Get 1 more page view just for clicking
to like us on Facebook
Olean Democrat, The (Newspaper) - July 31, 1890, Olean, New York L EEN PAGE. The Olean Democrat PAGESTTO1 VOL. XI. OLEAN. CATTARAUCUS CO. NEW YORK, THURSDAY, JULY 31, 1890. NO. 36 FIFTY-FIRST COXGP.ESS. THE TARIFF DEBATE RESUMED IN THE SENATE. sot.V A LENGTHY SPEECH JiK. VEST Mr. Kluiiie's Reciprocity I'olit-y Criticised. No Progress Made With thb Kill Owing to the Absence cf a The House Considers the Sundry CiUI Ap- propriation Bill and Agrees to Some of the Senate Amendments. WASHINGTON, July the senate yesterday, after routine business, Mr. Aldrich moved to proceed to the consider- ation of the tariff bill, but Mr. Gray an- tagonized it with a motion to take up the house bill for the transfer of the revenue marine service to the navy department. Mr. Gray's motion 26; nays, 25. Mr. Cockrell continued U-, argument in opposition to the bii. 'e imputed the origin of the bill to th ambi- tion of Senator Ghana.- >.heu secretary of the navy, and said that it was now be- ing pressed by those who would be bene- fited. He quoted from Admiral Porter's report against the transfer, and said the British government had tried the experi- ment and it had been a failure. The ser- vice would be better as it is now. Mr. Cockrell had, not concluded his re- marks when 2 o'clock arrived and the pre- siding officer laid the tariff bill before the senate as "the unfinished business." Mr. Gray moved to continue the dis- cussion oi the revenue marine bill. He, as well as Senators Cullom and Butler, said they did not wish to antagonize the tariff bill, but they wanted the revenue bill disposed 'cf. Mr. Dawes opposed the motion and criti- cised the persistency of the friends of the revenue marine bill in pressing it in the face of the tariff bill. Mr. Frye said the friends of the revenue bill had occupied but an hour and a half in its discussion, but its opponents had monopolized the time in talking against it. He thought it a form of filibustering which showed the necessity of a previous question rule in the senate by which de- bate could be, stopped. Mr. Morrell hoped that the friends of the revenue marine bill would allow the tariff bill to be taken up. He thought the revenue marine bill ought to be re- ferred to the finance committee. After some further discussion, Mr. Gray's mo- tion was rejected and the tariff bill was taken up, Mr. Vest addressing the senate in opposition to it. Mr. Vest said that the advocates of high tariff taxation were confronted by a great peril. The depression of agricultural in- terests, and the emphatic demands of the farmers for something besides lying sta- tistics and frothy declamatious. had caused President Harrison and Mr. Elaine to urge upon congress subsidies for steam- ships and reciprocity treaties in the South American states to obtain a foreign mar- ket for American products. At last, therefore, the protectionists had been drawn from their pretense, humbug about the home market, and were forced to adopt the principles of free commercial intercourse. The high priests of protec- tion were now burning incense on the altars of free trade. Mr. Vest expressed the hope that the census noif being taken by Superintendent Porter would be more accurate than the statements contained in an article written by him and published in The American Economist to prove to the farmers that they were being robbed for their own benefit. He quoted also from articles by the statistician of the agricultural department and the secretary of agriculture on the Same subject which he said were even more unique. The latter in his article, speaks of the ruinous competition to the American farmer which comes from the peasant of Europe, the fellah of Ecrypt, and the byst of India. Mr. Vest snid that the fact was that none of these laborers com- peted in this market with the American laborer. We imported barley from Can- ada, but that was because it was an abso- lute necessity to the brewers of America. What the farmers wanted, said Sir. Vest, was the opening and enlargement of for- eign markets for their surplus wheat, corn, cattle and pork, and the decrease of tariff duties on hardware, clothing, tin aud other necessary articles of daily and incessant use by the farmer and his family. He spoke of the proposed duties on farm products as an attempt to protect Ameri- can farmers against a competition that did not exist. The proposition to reduce the rate on rice and rice flour was. he thought, a brutal discrimination made against the rice planter" of the South, be- cause tlify voted the Democratic ticket. The proposed increase cat tie. when no cattle imported for any but breeding purposes. Mr. as a bold humbug. The same pretense was seen, he said. J7i the on horses and V.'hilr we askici; Britain to oa A we wpre i t-o forr-.c t-o tnc senate in ravor or MX, ivici'ner- to recommit hill with The question WHS taken on tlic i.i'itioti to recommit, and it was do- feaie 1 by a strict party 19; nays, The reading of tbe bill by p'ara- for amendment wa-i tho schedule being that us to chemicals, oils :ind paints. Mr. McPhersou moved (o reduce the duty on acetic or py acid not exceeding the specific .-avity of one hun- dred and forty-seven thousandths (147- from Cv-nts to 1 cent per pound, and of acid exceeding that specific gravity from 4 -to 3 cents per pound. The vote 16; nays, quorum. Mr. Plumb offered a resolution (which was agreed to) calling on the secretary of war for in formation as to the rules estab- STAKV1XG FISIIEIttJEtf. THEIR BOATS SEIZED FOR NON- PAYMENT OF RENT. DISTRESSING SCENES OF POVERTY. for alar if such uuinieisioiib ,.ru part on the whether exceptions to these o homes; or in pensions, and rules have been made, and in what cases and for what reasons. The senate at p. m. adjourned. EV THE HOUSF. WASHINGTON, July Under the rules yesterday should have been devoted to the consideration of District of Columbia busi- ness in the house and the Atkinson rail- road bill is the unfinished business. Mr. Cannon antagonized it with a mo- tion to go into committee of the whole upon the amendments to the sundry civil appropriation bill. The motion prevailed. The recommendations of the committee on appropriations were agreed to without much contention, the principal the senate irrigation item being passed over until the other matters are disposed of. Mr. Canton of Illinois made a strong effort to throw into conference senate amendment increasing the appropriation for publication of the official records of the war of the rebellion from to but was defeated. The house de- cided to concur, all the Democrats, with a few exceptions, and a large number of Republicans voting to agree to the amend- ment. Without disposing of all the amend- ments the committee rose and the house, at p. m., adjourned, NEW YORK'S NEW BALLOT LAW. A Serious Point Which Causes Attorney General Tabor Some Uneasiness. ALBANT, July 29. Attorney General Tabor said yesterday that he would give no more opinions to cities of the state upon the various sections of the ballot re- form bill. He says that they all have cor- poration counsels with enough intelli- gence to give such opinions, and he will allow such officials to decide for their own cities. Queries from villages will be an- swered with a copy of his full diagonosis of the law. In answer to a question as to how many sample ballots should be printed, he said that the number of ballots to be thus printed is not specified in the act, and it is, therefore, to be left to the judgment of the county clerks to determine how many shall be printed for such a purpose. A serious question has risen both in Brooklyn, Buffalo and Albany, which the attorney general says he may have to take official cognisance of and give an opinion. It is a question upon two sections, one of which reads that a voter may have ten minutes in a booth to prepare nis ballot, and the other which reads that he may spoil three ballots aud still have another. It is argued by one side that the section means ten minutes for each ballot, and that a dozen voters could thus waste eight hours, preventing others from voting. The other claim is that a voter can only use ten minutes altogether. Attorney General Tabor says it is the most serious question that has yet arisen. An official opinion will soon be given. ANNIE GOODWIN'S MURDERERS. The Notorious McGonigal and Shaw Held for Trial Without Bail. NEW YORK, July The coroner's jury inquiring into the cause of the death of Annie Goodwin, the unfoitunafs cisarette girl, came in with their verdict shortly after 3 o'clock yesterday. They found that Annie Goodwin had died on Juiv J2, at the residence of Mrs. Shaw, Ii7 East One Hundred and Fifth street, ss the result of an abortion performed by Dr. Me Goniiral. They found Mrs. Shaw an before the fact, as was also Gus Hsrrison and Coachman Davis accessories after the fact.. They severely censured Undertaker Merritt. The were brought before the coroner. Dr. McGonittal rnd Mrs. Shaw v.-ert held without biil: 11; was held in ij.oyo ftail. and Davis in to await the action of the grand jury. of GranJ Xrw YORK. July County Gr.-md Army Tvpular quarterly liilt hntti Army Men. tchestcr their Great SufiVrlng Among FisLcrsueii on Irish Women Held Caf tires in Turkish Starving Under Britiuh to be Expelled from the Liquor Traffic in Africa. LONDON, July sad slory of dis- tress from poverty and the harsh enforce- ment of law comes from the Irish coast. The fishiim season has been bad, and many of the dwellers on Blasket Island on the Kerry coast were unable fco pay their rent at the appointed day. A gunboat there- upon landed the sheriff, 30 bailiffs and 100 police on the island, and the possj seized the boats of the unfortunate fishermen. As the gunboat departed with the only means of livlihood of the half-starved population, the scene was a heart-rending one. The desparing fathers and husbands gazed gloomily at the receding vessel, while the children and women folk wailed and cried aloud in their anguish. An eye witness says that the people are absolutely destitute and many must perish unless relief is sent. Women Abducted for Turkish Harems. Much excitement exists in the south of Russia over the story, brought by a Rus- sian woman escaped from a Turkish harem at Rizah, that many Russian women, de- coyed or abducted from their native coun- try, are prisoners in harems. There seems to be little doubt of the truth of the woman's statement, as it is customary for Turkish agents to attend Russian fairs held in towns near the frontier, and after the fairs peasant women are often re- ported missing, although, owing to the humble station of the parties, the author- ities have never made such inquiry, if, in- deed, Russian officials do not share in the nefarious traffic. Zulus Perishing of Starvation. Terrible starvation is represented as ex- isting under British rule in Zululand. The natives are perishing of hunger in a country which ought to be productive, and the scant aid given bythe British gov- ernment in the way of rations has afforded but slight relief. The once powerful na- tion of Zulus is now a mere wreck. The latest returns show that out of the men in the English home army are under 21 years of age. To Expel Jews from Russia. A Vienna dispatch says that an ukase is impending in Russia for the expulsion of the Jews, numbering from that country. This action is said to be con- templated as the only means of putting an end to the constant strifes between the poorer classes of citizens and peasants and the Hebrews growing out of money trans- actions and race hatreds. The dispatch adds that the Rothschilds are urging France to use her influence with Russia for the prevention of the threatened ex- pulsion. Prohibition in Africa. The English Royal Niger .company has prohibited the importation or sale of in- toxicating liquor in its African territory north of the seventh parallel of north latitude. The officials of the company state their convictions that the profits growing out of the liquor traffic are much more than cancelled by the pecuniary losses resulting from the demoralization among the natives and whites caus'ed by the of liquor. They do not claim to be actuated by moral motives, but are proceeding on business principles. The floor of the workshop at Eupen col- lapsed yesterday, throwing one hurdred employes into the cellar, where they v.vre overwhelmed with debris. Two" killed and many injured, several cf vdli die. An American aimed Skinner and a Rus- sian named hive started on a wager to riue on from Mos- cow to the Crimea ana NEW YORK REPUBLICAN CLUBS. Tin- Stuto Convention to be Held at Sept. 4. July executive of the Ijfasjue of Ri'pnblif.-tn Ins state met at the Fifth inie yesterday to fix a time and place for the state convention. There five members in tif committee. 1" "I'tcry of the league was iu- strucu.t ue ;t call for a state conven- tion to lit-l.i'M lit Saratoga on Thursday, Sept. 4, at tin- Music hall at 11 o'clock and notify all el- s now members of the league, aud iih clubs who shall prior to Sept. 4, and perfect their standing in the league, send delegates to said con- vention. A committee of three, consisting of Col. McAlpm, Mr. Wynkoop aud Mr. DePey- fcter appointed to select speakers for the occasion. To another committee of 1 hree con- sisting of Messrs. McAlpin, Pierson and Smith was delegated the power to arrange all the minor details of the convention. J. L. De Peyster offered the following resolution: Resolved, that this committee endorse the principles embodied in tho federal election bill and urge its speedy passage. It was adopted unanimously. John I. Davenport then spoke at some length upon the good points of the meas- ure and explained the advantages to be derived from it. Coiibiderable discussion was had relative to abolishing the dues of the various clubs. It was finally decided best to con- tinue the system as in force at present. The question of how many delegates each club will be required to send to the con- vention was not fully determined upon, but it was thought that three would be the limit. A meeting to formulate a call for the convention will be held tomorrow. FROM SOUTH AMERICA. k HISTORY OF THE CAUSES OF THE REBELLION. KNIGHTS OF PYTHIAS CONVENTION. Election of Prize Drill To-Day. KINGSTON, N. Y., July grand lodge, Knights of Pythias, met here yester- day and were given freedom of the city by Mayor Kraft. The chancellor made his annual address. The committee of distribution then reported. Subse- quently S. Carpenter of Syracuse was elected grand chancellor and John T. Robertson of Middletown was elected grand vice chancellor. Several names were presented for the office of grand pre- late, after which the convention took a re- cess until 2 o'clock. In his report the grand chancellor presents estimates of the probable expenses for the corning year at On re-assembling a ballot was taken for the election of the grand prelate. Samuel T. Hull, this city, received 318 votes out of 568 cast on the first ballot. John J. Acker of Albany, for keeper of records and seals, and Peter Mead of New York, for grand master of exchequer, were re-elected. Grand lodge rank was conferred on 100 past chancellors. There is a large influx of people to wit- ness tiie competitive drill for prizes to- day. A MURDERER CAPTURED. THE REVOLT ENDED. The Argentine Government Victorious. The Mutineers Have Capitulated. LOSDOX, July Argentine leir.v tion in London received last nitrht the fol- lowing telegram, signed by Minister of Finance Gracia: _ BCEXOS .Tu: Tbe government is completely The bare their arii-.n 1jf All i- pe-ior oft-r? hp 7h- troop. are r-t-nmir to their ini'lcr tV commaTi 1 o' loyxl The r- part if in tb- rt-volt will he -r. to positions TV- f j- the erv-rnraont proviru Tlu- situation capital an 3 the wi. The Slayer ot Poormaster Sclmltz Caught Xear Medina. MEDINA. X. Y., July Jagow, the crazy murderer of Pocrmaiter Schultz of was captured near here yesterday oy (.'hief of Police P'uller and Officer Henry Fuller. Before his arrest it was learned that he bought n quantity of arsenic. He was brought here heavilj ironed and was placed in the police station. When searched the arsenic was not found, and the maniac succeeded in taking a large dose. Dr. Munson was called and found the poor wretch suffering terr'bly. Emet- ics were promptly administered' and it is thought that his life can be To your representative be freely con- the murder and said that he had killed his father by poison several years auo. lie said that he had attempted sui- cide six or seven times before, and begged to be allowed to die time1. He was convoyed to the Lockport jail on the afternoon BIG BLAZE IN EAST SAG1NAW. Eighteen JIUHon Feet and of Lumber EAST SAGIXAW. Mich., July dny afternoon fire, from a STJ.ik from a ir.iii de.strr.vel O-.vr-n feet of lumber; Brown S Kvr'- mill, dr-ll and II.000.000 frit Xeaze Sons' mill and ftet nf lumber, several small -_-- twenty frr-itrht cars f aud Perp Marqnette railroad. Tnc ".r.z the heaviest are If uf bin-or, Co.. hn (i O.vtn "hn G. Otver.. '-v> v- 4 A- H KITES' DKSPOTIC RULE. As Governor of Matti-rs to Suit Himself Until Deponed by PrcHltleiit Menden.lez, When He liaises the Revolutionary Flag, Sur- rounded by His ii Finally Captured by Strategy. ALBAVT, July following true statement of the exact status of the affair between Gui.tfmala and Salvador is made public in the Press and Knickerbocker to- day. It is from the pen of Frederick W. White who has just returned from those countries He .says: "The reported assassination of President Barrillos and the joining of Gen. Rives' Indians to Ezeta's forces in Salvador suggests to one familiar with existing af- fairs in Central America the ultimate downfall of Barrillo? of Guatemala. If Gen. Rive? is free, and with his Indians is in sympathy with the provisional presi- dent Ezeta. it means for Salvador an al- most imsi-tible force. A I'Jrturesque Character. Gen. Rives is the most picturesque char- acter in the five republics. He made Mendenuez president of Salvador, depos- ing the treacherous Zaldivor, who de- camped with a couple of million in gold. This happened directly after the great Barrios in 1S65 started on his unsuccessful mission to subjugate Central America and make Guatemala supreme. With Menden- dez president, as a matter of course under the new regime Rives was very close to the throne and took as his reward the governorship of the province of Guscalten, the capital of which is Cojutepeque. It is but twelve leagues from San Salvador and less than a day's ride from the president's palace. It is a rich province, populated principally by Indians, difficult to man- age and fighters of tremendous dash. Here Gen. Rives held a court of his own. Governor Rives Deposed. President Mendendez submitted to this for a long until necessity compelled him in January last to mildly and temerously inform Gen. Rives that he must not do as he, Rives, wished, but as the government wished. Rives paid no attention to this demand and when Men- dendez appointed a new governor of Gas- cultan "for the better welfare of the re- Governor Rives called his 8.000 Indians about him and raised the flag of revolution. This was the beginning of the present trouble. It promised to em- broil the entire country. President Bog- ran showed the seriousness of the move- ment and paid tribute to the power and prowess of Rives by telegraphing that Honduras had men ready to march to Salvador and assist the government in putting down the rebellion, while Barril- los stood ready to aid with forces from The compact between the presidents is perfect on this one point. But Rives by strategy was captured and his Indians would not fight without him. The Cen- tral Americans are hero worshippers. With a leader they have faith in, they will fisht like demons: without they are as children. When the Paves row was going on, of which the present trouble is the continuation. the writer of lhL-5 artic'. was in Honduras and hastened at once to Salvador, hoping to witness some lively events, but the day he arrived Rives had been taken and quiet was restored. It was to the president's weakness on this occasion that bis life was not taken. He was an amiable, good old man and would not shoot the revolutionist. Had Rives committed the political crime in Honduras or Guatemala he would in- stantly have paid the penalty. Shot Down Like Dogs. Not many weeks Before some restless spirits .ipdrr-t Barrillos in aprovinc of Guatemala. They were caught, and in the bright of the morning A little later a revolt iu embr3c- manifested in Honduras. BOLT.- ii it in the bud In taking the hsif k-a-L-rs and .shooting them like L-j-t F.'-brnary and M.irch it w.-i? generally conrt-ded that if Rres lived. inr.st <'.ie. Tbe wopk- exp'cteu of hia arir.abiiity. It was no sii prise t ben when the banner of revolr.- tion w.-u, raised and the old man shuffled off. The entire country agreed to it and Rive- Ezeta are backed by the whole pop-.ilar-e. They opposed Barrillo and are Rarrillos' opposed, because the and Salvadorans hate one TYPHOID AT LANCASTER, PA. Tlirr- Morn Factory the Forty and Emrna Lutz, employes o" Hartman's umbrr-lia factory, died Son- day from typhoid fcvpj-, making five fatal cases thus far. Forty others of the 439 employes are more or less ill with tha fever, some of them dangero'iely. The factory was ten davs Bijoby order of the board of health, and as the doctors were divided in their opinions as to the_ cause of the plumbing or impure remedies have been applied br cutting off the old well from which thp water was forced and improving the plumbing according to the most approved plans. The owners of the factory expect to re sume next. bat Hamilton assem- bly, K'liynts of Labor, is not satisfied with the investigation, and the governor of stats and the state inspector of have been appealed to. BOMB-THROWER MOONEY. The Irish Agitator Supposed to HftTe Been Drotrnecl at Eockaway Beach. _ NEW YOB-. July Sun says that it seems probable that the man known aa John J. Murray who wag drowned at Far Rockaway beach on Sunday last Thomns Mooney. tbe Irish agitator and bomb-thrower. The personal appearance ot the drowned man tallies closely with Mooney. and it is known that while at Far Rockaway he was visited by O'Dono- van Rossa. Mooney is the man who, in 18S3, threw a phosphorous bomb on board the steam- ship Queen while she was lying in her dock here. The deck caught fire, but the flames were extinguished before much damage had been done. Mooney was ar- rested for the crime. He was afterward pronounced insane and sent to an asylum but was afterward released. Died from Want of Xo CHICAGO. July inquest was held on the body of Mrs. Caroline Glazier, at No. 628 Wells street, Monday. When the old wcman died suddenly Sunday nigtt the valise, which was tied under the pil- low on her bed, was opened and wiihin were found books and papers proving her to have been the possessor of a fortune of largely in mortgages. There are no relatives in the city to monrn her death. A person at the inquest said: "In- deed, only one of her kin is known to be living, a sister now in Bavaria. Mrs. Glazier and her husband came to the city in 1848 and lived in a frugal manner, Since her husband's death last Mrs. Glazier has lived in a miserly fash- ion. Sometimes she would" not buy enough to eat. I believe she died from' want of proper nourishment." Determined to Take Her IJfe, CotUMErs, Ind.. July In the section known as the "dark corner" in Clinton township, this county, at an early hoar Monday, Mary, the wife of John Updyke, took her husband's razor and went to an ice house. She attempted to take her life by hanging herself, and failing in this she took the razor and cut her threat from ear to ear, severing the windpipe and dy- ing almost instantly. Within seven yean there have been sis suicides and a murdw committed in this locality, and has thns 4 gained the name of the udark ,_ R Electric Cars for Elmira. ALBAST. July railroad com- missioners yesterday handed doTWi the following decisions: In the application of the Maple Avenue Railroad company to' its lessee, the Elmira and Horeenead the approval of the board for a change of motive power from horse to electricity on that portion of the road lying between a point on Lake street and the southerlv terminus on Miller street. The board per- mits the change, allowing the common council to fix the speed and stipulating that two men shall man each car. Fire in a Montreal Hotel. MONTREAL. July broke out early yesterday morning in one of the sleeping rooms of the servants hi the attic of the Balmoral hotel. The guests, about 150 in number, were aroused were soon safely outside the build- ing. The names spread to the centra tower, but the prompt work of tbe fire de- partment confined them to the tipper part of the hotel. The less is estimated at 000, principally from smoke and Troia N. Y.. July Jame- nped Xt years, wbo fell to the from tbe r-u'.inij of the cran-i et park white a fpw ago. of 1 35 jnjnrips at 30 o'clock -s m irninz. He -was a show mss n- i resided in New York. He leaves a who live? He has ail that Mctzcnr kiwi x-n. when a ,a the wa- the briv-lv wri. ir- m ron in tin Their rxer ind.-ir.- the -n rnpnt i and heir of ami in-rhi'-f of arniy. 5 hy T.i-nli vrh fibred pnp'jiantv 1 tif- %Vcil mitrht.ffir with the of who on v: filoomr Ontlonlc for Burned to Death. Cisrrvvvn. O July 30.-A Tim--- Novak, a pome wjfc. b'Tl on her on tr to inonev nder the tariff, in the for protection which the a Mr McPbersoa, is of Chares Mr. A HALIFAX. .Ti tbe naru.: Thr-mh. went in k pirx} mir ]'r-t and Ijf-for" "Noniinatton y e an to four boy's mother. another bitterly. Barrillos Suspicious and Crnel. The story that Barrillos is trjinc to Kive tli? government they want is moonshine. Meanwhile the Indian nent of j.s brvet hv internal Fatal Accident to Ycnny Ladr. HAMILTON, Ont., Julv a of six ladies and gentlemen were driving from HiirlSnzToa to CaKViHe their team took fright and ran avtav. throwing oat the of the Marlatt f '1 on hfad killetl. v seriousiy in- jured. iLe others slicL; ta- juries. trat Mr V, ha-3, made "i1-. mi- th" rh ef ff which tl, t..r- pir valne of the was the par was Mr in re-ply quof-i from Sr- ff the paH 'iy England manufacturing After farther disc ussjon Mr. Purple ftd- to dtatrtct INFWSFAPF.Rf
Once upon a time newspapers were our main source of information. Now those old newspapers are a reliable source for hundreds of years of history and secrets of the past. Now you can search for people, places, and events without the hassle of sorting through mountains of papers!
Newspaper Archive is the world's largest online newspaper database featuring over 155+ million newspaper pages. Plus our database expands by one newspaper page per second for a total of around 2.5 million pages per month! The value of your membership grows along with it.
Those looking to find out more about their forefathers can empower their genealogy search with Newspaper Archive. Within our massive database, users can search ancestors' names for news stories and obituaries. We must understand our past to understand our future!
24 hours a day Monday-Saturday
Your full introductory membership payment will be credited toward the cost of full membership any time you choose to upgrade!
"It is amazing how easy and exciting it is to access all of this information! I found hundreds of articles about my relatives from Germany! Well worth the subscription!" - Michael S.
"I love this site. It's interesting to read articles about different family members. I've found articles as well as an obituary about an uncle who passed away before I was born, and another about a great aunt. It's great for helping with genealogy." - Patricia T.
"A great research tool. Allows me to view events and gives me incredible insight into the stories of the past." - Charles S.