded privately that the odds appeared to be against them now in the critical tax fight of this congressional election year.
Doubtfuls Now Convinced
Republican leaders said a half dozen or more GOP lawmakers heretofore considered "doubtful” on the issue had swung over today in opposition to the exemption increase, which is strongly opposed by President Eisenhower.
Chairman Reed <R-NY) of the Ways and Means Committee said Democrats were using "dangerously misleading” figures to support their contention that corporations and wealthy individuals would benefit most from the general tax revision bill.
Rep. Brown (R-Ohio' echoed that such Democratic claims "simply are not true."
And Rep. Cooper (D-Tenn), senior Democrat on Reed’s committee, attacked Republican statements that more than half the benefits would go to the average taxpayer.
"This is not so.” he declared.
Ike Claims Error
Even before the scrap started on the House floor, President Eisenhower told his news conference that Democrats are in error in charging that the COP-sponsored bill favors the rich and doesn’t give a fair share of relief to lower income brackets.
The giant, 875-page revision bill was before the House for argument today and a vote tomorrow. It rewrites almost every tax law on the books, providing about $1.-397,000,000 in tax reductions the first year through a long list of bigger deductions for individuals and business.
PI \N VACCINE TRIALS—Dr. A. G. Arrant, left; S. C. Wilson, center, and Dean Walter Adams are pictured at the pre-planning meeting Wednesday night for the Taylor County polio vaccine field tests. The vaccine will be given to second graders. (Staff Photo).
SECTION A Women'» new*
Rodio-TV log ......
Farm news, markets
. .. 4
. . . 5
, . . à ... 9
SON HELPS NAB PARENTS
CHICAGO, March 17 UB — A couple who authorities said abandoned five children in 1948 and went to California have been seized by police on a tip from their oldest son.
Police said Leroy Scherer, Sr., 39, and his w-ife, Eva, 38, put their children to bed In Chicago on the night of Aug. 30, 1948 and went to Los Angeles.
The couple returned to Chicago recently and visited Scherer’s sister, who legally adopted the Scherers’ oldest child, Roxanne, 17, six years ago.
Leroy Jr., 16, discovered his mother was back in C hicago, and notified police. The parents were seized last night.
Taylor County's Polio Vaccine Field Trial Explained to 200
Nearly 200 people attended at Abilene, representative for North-special meeting in the Coca Cola j west Texas, explained the history
Panel Gives Quick Okay to Raise Bill
auditorium Wednesday night to lay plans for the polio vaccine field trials tentatively slated for April 5 in Abilene and Taylor County.
The group, representing city and county governmental and public and parochial school officials and allied groups, heard representatives from local and state national foundation for infantile paralysis, the Abilene - Taylor County Health Unit and the local medical association explain the vaccine program.
S. C. Wilson, Houston, field representative from the National Foundation, and Robert Wilson,
COLD FRONT HITS
Showers Possible, Dust Sure Today
A cold front from the Pacific was to bring a possible chance for thunder showers to Abilene in the pre-dawn hours Friday, but any conditions for rain would give way to wind and dust by daylight, a U. S. Weather Bureau forecaster said.
The front at 9:30 p.m. Wednes-day extended from the cential portion of Wyoming almost straight south to far West Texas. It was due to arrive here about 6 or 7 a.m. Thursday with winds
Ike Backs Army Chief Strongly
WASHINGTON. March 17 * — President Eisenhower today declared his confidence in the honesty and integrity of Secretary of the Army Stevens. He said he believes Stevens, and believes in him, in the secretary’s blazing row with Sen. McCarthy (R-Wis).
Sharplv calling for an end to what he termed petty quarrels and hysterical reaction to such things ax "unwise investigators,” Eisenhower said it’s possible Stevens may be mistaken or misinformed on some points.
But he asserted with vigor that If he didn’t believe Stevens, the Army secretary wouldn't be where he is. He underlined it by saying he stands by Stevens so far as his Integrity and honor are concerned.
McCarthy, off for Chicago for a speech, said only that forth-coming public hearings "will demonstrate who is telling the truth.”
Eisenhower, with red-faced irritation he made no apparent effort to conceal, made it plain he is aick and tired of controversies auch as the one in which Stevens accused McCarthy of putting pressure on the Army and McCarthy accuses the Army of trying to "blackmail” him.
The trouble is, said Eisenhower, fee world ia suffering from "a
multiplicity of fears”—of the men in the Kremlin and of "unwise investigators’’ here at home, among other things. What’s needed, he snapped, is to stop the name-calling and get ahead with something that is good for the United States —with “a faith in the destiny of America.” He also declared.
1. The Democrats are in error— he paused as if he’d rather use a stronger word — when they charge his tax program is loaded in favor of rich people. And he said the people who want to cut income taxes now are the same ones who wouldn’t let him raise the national debt limit a few months back.
2. A president should be impeached or even hanged if he failed to take instant action to
of 30 to 40 miles an hour from the west.
The possibility of showers will come about 2 or 3 a.m. as the cold front moves in over warmer moist Gulf air in this section. Strong winds lessen the chance for rain, a weatherman said.
The weathermap Wednesday night showed dust from El Paso all the way north to North Dakota, including eastern New Mexico, far West Texas, the Panhandle, eastern Colorado, western Kansas, Nebraska and North and South Dakota.
Visibility was cut to one - half mile at El Paso. 112 at Amarillo, 2 at Dalhart, 5 at Childress and 6 at Lubbock. Salt Flat and Midland also had dust.
Amarillo and El Paso had -7) mile winds with gusts up to 40.
Winds at Abilene Wednesday night averaged 35 with gusts of 48 out of the south southeast. Winds from this direction do not bring dust to Abilene and visibility here was very good, a weatherman said. Strong south winds were blowing in the dusty area.
Friday will be mostl> fair and dust is to decrease during the day. The front will drop the mercury to 35 degrees early Friday morning. The high Thursday will be 65 degrees and the high Friday near 50.
Abilene Contractor Submits Low Bids On 4 Highway Jobs
______. , An Abilene contractor was low
repel any aggression against the bidder on a total of $314,859 worth United States. It’s up to Congress 0f highway construction projects to declare war, Eisenhower said, j on wbich bids were tabulated Wed-but you can't wait for a declaration when an attack is imminent.
3. He doesn’t like the “new look” term which has been widely applied to his administration’s defense policy. It’s nothing but a carefully worked out approach to the dangers of the atomic age, he s
of the vaccine and outlined suggested procedures for the conduct of the vaccine field trial.
Dr. A. G. Arrant, chairman of the Taylor-Jones County Medical Association public health committee, and director for the field trials mapped out tentative plans in administering the three doses of vaccine.
Full Support Pledged
Dean Walter Adams, chairman of the Taylor County Chapter of the National Foundation, pledged full support of the local unit in the field trial.
Only second grade students of both public and parochial schools in Abilene and Taylor County will be given the vaccine, said Dr. Arrant, who was appointed the medical director for the field trials by Dr. F. E. Sadler of the local health unit.
Dr. Arrant told the group that he sincerely hoped that possible victory over paralytic polio would be the result of the tests which are to be given to between 500.000 and 1.000.000 children in many selected areas throughout the nation.
Dr. Arrant also pointed out that the test would mark the biggest event of its kind in Abilene medical history.
Between 1.600 and 1.700 students will be given the vaccine.
3 Doses in 5 Weeks
Each child in the test will be given the three doses over a five-week period. The second dose will be given one week after the first, and the third dose at least four weeks after the second. Each dose, administered In the arm, will contain one cc of the material.
Wilson pointed out that the areas for the trials were selected by the National Foundation upon recommendation of State Health Officers. Factors considered were polio incidence during the past five or six years among children in the six-to-nine year age group; size of population in each area; local health resources for the conduct of the trials, and social, economic and geographical factors to achieve a cross - section of the country as a whole.
Although only second graders will receive the vaccine, student records of both the first and third grades will be kept in order to make comparisons, English said.
Adams, along with officials from the local health unit, and Dr. Arrant are to appoint an-overall volunteer chairman as soon as possible.
Giant Dope Ring Smashed in Chicago
CHICAGO UP—A multi-million dollar narcotics ring believed to have been the main source of supply for addicts in the Chicago area was smashed Tuesday night, Albert E, Aman, head of the federal narcotics unit in Chicago aa-
9 Take Stand In Sweetwater Murder Trial
SWEETWATER, March 17 (RNS> — Opening - day testimony in the trial of Ivory Gibson Jr., 19, of Lubbock, for murder of Lubbock detective Ralph W’hite, was highlighted by introduction of a statement made by the young Negro to Lubbock District Attorney Travis Shelton.
Defense attorneys objected to the statement on the grounds that it violated Gibson’s constitutional rights because it was typewritten and not in his own handwriting. The objection was overruled by 32d District Court Judge A. S. Mauzey.
The state called nine witnesses starting at 9 a. m. Wednesday In the trial that had been moved here on a change of venue from Lubbock.
•Shot a Guy 6 Times’
One of the witnesses. Mrs. Gladys Mae Lampkln, whose home Gibson is alleged to have gone to after the shooting, testified that while there Gibson mumbled to himself "I just shot a guy six times.”
She testified that Gibson was at her home while her husband. Roger Lampkin. had gone across the street to get a neighbor, Nathaniel Holmes, to take Gibson to his home.
In the statement introduced Wednesday Gibson had admitted that he and two companions were driving around and drinking on the night of Aug. 31, 1953 and had stopped at a filling station to get water for the car. W’hile there, Gibson said in the statement, they noticed a window- open and decided to burglarize the Cosden service station where the detective was later slain.
Car Drives Up
Gibson said he entered the station through the window with his loaded pistol and at approximately the same time a car bearing Detectives George Hall and Ralph White drove up.
Gibson said he tried to make a.: escape and while running heard someone shout: "Stop! Or I’ll
The defendant in his statement went on to say that two shots were fired, one hitting him in the foot. The shot caused him to stumble and his gun accidentally went off.
Other witness during the morning included Joe Simmons, laib-bock police department identification officer, who presented dla-
$•• TRIAL, Pg. 2-A, Col. 2
WHERE YANKS HELP FRENCH—This map indicates how fortress of Dien Bien Phu was assaulted by \ ietmmh attackers from the north, south and east. Most of the war material used there is American-supplied, sent in by planes serviced by 149 American technicians working near Haiphong (1) on the northern coast, and by 145 others at Tour* ane (2) on the central coast.
Sloshing French Fire Holts Red Attackers
HANOI, Indochina. March 17 Ufi
The French slashed the attackers
of Dien Bien Phu today with murderous artillery and air assault renewed under sunny skies. A big victory over the (ommunist-led rebels appeared shaping up In the fierce struggle for the French fortress in northwest Indochina.
It was still too early to say that victory had been won. But French army sources estimated that lz.oou Vietminh—the strength of an entire division—had been put out of action thus far in five days of battle.
Gen. Vo Nguven Giap. ^e Viet-minh commander-in-chief, still has an estimated 36,000 men in the hills around Dien Bien Phu. The question was whether he would send all of his forces into one gigantic attempt to smash the defenses of the French fortress.
Late today the Vietminh was bombarding French positions in the fortress with 75 and 105 mllli-
nesday by the State Highway De
partment at Austin _______
Harry Campbell Construction nounced today.
here submitted the low bids on Aman said the arrests of seven
work in Eastland, Mason, Tarrant, have broken up the ring and
and Llano counties. he predicted a panic among
The Eastland County project is addicts of this area.
BC u; „.c «1«, ««: | ina Aman said the ring did an an-
r Midden it ^ SS#*'i X“’ * ^ 10 m“‘0"
bid on the work was $103,85^.
1'. I. DEPARTMENT Of COMMERCE WEATHER El'REAtJ ABILENE AND VICINITY - Foaalbla
early morning shower», becoming partly cloudy, windy an<1 dusiy Thursday *nd Thursday night Mostly lair and decreasing duet Priday. Cooler Thursday afternoon. r at her cold Thursday night and Fndav High temperature Thunday 63 degrees. U>» Friday morning 1». High Friday near SO NORTH CENTRAL TEXAS - Cloudr scattered shower* or thundershower* and turning cooler Thursday; Friday partly cloudy and cool.
WEST TEXAS — Cloudy to partly cloudy and cooler; widely scattered shower» or thundershower« weat portion Thursday FYiday partly cloudy and a UtU# warmer In Panhandle
Wad. A M.
I 30 3 30
5 30 0 30 7 30 s :io » 30 10 30 11:30 13 30
Wed. P M
High and low temperature* for 34 hours ended at g 30 p m.: 61 and 46.
High and low temperature» »»me date laat year: 60 and 5» _
Sunset last night « « P "v Sunrla# to
day 6:4« am. Sunset tonight 0 4h pm Barometer reading at • 10 P ™ 38 93
He inti v a AumidUj 6t #:S0 pm, K.»«
meter guns from Hill emplacements five to six miles away, possibly presaging a mass infantry attack.
The French replied with a powerful counterbarrgge from American supplied 105 millimeter guns and full scale air assault.
Taking advantage of clearing skies, French fighters and bombers ranged over the hills and plains around Dien Bien Phu. hammering Vitminh gun positions and masses of rebel troops. The planes smashed also at long lines of coolies, trucks and ther vehicles bringing up war supplies to the Vietminh. Poor weather had hampered the air arm yesterday, but did not prevent the parachute drop of additional troop reinfrce-ments.
French army sources say the rebels have lost 3,000 killed and 9,000 wounded in their furious and fanatical assaults on Dien Bien Phu.
Teachers’ Wage Floor Hiked $402
More from Austin on Pg. 108
AUSTIN, March 17 Oft—A bill to raise the minimum pay scale of Texas school teachers $402 per year won unanimous approval of the Senate Education Committee today, without a word of opposition.
The special Legislature’s main Issue, teachers’ pay raises and revision of public school finances, thus won its first test in effortless fashion.
Senators questioning sponsors ot the hill appeared chiefly concerned because the bill does not guarantee a $402 increase to every teacher.
Sen. Ottis Lock, Lufkin, co-sponsor of the bill with Sen. A. M. Arkin Jr.. Paris, said the compromise group which worked out the measure did not attempt to set a salary scale but only to raise the minimum $402.
Sen. Jimmy Phillips, Angleton. most persistent questioner on wh° will get raises and how much, told Lock:
"There are. I understand. In excess of 5,000 teachers In Texas who are not going to receive the $402 increase, and not all of them know
"The general public, including me,” Phillips continued, "Is under the general impreaslon every teacher Is going to get a $402 increase. If there are teachers who are not going to get the $402, that fact ought to be made known and explicitly explained.”
Lock, Supt. Henry Stflwell of Texarkana, and Mrs. Kate Bell o' Houston, president of the lexas State Teachers Assn.. said only teachers In schools paying the minimum scale are assured of the $402 boost.
Where schools have been paying more than the minimum, it will be up to the school boards to decide whether they want to give teachers a full $402 more, said Stfl-well.
Some Above Minimum
For example, he said, some West Texas schools now pay a minimum starting salary of $3.400, which is $1,000 more than the minimum required by state law. Such schools might see fit to not increase salaries. The $402 credit per teacher in such a district might be used for other school purposes.
Mrs. Bell said teachers in her
See PAY, Pg. 2-A, Col. 4
4 Gas Tax Bills Introduced To Finance Salary Boosts
By KATHARYN DUFF Reporter-New» Staff Writer
AUSTIN, March 17 — Four gas tax bills, levies from four different directions, were put before the Texas legislature the opening days of its special session.
All are designed to raise money to finance pay hikes for teachers and state employes.
And, lobbyists for the gas indust rv have a fifth bill to ponder, one setting up minimum prices.
First of the four gas bills la the one incorporating Governor Allan Shivers' proposals, a gas gathering tax designed to replace the one ruled unconstitutional by the Supreme Court. This bill, which is a three-way one Including a hike in beer taxes and In corporation franchise taxes, is being sponsored by Rep. Joe Kilgore of McAllen.
Second gas bill was introduced bv Rep George T. Hinson of Mineóla. candidate for lieutenant-governor, is based on the dedication
theory. ► . .
Third gas bill is sponsored by Rep. Robert Patten of Jasper and
hikes the production tax by changing It from a percentage of the selling price to a flat one cent per 1,000 cubic feet.
Patten has as a companion bill to his production tax a bill setting a minimum price for gas at 7 cents per 1.000 cubic feet at well head.
Rep. Grady Hogue, Martin Mills. Introduced the fourth bill. It is oh processing of gas and oil.
Hogue’s bill, one certain to be highly controversial, would place the first processing tax on gas and oil. He estimates it would bring in $40 million annually.
The bill would put a levy on all liquid petroleum products at one-tenth cent per gallon with a one-half cent per 1,000 cubic feet tax on natural gas. There Is no such
refinery tax now.
Rep. James W. Yancy of Houston introduced a bill Wednesday which would thange the gas tax refunds to put another $4 to $5 million in the available school fund. The school fund get* one-fourih of the gasoline tax. Farm-
ers and airplane operators get a refund on the gas tax since they do not use highways. Yancy’s bill would cancel one-fourth of this refund, the school’s fourth, making the farmers and airlines pay one cent of the four-cent state tax.
Hearing» Next Week
Hearings are scheduled to get underway before the House Revenue Ibd Taxation Committee next week. The committee Is headed by Rep. D. H. Buchanan of Long view.
The gas industry is rounding up data of the effects of each of the bills, effeeta which are for the moment disputed.
The governor said in his message he believes his tax would be held constitutional. Hinson said he believes hi* tax would be constitutional. Over both hangs the threat that a court challenge would tie up funds as it did with the recent attempt to get a state levy on the pipelines moving gas out of Texas.
The Kilgore (Governor's bill ►
See TAX BILL, Pg. 2-A, Col. I