Kingsport Times, March 19, 1939

Kingsport Times

March 19, 1939

View full page Start A Free Trial!

Issue date: Sunday, March 19, 1939

Pages available: 38

Previous edition: Friday, March 17, 1939

Next edition: Monday, March 20, 1939 - Used by the World's Finest Libraries and Institutions
About Kingsport TimesAbout

Publication name: Kingsport Times

Location: Kingsport, Tennessee

Pages available: 218,338

Years available: 1916 - 1977

Learn more about this publication
  • 2.18+ billion articles and growing everyday!
  • More than 400 years of papers. From 1607 to today!
  • Articles covering 50 U.S.States + 22 other countries
  • Powerful, time saving search features!
Start your membership to the world's largest newspaper archive now!
Start your genealogy search now!
See with your own eyes the newspapers your great-great grandparents held.

View sample pages : Kingsport Times, March 19, 1939

All text in the Kingsport Times March 19, 1939, Page 1.

Kingsport Times (Newspaper) - March 19, 1939, Kingsport, Tennessee iCtmjspnrf MEMBER A. B. C. KINGSPORT, TENNESSEE, SUNDAY, MARCH 19, 1939 FORTY-SIX PAGES TODAY PRICE FIVE CENTS AS STRATOSPHERE PLANE PLUMMETS TO EARTH Freed in Slaying Eyewitnesses Tell of Crash Engine and Part of Tail Lost As Plane Went Into Nose Dive RAIL COLLAPSE FEARED UNLESS HELP APPEARS ALDERi Wash. March 18. Boeing Liner, Designed For Stratosphere, Is Wrecked uye WitneS3es in this little On Initial Flight Washington logging community told today of seeing the big Booing stratoliner crash to earth, killing ALDER. Wash., March 18. At least ten persons were killed, including two officials of Dutch al! aboard. Stanley Scurlock, a farmer, said: "I saw the big plane first at an Cy HENRY PAYNTER NEW YORK, Inarch IS. Some leading railrorrl executives and Wall Street bankers said to- ____ __ ___ day they were studying n new, told plunged to earth near here today it started a b'arrel roll, It" went j r'lan for railroad legislation as a during a test flight. into a vertical power dive again, Ilast resort to stave off "natior.ali- Airlines, when a four-motored, 33-1 altitude of from to feet, passenger airplane, designed to op- making a power dive. Then erate through the sub-stratosphere, tail, .or part of came off and Railroad Executives Study Bold i'lan to 'Stave Off Nationalization' Among the victims were the as- sistant general manager of thr Royal Dutch Airline and a half dozen leading American aviation experts. The huge Boeing Airliner broke into three "parts and crashed with the. pilot still fighting his controls and passengers in flight position. All aboard were killed instantly. The dead: Julius Barr. Boeing test pilot. Bar! A. Ferguson, Boeing test pilot. John Kylstra, Boeing engineer. Ralph L. Cram, Boeing flight en- expert. William Doyle. Harry West, Boeing flight en- gineer. Ben Pearson. P. Giulonard. assistant general manager of Royal Airlines. A. G. Von Baumauer, Dutch KLM line. Harlan' Hull! chief tost pilot for Transcontinental and Western Air- ways. 1Kb Missinir The company said an llth man, E. B. Kinnerman, may have been abonrd the plane. Presence of the Dutch mission aboard the plane was not ex- 'lained by Boeing 'officials, al- thoush reports .said the. men were considering purchase of the "strat- oliner" or a sister ship. The liner was the first of a contemplated fleet of four such planes under construction by the Boeing company in Seattle. It had been undergoing tests at low altitudes, near Seattle for several days. .Air-speed indicators were jammed at 200 miles an hour when residents of this little mountain town reached the wreckage. Although the ship carried about gallons of gaso- line, there was no fire. Barr, at the controls, had shut off ignition switches before the plane hit. The outer left motor fell on a hilltop, yards from where the plane landed, about 200 yards from the Tacoma-Mount ,Ranier high- roaring downward, 'and the tip of! zatio" in some form." way. Collapsed The left wing broke off about 10 feet from the fuselage and between the two left wing motors. One sec- tion landed about 200 yards and another about 500 yards from the plane. Bits of wreckage were gath- ered up by souvenir hunters. one wing seemed' to tear off. "Then the pilot appeared to be able to flatter, it out and I thought it would land on one 'of my fields. "But it seemed to circle and glide hit in a small grove jf woo-Js. Part of one of the wings 'les 200 yards up the fail from the plane." Mike .Wayno of the Tacoma State Patrol, who ruslsed here with other state patrolmen, said after the wreckage he belioved ill aboard were killed instantly. Don Christenson, a mechanic, vho first saw the plane aboui. 8.- '00 feet up. said "all of a sudden motor and part of the left wing (See WATCHED CRASH, p. 7) MIT GIYESllGH RATING TO COUNTY Three Sullivan Governmen- tal Departments on Sound Financial rAt least three departments of the Sullivan county government are operating on a sound financial basis, a report released yesterday by State Auditor Walter F. Moody shows. During the past month the 'audi- tor has confined his work only to three departments, but he said in- dications pointed to the some re- sult when the remaining audits are completed. The state audit included that of former Trustee H. P. Richards dur- ing the period from April 15, 1936, to Aug. 31. 1933, the date he went out of office. Also included in the audit were the offices of S. H. and master, and A. K Hawk, circuit court clerk. Moody said that an- other two weeks will be required to audit the offices of the county court clerk, and the clerk and masters at Kingsport and Bristol. Self Sustaining He pointed out that the audit shows thus far that all three of the. offices are self-sustaining so far as expenses are concerned and The plane landed flatly and the j that each has turned back to the bodies were at flight stations I county excess fees collected, throughout the ship with Pilot j During the period prior to the body still at the controls. j date Richards went out of the Witnesses, said the plane ap- trustee's office, the audit reveals that the cash balance on April 15. 1936, amounted to Dur- peared suddenly out of the clouds and that the sound of its motors died down momentarily. -The motors then seemed to speed ___ _ _____ up and the plane began a long, j ments amounted to Recent news from Washington has convinced them, they said, that railroads would obtain only piece- meal, temporary help from pending legislation, and that remedies re- maining under consideration out of those originally would do little more than postpone a fate i they are now coming to fear is inevitable. Rnn.1 BJana'ironient, One intenntiom'ly known har.k- ST, active in railroad affairs for decades, summed the problem this way: i "A whole or railro-.d I management executives has grown iir> so calloused to regulation that it seemingly has forgotten that the only real alternative to nationali- zation in some form is real man- agement." The proposal, whicrihe initiated, and which is now beifHP studied by some leading executives in the rail and banking field, amounts to this: "Let railroad managements real- ly manage the railroads for a trial period. If they fail, throw them out and let the government take over. If individual executives or roads, given this final chance, dishonestly take advantage of their restored liberties, let them be heavily fined or jailed; let the penalties be so severe that no executive, no rail- road, would dare to resort to those ancient abuses which gave rise originally to over-regulation." Arbitrary Competition The plan, in its present, tenta- tive phase, has two main elements: 1. Eliminate arbitrary competi- tion. 2. Make justified speedy rate in- creases or decreases possible, be- (See RAILROADS, page 14) BRITAIN, FRANCE REPORTED SEEKING RUSSIAN SUPPORT TO HALT GERMANY 'CASH, CARRY' I RAN FOR WAR GOODS'SOUGHT Hitler Promptly Rejects British, French Protests Senator Pittman Proposes Revision o? Neutrality Act for War Sales WASHINGTON, March 18. Senator Pittman chair- man of the senate foreign relations committee, proposed today revision of the neutrality legislation to pre- vent the sale of any American pro- ducts to warring nations except on a "cash and carry" basis. He announced he would submit a resolution Monday to repeal ex- isting neutrality legislation' and substitute the new program. Pittman, who often speaks for (By The Associated Press) BERLIN, March 18. tonight promptly rejected British and French denunciations of her conquest of Czecho-Slovakia, declaring they "lacked every political, legal and moral basis." At the same time Chancel'or i'iie foreign office watched the ;p.thering cloud of criticism- im- Hitler called home his ambassador' to London, Herbert von Dirksen, "to make a reciprocating action taken by Britain yesterday in calling her Berlin envoy back to London. The government announced that its rejection of the British and While all Europe anxiously RUMANIA FEARS FOR EXISTENCE IN FACE DRIVES Britain' and France Send Bitter Protests For Latest Seizure (By Tile AssuHnted Tress) French denunciations had been de- lieutenants the task of imposing livered to the British and French I tne Ncsi will on Bohemia-Moravia ambassadors, who earlier in the and ironing out relations with ijuu presented notes charging Slovakia, Germany's new protec- from Vienna, amid tumultuous and heils to a secret stopping place on his way to Berlin. He left to that Germany's course in Czecho- "lovakia was illegal and a viola- tho administration on foreign 'pol-1 tlon ot the Munlch agreement, icy matters, said he had not dis-! Consternation Reigns cussed his resolution with Presi-1 These occurred as dent Roosevelt or the State De- r8Forts of consternation came from partmont, but that he thought it! states within arm's reach torates. The fuehrer was expected to maka a triumphal entry into Ber- Manivcla, above, the "housemaid Cinderella" who admitted slaying her lover, the son of her employer, jifter he refuse'd to nuirry her, was ac- quitted by a New Custlp, Pa., jury after a nine-hour deliber- ation. R.LEONARD PETERS HERIFF NOMINEE Hotly-Contested Race For Sheriff Features Scott County Demo Convention I tu Tin-Thni-9) U. S. BOOSTS LEVY ON NAZI PRODUCTS State Department Adds 25 Percent Tariff On Many of Germany's Products WASHINGTON, March 18. On the heels of the State Depart- ment's strongly-worded denuncia- .ion of Germany's absorption of Czecho-Slovakia, the Treasury or- dered an extra 25 per cent tariff :oday on .many products that the Heich sends to this country. A Treasury spokesman who an- ing that same period receipts; nounced the action said it was amounted to Disburse- rcazy spin earthward. The tail as- i-embly broke away during the fall. It struck in a narrow ravine in logged-off land. Speed Tremendous "It traveled toward the earth at tremendous speed." said Mrs. L. W. Gilbert of Lagrande. "There was an exceptionally loud noise, not like an explosion but more like a roar. It was terrible to stand there and watch it fall. The noise wa.s terrific, even though we were some distance away." The stratolinfir was the first The record revealed that loss as a result of a closed bank in which a portion of county funds were de- posited, amounted to On Sept. 1, 1938, Richards paid over to his successor a total of The amount was an over-payment of The county trustee also returned to the coun- ty a total of over and above expenses of operation of the office. Properly Kept The audit of the office of S. H. Garst. clerk and master, revealed that delinquent state and county four-engined transport designed taxes amounted to The and equipped with cabins and fa- auditor said all the records of the. taken with the State Department's knowledge, but refused .comment when asked if it was related to Germany's seizure of the Czech re- public. The Treasury ordered the extra tariff by imposing what are known as "countervailing effec- tive April 23. (The tariff act of 1930 provides that such duties shall be in addition to the regular on any foreign products subsidized, in manufacture or export, by the government of the country of ori- gin.) Follows Murphy Ruling: The Treasury acted after Attor- ney Genera! Murphy ruled that German goods imported under bar- er r- T gu- operation cJerk and master had been prop-j ter arrangements should be sub- feet or higher above storms erly kept and that the office was in ject to extra duties 20.000 on the rnrth's surface. See CRASH, p. 7) I WEATHER FAIR AXD WARMER TENNESSEE: Fair warmer Sunday: Monday increasing cloud- iness, warmer in east and central portions. VIRGINIA: Fair Sunday with slowly rising tem- perature in west excellent shape. The same situation, he said, is true in the office of .A. N. Hawk, circuit court clerk. The state audi- ject to extra duties. Officials said the Treasury could not say at this time what goods would be affected. It was said, how- ever, that "a substantial part" of (See COUNTY AUDIT, page 14) (See TARIFF BOOST, Page 14) and north tions: fair por- and considerably war- mer Monday. Plane Production, Pilot Training Nears War-Time Speed For Nation WASHINGTON. March IS. gram already approved by Sen- The government disclosed today it! ate and House- includes funds lo stepping up to almost build the to have time speed its production of planes j speeds at least approaching six and training of miles a. minute. The Air Corps announced it was Meantime, the Works Progress an intensive nation-wfde recruiting Administration reported it had ex- campaign intended to double the Army's output of trained militia without waiting for the start of i another program in September to of war. pended more than in relief roll wages for construction of aviation facilities useable in event TT 1 in oeuLeiuuel [.u OI war. pnmary tralnin.? to 20'000 Colonel F. C. Harrington. WPA pnmary ranng njrmer Sunday, Monday uicreas- lfige annually The DePBrtme administrator said that during the announced j last three and one-half years 154 warmer .simultaneously that tests would be new airports had been constructed ly increasing cloud- speeded to permit a quick start mess, -warmer in east and central on mass production of attack portions. bombers. The arms pro- extensions or improvements made to 494 others and hundreds of air (See PLANE PRODUCTION, p. 11) GATE CITY, Va., March 18.- Candidates for four county offices and another for the House of Dele- gates were nominated by Scott county Democrats during their convention held here today. As standard bearers against the Republican ticket, men to run for the offices of sheriff, common- wealth attorney, commissioner of revenue, treasurer, and house of delegates, lower branch of the Vir- ginia Assembly, were chosen. Hot Contest The race for sheriff was most hotly contested with four men seeking the right to represent the party. Three ballots were necessary before R. Leonard Peters, six feet, three-inch citizen of Wood, Va., nosed out three other candidates', Clifford F. Davidson. C. M. Flan- ary, and Lloyd C. Gilley. For commonwealth attorney, Sam W. Coleman, Jr., received trie nomination by acclamation after no opposition appeared against him. A like honor was bestowed upon A. R. Quillin, local hardware mer- chant, to make the race for trea- surer. (See DEMO CONVENTION, P. 14) FREYCHARlESCIO PLAN HAS'RED'TINT President of Metal Trades Division of AFL Says Pro- posal Communistic WASHINGTON, March 18. An AFL official charged blunt- ly tonight that the labor unity pro- posal advanced by John L. Lewis was that advocated by the Com- munist party. In a statement. John P. Frev. president of the AFL's Metal Trades Division, described as "identical" Lewis proposal and one he said the Communist party ad- vanced two years ago. He referred to the suggestion from Lewis, head of the CIO. that the AFL. CIO and Railroad Broth- erhoods unite in a National La- bor Federation. Lewis made his proposal immediately after the first AFL-CIO peace conference held at the White House recently. Rejected AFL leaders already have reject- ed Lewis' suggestion, calling it "impractical" and one svhich of- fered no possible solution of the problems arising from the conflict between CIO and AFL. Although Lewis' proposal tech- nically still is on the agenda, of the AFL-CIO peace committee, the Federation's weekly news service published today a. statement from the AFL negotiator? which said "we are confirmed in the convic- tion earlier expressed" that the' Lewis plan offered no solution. This statement added that the proposal "bears all the earmarks of the type of 'united front' which does not unite but divides." would be more acceptable to the President than other neutrality proposals which have been ad- vanced. British Advantage In response to n question as to whether the legislation would strengthen Great Britain's position in event of a European war Pitt- man replied: "Any nation that controls the sea would have the advantage under this resolution. Of course, we can not be sure who will control the sea in war time." The foreign relations committee chairman said he had been work- ing on the legislation for some time, and that it was not an out- growth of Germany's recent seizure of Czecho-Slovakian provinces Not "Stop Hitler" He added that the legislation was not intended as a part of any "stop Hitler" program. Pittman's announcement, coup- led with President Roosevelt's statement yesterday that the neu- trality law should be revised, rais- ed the prospect that what attitude this country should take toward wars overseas would occupy con- gress' attention increasingly in the (See NEUTRALITY ACT, Page 14) TAYLORlSRAPPED BY RFC CHAIRMAN of the expanding Nazi empire. Grows Kc named Baron Konstantin von Ncurath. former German foreign (See REJECTS PROTEST, P. 7) Cooper Axe Being Whetted For State Employes By JOHN J. HURT NASHVILLE, March 18. look now, Mr. State Employe, -but the chances are just about one out of two that you' soon will find yourself off Tennessee's payroll. The axe that falls here and 3 there with the inauguration of a new governor is being sharpened for Governor Cooper when he j returns from his vacation. Scores of choice political piums are ready for distribution among the faith- ful. Jesse Jones Accuses Tennes- see Congressman of "Mis- representations WASHINGTON, March 18. Chairman Jessee Jones of the re- construction Finance Corporation, n a statement written into the :he Congressional Record, accused Rep. J. Will Taylor of Tennessee of "insinuations and misrepresen- tations." The ranking Tennessee Republi- can Congressman earlier this week, >efore ieavjng his home, that the "has been grossly derelict in ts obligations to the little business ment of this country." In a letter to Speaker Bankhead Jones asserted that "we ry very hard lo qualify every ap- plication for business loan that inn any merit, particularity the "-mnller ones." Taylor said he recently had up vith the RFC H. loan for a small plant in Knoxville. Tonn. The amount sought was only He said the loan was refused 'not withstanding the fact that were uhlc to show for gpods vhich would hnve soon netted them 'nr more than the loan requested." Jones said in his letter to Bank- "lead that "he was advised that here appeared to bo no basis upon vhich n loan could be granted." "However." he continued, "fur- -her study being given the ap- plication as is true with all appli- cations that can not be approved on the basis requested, but where the circumstances indicate a loan .sight be worked out.' Many appointees who entered the state service under former Gov. Browning have held their jobs the past three months under Cooper only because the legisla- ture was in session. -It long has been recognized .that one of the most effective ways of keeping a legislator in tune with the admin- istration is through state patron- age. Turnover Starts The legislators themselves did not overlook the possibilities for taking care of their friends in the new administration. The session hardly had gotten underway be- fore a resolution was adopted call- ing for a list of state employes together with salaries. The legislature is out. of the way now and the job turnover is ex- pected to start upon the gover- nor's return. An official acquainted with the patronage situation esti- mated today that of the job-holders would be replaced. They vary in rank from that of unemployment compensation direc- tor down to the porters in capitol offices and workers on the high- ways. One of the first problems of ap- pointment to face the governor will be that of a successor to Tax Commissioner Estes Kefauver. He was drafted for service with an understanding he would be re- lieved after about three months. Reports have it that the commis- sioner would like to return to his Chattanooga office April 1. Important Posts The new tax commissioner likely will have a voice in the filling of several important positions. As a starter will be the. selection of an assistant commissioner.- Later will come the appointment of director and assistants to administer the county legislation of whisky pack- age sales. One of the most lucrative state positions to be filled is that-of un- employment compensation director at a year. Hughlon -Aiken, Browning appointee, left the office last week. Among those mentioned as leading applicants are W. O. Hake of Dickson. Hugh Clarke of Brownsville and N. R. Patterson of Chattanooga. Clarke served COOPER AXE, page 1'4> VICTIM OF HIT-RUN MOTORIST MAY DIE Little Hope Held for A. L. Alterman, Struck By Car On Gate City Highway Four persons were injured, one critically, as a result of separate mishaps. A. L. Alterman, 53-year-old resi- dent of the Lynn Garden section, is confined to Community hospital with injuries attending physicians described as a compound fracture of left leg, scalp lacerations, body injuries and a severe concussion of the brain. He was reported in a semi-conscious condition with lit- tle' hope held for his recovery. According to investigating offi- cers, the accident occurred about 9 p. m. Friday. Patrolman Paul Massengill said Alterman was walking along the Gate City to Kingsport highway toward Kings- port in company with his son. The youth said a car: passed at high speed, ran off the concrete pave- ment and struck his father. .........Traveling Fast. Massengill quoted the youth as saying the car was headed toward Kingsport and that it was travel- ing at such a high rate of speed he was unable to describe the car or see the license number. Since the accident, officers have been investigating in an attempt to learn the identity of the hit-run driver. Last night Howard Strickler, 25, resident of Jonesboro, was given emergency treatment for a lacera- tion of the chin and mouth injuries which he said was caused by an automobile accident on the high- way, between Greeneville and Ger- aldstown. County officers reported last night that a car driven by W. B. Hincke of Kingsport and another driven, by Arlington Fuller side- swiped while traveling in opposite directions near the intersection of highway 81 and the'Johnson City highway. Minor Injuries The officers said Fuller suffered minor injuries that did not require hospital treatment although lin was taken to the office of a local phy- sician for examination. (See HIT-RUN VICTIM, page 14) Recent Breaks Stir Officials Of County To Demand 'Immediate Action' In Construction Of New Jail quicly to block a reported move against Rumania. Both nations, it was said on high authority, are trying to persuade Soviet Russia to join them in aid- ing Rumania to protect herself against a German threat to her in- dependent economic existence. Acting almost as a team, the two democracies lost no time in mov- ing to cope with Germany's ab- sorption of Czecho-Slovakia and the threat to Rumania. Prime Minister Chamberlain rushed back from Birmingham and oresided over a momentous 2 1-2- hour cabinet first Sat- 'irday session of the cabinet since last year's September crisis, Premier DaladUr won from his chamber of deputies approval of his plan to rule France by un- precedented dictatorial power's un- til Nov. 30. .He special cabinet meeting for tomorrow at which it was expected specialists would be called up to1 join the powerful French army. No official announcement fol- lowed the British cabinet meeting, but it was stated authoritatively that the session dealt with a re- quest from Rumania for a state- ment of Britain's position on the German-Rumanian situation. Rumania, was reported- to have then vir- tual ultimatum from Germany to grant the reicb sole access to Ru- mania's rich oil, 'grain and other resources in exchange for Ger- man "protection" of Rumanian te.r- ritory. The report met official denials in both Berlin and but the press association, British news agency with excellent government sources, carried a report that the Rumanian minister to London bad- informed the foreign office of.the demands and of the rejection. Rumania was understood to have asked Britain and France particu- larly how far they were prepared to go to protect her in any stand against Germany. The British and French ambas-' sadors to Berlin, who both are to come home "to report" but are ex- pected to remain home for some time in diplomatic rebuff to Ger- many, were instructed to deliver formal notes to the German-gov- ernment describing "Germany's military action, in Czecho-Slovakia" as -being "without legal basisv and "a complete repudiation of the Mu- nich agreement." Downing Street was back in a "crisis atmosphere" 'tonight, re- mindful of the fearful days of last fall. Cabinet ministers were -in- structed to remain within quick access of London, fur- ther cabinet meeting was called in advance of the regular session next Wednesday. Chamberlain, however, was ex- pected to have a long session .with Foreign Secretary Viscount Hali- fax tomorrow and perhaps call a meeting of the inner cabinet. Actress Presents Second Surprise In Birth Of Son NEW YORK. March 18. Actress Toby. Wing and aviator Dick Merrill, who surprised the world at large a couple of weeks ago with the disclosure they, were married, produced another sur- prise today.. Toby gave birth to a bouncing baby boy at the Coluni- bia Medical Center. CONTROL IS GAINED ON MUCKLAND FIRES Open attacks on Sullivan county's 'antiquated. uncomfortable and unsanitary" jail at Blountville, aris- ng out of two recent jail breaks, lad aroused sentiment today to the extent that public officials voiced an appeal for "something to be done immediately." Conditions at last brought about statements from Circuit Judge Shelburne Ferguson. County Judge T. R. Bandy and Sheriff Roby Mi- Ism in which each deplored the fact that Sullivan county has rhe I worst .jail in upper East Tennessee despite the fact the county is the most thickly populated and ably the wealthiest. Judge Ferguson stated- that in his entire judicial district the Sul- livan county jail is the worst. "Since I wa.s elected as district judge, every Sullivan county grand jury has recommended in its final report that a. new jail be con- See pictures of jail interior on page structed. "Even though they are prison- he continued, "they deserve comfortable and sanitary quarters that are not overcrowded, as pro- vided by the state statute. This jail certainly is not meeting the re- quirements of the law." Regarding the other counties in his district. Judge Ferguson, point- ed out that Morristown has con- structed a new jail with all mod- ern facilities: the jail at Rogers- ville now 'is being remodeled throughout including an addition and the at Greeneville is mod- ern in keeping with required fa- cilities. Judge Bandy said he had always been in favor of constructing a new jail. "This he said, "is borne out by the records of the county court that I have recommended on (See NEW COUNTY JAIL, pg. 14) FORT LAUDERDALE. F1 a. March IS. fires which for two weeks have ravaged arge sectors of the Everglades re- gion were reported under control :onight, by W.- M. Staffed, state fire warden. Stafford.j who estimated a series of five 'fires "had burned over a quarter of la million acres, said the remaining Broward coun- ty, was burning'.Itself, out in a patrolled area. GRUNDY FIRE HALTED BY BUCKET BRIGADE IS. A bucket brigade': of fire under tonight after it had -tlireatened "to destroy the business section.'of this" Buchanan county town. Two buildings were 'burned '.and Sheriff F. M. Ratliff estimated' the damage to be ;