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Winona Republican-Herald, The (Newspaper) - April 11, 1953, Winona, Minnesota Light Rain Tonight, Cloudy, Cooler Sunday River Stage 24-Hour (flood Stage 13) Today 8.79 .12 Year Ago 15.58 VOLUME 53, NO. 46 SIX CENTS PER COPY WINONA, MINNESOTA, SATURDAY EVENING, APRIL 11, 1953 EIGHTEEN PAGES Riot Checked at Stillwater Prison Screaming Men North Korean Maj. Gen. Lee Sang Cho, Communist signer of the historic agreement for the exchange of sick and wounded pri- soners in Korea, took his place alongside his jeep driver after a Panmunjom meeting. With him are other members of the Red team. The signing of the agreement last night removed the last roadblock to the trade of thousands of Communist wounded, for 120 American prisoners and 480 other allied captives. (AP Wirephoto to The Republican-Herald) Prisoner Exchange Agreement Signed TODAY Kennan Called The Turn By JOSEPH and STEWART ALSOP WASHINGTON best way to illustrate the real meaning of the retirement from government service of George S. Kennan is to go back to an incident which oc- cured in mid-summer, 1947. The Marshall Plan, which to Save Europe, was in the final incuba- tion stage. A last, crucial ques- tion remained to be answered. Should the Soviet Union be invited sjnce Oct. 8 over the last big issue Reds Press for Full-Scale Talks I Toward Peace i By ROBERT B. TUCKMAN MUNSAN The Allies and Communists today signed an his- I toric agreement for the first formal exchange of disabled captives of the Korean War and the Reds pressed impatiently for a quick renewal of the full-scale armsitice negotiations. The Communists agreed to re- turn 600 sick and wounded prison- ers including 120 Americans and the Allies pledged to give up North Koreans and Chinese. The first of these may begin the journey home as early as next Wednesday. The agreement may have paved the way for armistice in Korea. The truce talks have been dead- locked for a year and suspended to join the plan of exchanging war prisoners. The' Asking the Soviets to join pre- Reds had insisted on the return of sented certain very great political ali tneir captured soldiers. The advantages abroad. Yet, if the So-1 refuseci to return anyone to viets accepted, they could wreck the plan from within. Secretary of State George Marshall was puzzled and disturbed. Finally he called on his chief policy planner, George Kennan, for advice. Without hesi- tation, Kennan advised Marshall to ask the Russians to join. There was not, he said, the slightest chance that they would do so. Risk Accepted Marshall decided to accept the risk and the Kremlin's violent refusal and savage disciplining of the Soviet satellites helped to solid- ify the West. This was one of this country's first major postwar dip- lomatic victories. There are many such examples of the extraordinary prescience which Kennan has repeatedly dis- Communist rule against his will. Early Talks Asked North Korean Maj. Gen. Lee Sang Cho told the Allied liaison Americans Wary But Hopeful in Prisoner Deal Congressmen Cautious on Commenting Two Jet Pilots Die in Take-Offs HONOLULU Panther jet pilots were killed in take-offs from the carrier Boxer on succes- sive days this week. The Navy said Ens. James Al- len Walker was killed Wednesday when the wings of his F9F folded during takeoff. The wings of a Panther jet are folded back while it is on the ship to save space. Walker was the son of John H. Walker, Inglewood, Calif. Identity of the second pilot was withheld pending notification of relatives. WASHINGTON of- ficials were hopeful but wary in reacting today to the signing of the agreement at Panmunjom to exchange ailing prisoners of the war in Korea. The news caught most of the House members out of town on an Easter holiday that ends Monday. Representatives and senators who were reached expressed cautious comment pending a chance to study the agreement. They said there was still a chance for a hitch to develop "but suggested that, more than ever, it looks as if the Communists are ready to exchange all prisoners and to bring about an armistice. In Moscow, the Communist party jtouched off at a.m. CST) j nessmen should be put in charge of Fury of Fifth Atomic Blast LightsUpSky LAS VEGAS, Nev. Armed Services Need Overhaul, Sen. Byrd Says Inefficiencies Shown by Shell Investigation By DON WHITEHEAD WASHINGTON Sen. Byrd (D-Va) predicted today the entire management set-up in the armed services will be overhauled as a result of a Senate investigation of ammunition shortages in Korea. The Virginian said the ammuni- tion inquiry has revealed an un- believable lack of good business management. "I intend to follow this thing through and see that it is The Byrd said. Then he added. with a fury of an atomic explosion, fifth I grin: "And I think everybody in the spring test .series, heralded knows I'm not accustomed to dawn on the Nevada desert today, starling something I don't finish." The orange flash from the blast, He said he was convinced busi- paper Pravda came out with an editorial coincident with the sign- S1OT s the Atomic Energy Commis- Provmg ground 5 miles Pravda charged open and hidden enemies of peace in Korea are us- ing extraneous means to prolong the conflict. It predicted "total failure" for any Western effort to tie in the questions of Indochina and Korea territorial division with the prisoner negotiations. France has been fighting a guer- rilla war against Communists in Indochina for years. How to wind up the war has been a matter of j deep concern in the West. After U. S.-French cold war :alks in Washington last month, a joint' statement warned the Chinese Heds of "most serious consequen- ces" if a Korea truce led to Com- munist aggression as sending "volunteers" to fight n Indochina. eUlLUHCtl WALU LUC i ing of the agreement to exchange I northwest was not as bright as disabled prisoners starting April j some of the earlier ones of the No troops, animals or cars were involved ia the experiments. All have been used in two or more of the previous shots. 2 Red Chinese Companies Drive ROKs Off Hill By STAN CARTER SEOUL Two Chinese Com- I munist companies, about 350 men, Senators Hickenlooper (R-Iowa) today drove South Korean infan- and Sparkraan both mem- jtrymen off Texas Hill a shell- bers of the foreign relations com- pitted foot Korean peak mittee, applauded the prisoner which has changed hands nine exchange agreement, as did Sen. j times ;n the past week BUSINESS OUTLOOK GOOD No Reason for Panic Over Peace Prospects By EDMOND LE BRETON cn nas reveaieu WASHINGTON advisers to Congress say the busi- real ammumtion I ness outlook is good-even though the stock market took fright at ,ehman Hickenlooper added, however, The ROKs hurled two counter- that he felt "wa are again being attacks against the hill after dawn, fooled in the small number of cur both were beater.back an Eighth Army briefing officer said. The Chinese attacked with burp guns, hand grenades, mortar and artillery less than 12 hours after losing the hill in the furious see- saw battle which has raged almost continuously since Sunday. The Texas Hill fight was the only major action along the 155- mile battle front as negotiators in Panmunjom signed an agreement for exchanging sick and., wounded prisoners which could' pave the way to a Korean truce. Friday night, B29s from Okina- team: "Our side considers that the plenary session of the delegations of both sides should be resumed immediately to discuss and settle the entire question of prisoners of war so as to realize an armistice hi Korea." U. S. Rear Adm. John C, Daniel said the U. N. Command in Tokyo would give an answer. Gen. Mark Clark, U. N. Far East commander, already has said the truce talks can be re- sumed after settlement of the dis- abled prisoner exchange. But the exchange of sick and played Kennan also warned Mar- i BUI. excnange 01 SICK ana shall and others, for instance, that I Bounded captives, some of them a strong Soviet reaction to the Mar- j undoubtedly prisoners since the shall Plan was inevitable and tot days of the Korean War near- he said that this reaction seemed to him very likely to take the form of a Soviet-engineered coup in Czechoslovakia. Precisely this soon ensued. After the Inchon victory in Ko- rea, as these' reporters can per- sonally attest, Kennan was almost wholly alone in predicting flatly that either the Russians or the Chinese 'Communists would inter- vene openly if the United Nations offensive were pressed close to the Sino-Soviet borders. More re- cently, when Kennan was Ameri- can Ambassador in Moscow last summer, he reported in cables to the State Department the existence of a powerful inner group in the Soviet government, which favored a major change in tactics towards the West. He outlined in substance precisely the change in tactics which the new Soviet regime has now introduced. Course of Kremlin This ability to sense beforehand the course the Kremlin is likely to adopt is not mere crystal-gaz- ing. It derives from a lifetime of experience and study. Perhaps Kennan's most enduring contribu- tion was his brilliant analysis of the nature of the Soviet state, con- tained in his now famous word cable from Moscow in 1946. this, remember, was still the (Continued on Page 16, Column 2.) ALSOPS ly three years ago, was the big job for the moment. American engineers raced a deadline to complete roads and camps within the receiving zone at Panmunjom before Tuesday. Doctors, nurses and corpsmen waited eagerly 10 miles away at Munsan's freedom gate for the in- flux of disabled allies. Scores of helicopters and am- bulances were readied for the job of transporting them. Most of the Allied sick and wounded will be rushed to their homes by plane immediately after they cross the line, if they are, able to travel. The others will be taken to hospitals in Japan. The Americans among the latter will go to Tokyo and Yokohama. The exchange must be com- pleted within 20 days after it starts. It must begin not later than April 21 and can start earlier. Austin Jeweler Loses in Minneapolis MINNEAPOLIS Wt-Carl Woefel, Austin, Minn, jeweler reported to Minneapolis police Friday night the loss of jewelry valued at Woefel said he had the jewelry watches and three rings in an envelope in his coat pocket. He believes he lost the package between St. Paul and Minneapolis. prisoners being exchanged." The exchange involves- sick and wounded Reds for 600 Allies, including 120 Americans. Sparkman advised: "We must iress forward and do all we can iut we must be very cautious. We must be careful not to be swept away on a wave of optimism." Lehman said he was very happy about the exchange accord but add- ed: "We must not permit ourselves o be lulled to sleep into a false sense of security." Ace Divorced Same Day Reds Shot Him Down LAS VEGAS, Nev. U. S. double air ace, Capt. Harold Fischer, was divorced the same day the Communists shot him down and reported capturing him. Mrs. Dorothy Fischer charged the jet fighter pilot with unspe- cified mental cruelty. The decree, disclosed yesterday, was granted last Tuesday. That same day 27-year-old Capt. Fischer, one of the two hottest! CANNON FALLS, Minn. Pl- aces in Korea, was reported Goudy is the new Cannon handling military contracts and deliveries of goods. The military would still have the right to "say what they he added. Byrd went on to say in an inter- view he was convinced the people of the nation "are thoroughly dis- gusted with the business manage- ment of the armed services." He said he was confident the new sec- retary of the Army, Robert Stev- ens, would get results in his depart- ment. Delay in Output Byrd's remarks grew out of a Senate armed services subcommit- tee inquiry which has revealed there was no real ammunition production in this country until the prospect of a truce m Korea, two years after the Korean War A study by the staff of the began. Testimony has been given that during this two-year period, the Army used reserve stocks left over from World War II and seriously depleted these stocks in certain types of shells. Yesterday Byrd said that, if the military leaders "conducted every- thing as they have this ammuni- tion shortage, the country can have no confidence of security." Byrd followed this up in his interview by saying there was some excuse for failure to get ammunition pro- duction going in the first six months of the war. He conceded at that time there was a general feeling the war would be a short one. Then he added: "But after the All Off-Duty Guards were called to the state prison at Stillwater this morning when rioting broke out among the institution's convicts. They started small fires and smashed windows in the rfll blocks. (AP Wirephoto to The Republican-Herald) similar terms, Undersecre- of Commerce Walter Wil- in Korea as if that very fact was a calamity in itself." The congressional staff analysis said that, unless the public kept its confidence in the was "conceivable although not warranted" that there might de- velop "the reverse of the business and consumer buying wave" which followed outbreak of the Korea fighting in 1950. They suggested one Communist objective in seek- made public yesterday, said there was danger a truce might pro- duce an "unjustified psychological reaction" which could lead to a depression. In tary liams declared in. a speech in New York Wednesday that there is no reason to be "panicky about peace Chinese Communists entered the ing a truce might be to cause a war in November, 1950, there was i no excuse anywhere. Gen. Douglas MacArthur himself warned 'this is a new war. He noted that former Secretary of Defense Robert A. Lovett and former Secretary of the Army Frank Pace Jr., both testified they wa bombed 115-acre Communist were not aware of a critical ammu I supply dump near Sinanju, leav- ing it a mass of flames. The dump had been left untouched for weeks while the Reds stocked it with valuable war materiel. Four U. N. planes were lost be- hind enemy lines during the past week. One of the four the first U. S. Sabre jet lost in air combat since March was piloted by a double MIG ace, Capt, Harold Fischer Jr., of Swea City, Iowa. Fischer failed to return from his 70th combat mission Tuesday and the Communist radio has said he was captured after parachuting from his crippled plane. Flip of Coin Decides Race at Cannon Falls [nition situation until October, 1951 months after the Chinese entered the conflict. "All of them are to Byrd added. When asked whom he meant, he said the former secre- taries and the military people re- sponsible for ammunition produc- tion. No Lack of Money ing. The Peiping radio said he parachuted from his plane and was caught. The Swea City, la., pilot, who shot down 10 Russian-built MIGs in previous .sorties, was on his 70th mission. Falls village clerk, it was decided by the flip of a coin Friday night. In Tuesday's municipal election, Goudy and Gareth Conley ran a dead heat with 100. votes apiece. Goudy succeeds Glen Stedman, who retired. Unanimously Elected to the chairmanship of the Republican National Committee, Leonard W. Hall, former congressman, is congratulated by the man he succeeded, J. Wesley Roberts. Mrs. Hall Idoked on approvingly. In September, 1950, Gen. George C. Marshall was named defense secretary. Lovett became his dep- uty the next month. Lovett ad- vanced to secretary after Marshall resigned Sept. 12, 1951. Byrd insisted a lack of money could not be blamed, saying the Army had not spent all the money Congress had provided, but that, "it's all a matter.of management." Pace released a statement late yesterday saying "higher author- ity" had slashed one billion dollars U. S. depression. The economists said a truce will rot automatically bring marked changes in federal programs. Among factors to bolster the econ- omy they listed: Plans for increases in spending for plants, lack of excess capacity in important industries, continued demand for housing, apparently reasonable inventories, plenty of liquid savings, stable prices, pros- pects for increased consumer in- come and probable tax reductions. "In spite of the bearishness of the stock market over the possi- bility of a Korean truce, the pres- ent outlook for private business House OK's Two Bills Totaling Millions ST. PAUL ypi The House today turned to a backlog of bills, includ- ing one to provide for registration of lobbyiets, after passing two ap- propriations bills totaling 83 mill- ion dollars. One of the two huge appropria- tion's measures, passed Friday, set aside 38 million dollars for welfare services. It was passed after a futile effort to amend it to increase from to the maximum monthly check for old age assist- ance recipients. Minority Leader Fred Cina, Aur- ora, moved to add to the bill to provide for the increase. The motion was defeated 68-48, with liberals generally supporting Cina. Smash Windows, Set Fires in Cells Lei rf a Horn Names Maryland Prison Head New Warden STILLWATER, Minn, W) ing Stillwater prisoners smashed windows and set small fires in their cell blocks today as violence flared after five days of discon- tent within the gray prison walls. Guards told newsmen they think one long-term convict is armed with a pistol. Shortly before noon, State In- stitutions Director Jarle Leirfallom .said the trouble had been localized and prison authorities were pre- paring to make an .inspection tour of the institution. Leirfallom said he had reported to C. Elmer Anderson the situation. The violence flared when, in- mates were told there would be no further negotiations on a series of "grievances" they had filed. It followed disturbances that started Tuesday noon when the prisoners staged a sitdown after complain- ing about liver patties served for lunch. Wcrdcn Named Shutdown on the negotiations wasl announced this morning, along with naming of a new warden for the prison. He is Edwin T. Swell- son, presently warden of the Mary- land state prison. An outgrowth of the liver patty squabble was removal of chef Louis Gilles, after state officials listened to demands from a dele- gated group of 63 convicts. As Swenson arrived at a. m. to take over, convicts' were yelling in their cells. Some shouted profanity. One yelled: "Is this what you .call Utensils from breakfast, served convicts in their cells, were hurled into the prison yard and corridors. Small wads of paper and rags Welfare Bill The Senate welfare bill calls for more than the House bill. The differences must be ironed out "Uyand continued before f measure is sent to the of production and employment re-1 Sovernor- mains the economists as-1 The House Appropriation Com- ,serted mittee, meeting Friday night, trimmed 3% million dollars from the requested by Gov. Anderson for operation of the Uni- versity of Minnesota. The committee recommended Burglars Blast Safe at Zumbrota nition money. He said this was in the spring of would mean arms money was cut even after the Chinese had entered the war. Sen. Symington (D-Mo) on Thurs- day had referred to this cut as having been made by civilian chiefs of the Defense Department in the fall of the Chi- nese entered the war. Pace, referring to testimony that he had not seen Gen. James A. Van Fleet's reports of ammuni- tion shortages, said these were merely routine reports by Van Fleet's ammunition or supply offi- cers. Van Fleet, retired Eighth Army commander, had said he reported ammunition shortages almost daily during his 22 months in Korea. Mother of 2 Accused Of Embezzling MILWAUKEE Pauline Haas, 38-year-old mother 'of two children, Friday was charged with embezzling from the San Chez auto agency, where she was employed as a cashier. Mrs. Haas began working for the firm in Oc- tober, 1951, and was dismissed last December when an audit disclosed the mining funds. The raiders entered the office of the Monson Dray Line by smash- ing out glass blocks in a garage wall. The robbery was discovered when a driver returned with a truck shortly before midnight. Sheriff Lenus R. Olson of Good- hue County said the robbery prob- ably was a professional job. WEATHER FEDERAL FORECAST Winona and Vicinity Mostly cloudy and cool tonight with occa- sional light rain, ending early Sun- day. Partly cloudy and cool Sun- day afternoon. Low tonight 34, high Sunday 45. LOCAL WEATHER Official observations for the 24 hours ending at 12 m. today: Maximum, 48; minimum, 33; noon, 48; precipitation, none; sun sets tonight at sun rises to- morrow at AIRPORT WEATHER (No. Ctntral Max. 45 at noon, min. 30 at a.m. Noon layers of clouds at and feet, visi- bility 15 miles, wind calm, baro- meter 29.89 rising, humidity 58 per cent. be taken from state gen- eral revenue funds for mainten- ance and expenses of the univer- sity. The committee acted on rec- ommendations of a subcommittee headed by Rep. Sheldon Beanblos- som, St. Paul. The Senate Finance Committee earlier had recommended that he earmarked for the uni- versity. The appropriations group ap- proved a total budget of for the state's five teachers col- leges. This is an increase of 773 over two years ago. In addition to the heavy slash of the university appropriations, the committee attached an unprece- dented rider which would cut this allowance still further if the uni- versity's estimates of receipts from the .23 mill property tax and the trust funds exceed present esti- mates. The committee explained that the university appropriation was based on budget needs of 28Vi million dollars. Examination of the uni- versity's last financial report indi- cated the university has on hand slightly in excess of one million dollars in unspent and unpledged cash, committee members said. Earlier Friday the House Wel- fare Committee had killed a dif- ferent welfare services measure to up the assistance maximum to Then an effort, which also failed, was made to set the top figure at The bill was spon- sored by Reps. A. C. Wanyik, Du- luth, and Lortn Buttsr, Kinney. Edwin T. Swenton Neu) Prison Warden were lighted by some convicts and tossed into the corridors. Reps. John Howard, St. Paul Park, and Lawrence Haeg, Rob- binsdale, members of the Minne- sota Legislature, made a hurried trip to the prison on the recom- mendation of House Speaker John Hartle, Owatonna. Howard is chairman of the House Public Institutions Com- mittee and Haeg is a leading mem- ber of the House majority bloc. Hartle instructed them to make an. inspection at the prison and report immediately to him. Both started through the prison at 11 a. m. Fr. Francis J. Miller, prison chaplain, was called to the institu- tion shortly before 11 a. m. and went into conference with prison officials. "I know quite a few of these fellows in here and maybe I can help settle Fr. Mil- ler said. It was reported that one man had escaped from the prison farm a few days ago but this could not be verified. Built 41 Ago The prison was 'built 41 years ago. Long corridors connect two cell blocks to the administration building. Each of the cell now houses about 500 convicts, 100 below capacity. The prison's industrial plant in- cludes a large twin factory and machine shops. A prison farm adjoins the institution. Jackson, warden of Minnesota's St. Cloud Reformatory, took over acting direction of Stillwater when Warden Leo Utecht resigned a few weeks ago with the protest ha 'was fed up with this institution being pushed into state politics." Utecht was in his home across the street from the prison this morning. A penal reform program started three years ago by former Gov. (Continued on If, Column PRISON
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