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New Braunfels Herald Zeitung: Friday, November 6, 1987 - Page 5

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   New Braunfels Herald-Zeitung (Newspaper) - November 6, 1987, New Braunfels, Texas                                Gim New Texas 1987 PageSA orbachevs revolution is one without bullets MOSCOW AP Seventy years after the Bolshevik the Soviet Union is again a crucible for vast change as Communist Party leader Mikhail S Gor bachev pursues his own revolution without bullets His canvas is onefifth of the worlds land whose 284 million people have been told they need to work harder and faster to realize the socialist dream that drove Vladimir I Lenin and the Bolsheviks in The Revolution Continues Through Restructuring proclaims a poster that has sprouted on many Moscow street corners and in shop Gorbachev has called his blueprint for sweeping economic and social change the logical continuation of the seizure of power staged by the Communists on a cold evening in Pelrograd now Leningrad 70 years A provisional government look over from the czar in March lJ17 and the Bolsheviks overthrew the government in The revolution now continues at a qualitatively new Gorbachev told an audience in Murmansk recent ly During a stroll through the arctic the 56yearold Soviet leader described his goal in more dramatic terms H is a without the but a deep and serious On Nov the Communist Party general secretary and other members of the Soviet elite will mount the russet hued Lenin mausoleum on Red Square to mark the an niversary A military p irade and gala meetings will celebrate the successes of the past the founding of the worlds first socialist the industrialization thai gave it great power status and the victory over Nazi Germany in World War won at the price of 2ti million lives Bui this years festivities also are keyed to the tasks i tias defined since he assumed power in March and w ill point the way toward the Soviet future For it is still too scon to tell whether Kremlin intentions to the socialist state proclaimed 7o years ago an be translated into action Among the most crucial issues It is unclear whether the policy of urealer will IKextended to debates that occur top levels of the Soviet and who will decide when the increased freedom of expression should be limited Another unknown is how much the drue or economic renewal can cut into the stagnation red tape and Lick of initiative caused b more than a half lenturv of tate planning will the pohcv of or allow an or million member Communist which has relrntlessh and sometimes defended its unpnn maintain the it won m iyl7 prrvmus leaders t cites Lenin worls o prove Ins program conforms u Marxist But he also the answer to Sov let is more supple ami innovative brand of Doesnt our restructuring drive mean a departure from the foundations of socialism or at least their weakening Gorbachev asked in it doesnt On the what we already are planning and proposing should strengthen The superpower that Gorbachev leads into its eighth decade of socialism finds itself beset with contradictions that show the progress but also the scale of the tasks facing the Soviet leader and his For the Soviets took the lead in space follow ing the 1986 shuttle disaster and have scored im pressive including recordsetting manned endurance missions and the launch of the worlds onlv functioning space Yet on the outskirts of a lack of a much humbler type of indoor forces villagers to tote buckets of water on their shoulders much as their greatgrandparents The Soviets have mustered vast resources to throw a railroad line across miles of frozen Siberian taiga But they cannot produce nearly enough shoes to meet consumer A state trade agency imports canned beer from the West and sells it in Moscow for dollars and other hard Western currencies many Soviets cannot count on regular supplies of and eggs What has the Soviet Union accomplished under 7n years of and what problems remain to be sur mounted by Gorbachevs Here is a brief scorecard Defense the Soviet Unions million men under arms and its nuclear arsenal are an indisputable claim to superpower status says he wants to curb the arms race and staunch its dram on the economy in order to shift limited resources to the civilian sector The superpowers are reported near agreement on a treaty to scrap intermediaterange missiles But disputes over the U S Star Wars antimissile shield have stymied progress on cutting strategic weapons In the Soviets will begin their ninth year in Afghanistan The Afghan civil war has tied up an estimated 1 Soviet cost billions of rubles and undermined Kremlin prestige in the Third World Gor bachev has called the conflict a bleeding and Western sources estimate it has cost the lives of up to Soviet soldiers Nationality relations The Soviet national anthem celebrates the country as an unbreakable union of free but 7o years of socialism have left the Rus sians and other Slav s m clear control Although the Soviet Union has more than loo ethnic only one nonSlav Foreign Minister Kduard A a Georgian now sits on the Umember the rul ing Dissatisfaction over national feelings and historical grievances continue to complicate the job of ruling this v ast human mosaic This vear Crimean Tatars massed at Red Square to demand the return of their ancestral lands and Latvians Lithuanians and look to the tretIs in the Baltic republics to protest their wartime absorption into the Soviet Union Jewish activists say hundreds of thousands of Soviet Jews want to emigrate but are prevented from doing so The Communist is wellimplanted among local elites and boasts of having brought many of the countrys nationalities into the 20th century Women Despite the Bolshevik pledge of equal opportunities for both only one woman now has responsibilities in the high reaches of the Alex andra a member of the party secretariat Many Soviet women work in lowsalary jobs in such traditional areas as sales and medical care The sight of women shoveling gravel into dump trucks or chopping ice from sidewalks is common The Soviets put Valentina Tereshkova into orbit in as the worlds first female but the countrys bestknown woman today is probably Raisa wife of the Communist Party leader Kconomy The breakneck industrialization chain pioned by dictator Stalin in the 1930s gave the world its stereotypes of the Soviet sprawling faclories and huge dams and industrial cities hewn from tracts of virgin land A powerful economic network ruled from Moscow marshaled the Soviets industrial might to help defeat Germany in World War II Under the Soviet Union has surpassed the United States in production of steel and oil the command economy embraced by Stalin has proved poorly suited to the countrys modern spurring the Kremlin leadership to decree its restructuring campaign and loosen centralized controls on management The Soviets lag far behind the West in computer electronus and other consumer Poor quality is Defective television sets caus ed 40 percent of Moscows fires last year In state enterprises where production is checked by govern ment 20 percent of the output flunked Living Standards Gauging the Soviet peoples well being is the most controversial measure of socialism s accomplishments A Communist regime eliminated tin grinding poverty and starvation that helped spark the 1917 but few Soviets todav own the common to the Western middle class The typical family devotes only percent of its budget to housing ex a minuscule proportion by Western but 20 percent of the population lives in communal apart ments or dormitories with other families due to a chronic housing shortage Salaries are averaging 200 rubles a month about at the official exchange for industrial and office but governmentsubsidized bread costs only about 2u cents a loaf has said price hikes will be necessary to wipe out state subsidies that totaled billion last year for meat and milk alone Medical care is but horror stonesjibout squalid hospitals and shor tages of drugs are legion Gorbachev has acknowledged that the failures of the staterun eeonorm has created a nationwide shadow or black market Kremlin economic adviser Abel Aganbegyan says improving citizens lives is the final criterion of perestroikas success and that much remains to be done We cannot be reconciled to what we have at present or what we had in the he said recently Culture After decades of a sterile official literary epitomized by the girl meets tractor romances of socialist glasnost has breathed some new life into Soviet which now are engaged in a prob ing expose of longtaboo from drug prostitution and AIDS to highlevel Writers long scorned as including the late Boris author of Doctor have ap peared in recent editions Vet restrictions remain The country still has one publisher the state The works of 1970 Nobel literature laureate Alexander Solzhenitsyn remain and there is no telling how Kremlin might react to a contemporary Pasternak 01 Solzhenitsyn The gran ting of this years lierarv Nobel to a former labor camp emigre poet Joseph went unreported by the Soviet press and an official told reporters The tastes of the Nobel committee are somewhat strange sometimes As one face of the new historians have been cautiously reevaluating Soviet which has been rewritten with each major change of leadership since the revolution Of particular interest in the Soviet intellectual com munity is the historical role of Stalin and his purges of millions in the lyttis as enemies of the Historians now say there were no grounds to the charges that Nikolai who was shot in was a foreign Stalins archfoe Leon who was murdered in exile in still has not been given his due place in official Although he played a leading role in organizing and carrying out the Trotskv s name will certainly be absent from this years festivities SATURDAY ONLY Seguin Five Courts Mall 10 to 9 p Sat Ask About A Beolls Charge Braunfels Courtyard Center 10 to 9 to Sunday to Sunday WHM   

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