Winona Republican-Herald, The (Newspaper) - March 20, 1953, Winona, Minnesota U. S. Has Only 2 Years to Strengthen Air Defenses Nation Fails to Grasp Meaning Of Russ Threat Military, Civilian Leaders Pretend to Ignore Atom Attack By JOSEPH and STEWART ALSOP (Last of a Series.) Washington is the conclu- sion of a series of reports on the urgent problem of American air defense. The complex facts al- ready set forth may be simply summarized. We have no air de- fense today. In two years' time, we shall be nakedly exposed to air-atomic destruction by the Kremlin. President Eisenhower is therefore considering an air and Civil Defense program that may cost from to S27 billion over- all. The longer you reflect upon these facts, the more you must become convinced that one of the great American failures of these difficult postwar years, has been the failure to grasp the meaning of the atomic bomb in Soviet hands. From start to finish, wishfulness and self-deception have reigned un. challenged. The Soviets were never expected to produce an atomic bomb as soon as September, 1949. When they touched off their atom- ic explosion, the whole govern- ment, from President Truman down, soothingly promised that the Soviet bomb really did not make much difference. To this very day, the Soviet bomb has not been tak- en into account in American mili- tary planning or strategy or poli- cy-making. Each of the services has sought to use the bomb to strengthen its traditional pattern. None has seriously considered how the bomb might break up that pattern. The Navy is spending untold sums on giant carriers to serve as bomb-launching platforms. But the Navy has no known answer to the fearful effect of water-explod- ed atomic bombs on carrier task forces. In Exercise Mainbrace, on- ly a few score hostile bomber sorties were permitted. Only the smallest percentage of R.A.F. bombers got through. Those that got through correctly dropped only six bombs. Yet the radar photo- graphs plainly showed that those six bombs, if equippe_d.with atomic warheads, would have put an end to the Mainbrace task force. The Army endlessly boasts of iti atomic cannon. But it says nothing about the effect of atomic bombs on ground force planning. President Eis- enhower's own plans for NATO defense of Western Eur- ope squarely depends on West European ports to sup- ply the armies in the field. Yet all those ports are hardly de- fended in the air, and all are within easy range of the So- viet twin-engined jet bombers, capable of delivering atomic bombs, which are now station- ed in East Germany The Air Force is strong on atom- ic striking power, and keeps re- peating that "offense is the best defense." Hence air defense has consistently been given a low pri- ority. And now come the scientists of Project Lincoln and the Sum- mer Study Group, with their warn- ing that the United States, includ- ing the bases of the Strategic Air Command, may be "devastated" by air-atomic attack within two years. The plain truth is that the uni- formed services have blandly gone on behaving as though the Ameri- can atomic monopoly hjd never j been broken. So has ths civilian! leadership. The civilian have done everything to Cloudy, Warmer With Showers Tonight; Colder Saturday VOLUME 53, NO. 27 SIX CENTS PER COPY WINONA, MINNESOTA, FRIDAY EVENING, MARCH 20, 1953 EIGHTEEN PAGES Taft Asks Full Review Of Military Expenditures the whole picture and see what needs to be he observed. Sayings Held Rep Short (R-Mo) said tighter survey of U. S. military needs in management could cut billions of the light of President Eisenhower's dollars from defense By JACK BELL and RUSSELL BRINES WASHINGTON UPl Sen. Taft (R-Ohio) called today for a fresh assertion that the nation can't slow its combat strength buildup. The Ohioan, the Senate's Repub- only way, he said, to reduce ex- penditures without impairing pre- paredness. a separate interview the solu- lican leader, said in an interview j ghort chairman of the House he believes little can be done im- j A d Services committee, said "mediately toward altering the mil-1 m a itary program outlined by former is t -squeeze 1 President Truman in his 46 bil- lion dollar budget request. But Taft said he thinks a com- plete resurvey by the new admin- istration of overall armed serv- ices requirements is in order. He indicated this should go far be- yond present efforts to rejuggle the Truman program. "I think we have got to look at (3eferjse spending water" out by tighter supervision and better long-range planning. The measure of he said, "is not how many billions of dollars you spend but how many armed and trained divisions you have ready." Short said "vast savings" could bs made by better management of military procurement and by standardizing the items used com- monly by all services. Taft said he believes overhead or administrative economies sug- gested by Eisenhower at a White House news conference yesterday can account for some sizeable savings. The President said the nation could not reduce its com- bat strength, and that he was try- ing to get adequate defense for fewer dollars. Some other legislators doubted that enough administrative reduc- tions will be found to balance a budget Truman predicted would take the country nearly 10 billion dollars further into the red in the year beginning July 1. Need More Aid Sen Young an Appropri- ations Committee member, said he doubts that even severe trimming in administrative costs will yield enough economy. "Until we get more military as- sistance from other free nations, we're stuck with a high level of he said. Tito's 5-Day British Visit Nearing Close Will Return Home On Yugoslav Training Ship LONDON W> Reported well- pleased with results of his defense talks with British leaders, Yugo- slav President Tito faced a final round of social functions today as his five-day official visit here neared its end. Sometime tomorrow morning, the anti-Soviet Communist dicta- tor will board a launch and travel down the Thames River to join the Yugoslav training ship Caleb for his return voyage home. Although no details of Tito's program were secur- ity was reported he would be a guest of Queen Eliza- beth II at scenic Windsor Castle, just outside London, much of today. Dinner Tonight The Yugoslav strong man also arranged to attend a dinner being Sen. Gore (D-Tenn) guessed that given tonight for him at .the House GermansOK 2A rms no more than a might be cut off billion dollars military over- Natives Stood Alongside a badly shattered house in Gonen, Turkey, near the center of the earthquake which devastated vil- lages and towns in the western section of the country Wednesday night. Unofficial estimates indicate persons may have per- ished in the disaster. Between and homes were destroyed or damaged. (AP Wirephoto to The Republican-Herald) head. But he added that no pres- ident in his lifetime "has been better qualified to cut the frill and fancy from the military than Eisenhower." Gore said he interpreted Eisen- hower's statements as endorsing the military buildup proposed by Truman. Sen. Monroney (D-Okla) said he would like to see administrative costs reduced but he said Eisen- hower administration hasn't shown any signs yet of "knowing where to cut." Agrees With Ike Sen. MiUikin (R-Colo) said he agrees with Eisenhower that this country must build toward suffi- cient military strength. But he said he thinks "there can be suf- ficient reduction in military over- head to balance the budget." Short cited, as one possible sav- ing, a sharp curtailment of mili- tary he termed "need- less shuttling of men from one end of the country to the other." Persons May Be Dead in Turkey Quake BALIKESIR, Turkey Res- Bill Offered to Block Alleged Dairy Monopoly ST. PAUL Asserting that certain wholesalers and manufact- urers of dairy products have monopolized the industry, Rep. Alfred of Commons by the National Exe- cutive of the opposition Labor party. Tito outlined for Prime Minister Churchill and top British economic and military officials yesterday a Yugoslav plan to block Soviet aggression in the Eastern Medi- terranean. Although no exact details were disclosed, informed sources said the plan involved increased British economic aid to Yugoslavia and the supply by Britain of powerful new weapons, including jet planes and heavy tanks, to Tito's military and naval forces. After the meeting, the Yugoslav leader told newsmen: "We examined the general situa- tion in the world, especially the question of defense against aggres- sion. We reached the same conclu- sions in greatest accord on how to preserve peace in Europe." But a Yugoslav source said Tito will have achieved his main pur- pose if he has convinced British leaders that his country should receive a greater share of Britain's limited supply of arms and aid. Britain already has 'agreed to give Folly Clothed Joseph Corio, an Ottawa, EL, motorist, floundered in the raging Kankakee River .to keep John Erickson, 11-year-old schoolboy from Kankakee, 111., and rescue line from a bridge above in hand. Corso, after tossing the life preserver to the school- boy whose two companions perished in the river, went down into the icy waters, grabbing the boy after he went over the falls. The dramatic photograph was made during the rescue from a bridge. (AP Wirephoto to The Republican-Herald) the Balkan nation pounds 4V's million in economic aid for the year ending in June. Can Co-operate Tito apparently stressed that Jugoslavia's ability to co-operate in defense of the Eastern Medi- terranean is directly proportional to the help she can get from I Ottoof St. Paul today introduced a bill in the Legislature to prohibit the United States. He tetor them from having any financial interest in retail firms handling such i Maims successor u tww U. S. Wary of New Russ Peace Talks By JOHN M. H1GHTOWER WASHINGTON Russia and the United States have been throw- ing soft words and peaceful assurances at each other for 10 days now without making any noticeable dent in the hard facts of the cold war. And in that time Allied airplanes have been shot down m Germany and fired on in the North Pacific, Is this some kind of grim and cynical game, or is it the first round of a prolonged propaganda and diplomatic sparring which may eventually lead to an easing of world tensions? Diplomatic officials, though high- ly skeptical about Russian inten- tions, said today it is still too early to say what the long range behav- ior of the Soviet dictatorship may be under Georgi Malenkov, Joseph products. Rep Otto's measure specifically provides that no manufacturer or iurKey w wholesaler of dairy products shall "either directly or indirectly own iunvey j have any financiai interests, in any retail business sell- workers dragged additional _---------------------------------------- cue woncers araggeu ing butter, cheese, bodies of earthquake victims from -ce cream or dairy products, the debris of villages and towns in Violation of the act would be a Western Turkey today. The official j gross misdemeanor, death count thus far in Wednesday night's disaster stands at 455 but! unofficial estimates say the total will reach Army, Red Crescent (Red Cross) leaders j and civilian volunteers gave aid to conceal more than Ij0oo injured and in their situation. They Lave done nothing to educate the country about the problem to be solved or the danger to be overcome. And so the first reports of the need for a huge air defense program are greeted with incredulity and alarm. homeless in the rich farming and mining region southwest of Istanbul and across the Sea of Marmara from that big port. Between and homes were destroyed or damaged. Istanbul Observatory reported 65 small tremors followed the three The first truth to be recognized, successive big quakes which began miiki butter, cream, (Continued on Page 9, Column 5.) ALSOPS 2 Minnesotans Die in N. Y. Wednesday night. cheese and ice cream in the state, and particularly in Minneapolis, St. Paul and Duluth, Otto asserted, "has become monopolized by cer- tain large firms." "They have obtained control over retailers by furnishing them with pictures, equipment, and lending them money and financing -and aiding them in other respects." "The effect of this has been to drive small manufacturers and wholesalers of milk and other dairy products out of business and to force the general public to pay much higher prices than they would Strong earthquakes frequently j free competition prevailed." Ere felt in Turkey. In 1939 a quake I Minnesota House this after- Fire Destroys Chicago Hotel, Killing Five CHICAGO UP) Fire raced through a four-story hotel on Chi- cago's teeming near North today, killing five persons Side and sending nine to the hospital with injuries, burns or shock. Fire Commissioner Michael J. Corrigan said: "This is arson. You can quote Tj ft Cnestnut Hotei at 119 destroyed scores of villages m noon wju give final consideration wt street -J west Lnestnut Slreel- Court Upholds Verdict Mrnnesotans were killed here late TRUMANSBURG, N. Y. W-Two PAUL m An jury verdict in favor of William M. Crawford, 26-year-old Minneapolis engineer's aid for the state high- way 'department, was upheld by the Minnesota Supreme Court today Deal were 48, against the Woodrich Construction Long Lake, a vice president of j Company, Inc., of Hopkins. Thursday ploughed when their light plane into the main street after apparently going control in bad weather. out of General Mills, and Leroy Jamison, 42, Minneapolis, an employe of the same firm. The crash came after the pair had left Buffalo en route to New York City. Earl Updike, Trumansburg pol- ice officer, said the four-passenger single engine Navion ship "spun straight down from the air." The plane landed in front of Calvary Baptist Church between groups of three houses on each side of the .street. Crosby was director of plant engineering for the milling firm and Jamison was employed in the research department. Crosby was a grandson of John Crosby, a founder of Washburn- Crosby Co., which preceded Gen- eral Mills. He is survived by his widow and four children. Eastern Turkey and the toll was to a yn to end rent controls in put officially at Minnesota April 30. The bill was given preliminary approval Thurs- day, after a temporary set- back Wednesday. The decontrol measure requires a majority of 66 votes for final passage. If passed, it will then go to the governor. There was con- siderable speculation as to whether the governor would sign the bill because the federal rent control act is scheduled to expire April 30. The state bill was pushed by sup- porters on the theory that may extend the federal law. The Senate Public Welfare Com- mittee acted over the objections of Sen. Donald 0. Wright of Min- neapolis to recommend for passage a bill to abolish existing municipal housing authorities and transfer their duties to city councils. One group of Senate leaders called on Gov. Anderson Thursday to ask whether he would be will- ing to call a special session of the Legislature in 1954. The dele- gation later reported the governor appeared interested in the pro- posal but withheld definite commit- ment. The special session, if called, would be asked to approve a new constitutional amendment aimed at solving the state's highway pro- blems. The would be put to a vote at the 1954 general election. Crawford sued for for injuries suffered when a truck backed over him while he was working on a highway project nea: Caledonia June 8, 1950. He named the Woodrich com- pany, Walter Baker, an operator of a fleet of gravel trucks, and Elmer Zaske, who operated his with Baker, as defendants, but a jury returned the verdict only against Woodrich. Associate Justice Leroy E. Mat- son, who wrote the unanimous de- cision, held the evidence was ample to sustain a finding that the com- pany "alone" was negligent. The high court .sustained District Judge Harold E, Flynn, who pre- sided at the trial in Sibley County district court. Only one of the dead was ident- ified. He was Moritora Nakawaga, 35. The other dead were a man, two women and a baby. said his nation badly needed jet planes to match the Soviet-made At some point: but apparently t Officjais think care- MIGs now being supplied to Redjfut dipiomatic probing of Soviet satellite Bulgaria, Hungary. The war-time guerrilla Romania and be necessary to de- termine whether the Kremlin is leader also urged the strengthening of his naval forces with British-supplied vessels, either new or recondi- tioned, and the supply of heavy tanks and other large arms to give his army greater punch. While Tito talked with govern- ment chiefs, his foreign minister, Koca Popovic, told the British Parliament that Yugoslavia would fight with the West "if the need even though she is not a member of the North Atlantic alliance. The Yugoslav dictator set state cares aside last night to take in the ballet at the Royal Covent Garden Opera House. State Home Owners Get Refund Under Bill ST. PAUL Ifl Home owners who sold their houses after Dec. 31, 1950 might have state income tax refunds coming under a legislative bill now before Gov. Anderson for final action. really ready to do business on some real as ending the Korean War, for example. May Want Peace Northern States Defends Electric, Gas Operations WASHINGTON UFI Joint opera- tion of gas and electric facilities has resulted in substantial sav- ____ .ings for Northern States Power Eisenhower administration offi- Company of Wisconsin, one of its cials have been considering possi- j officials said today, ble lines of Soviet behavior in the E. H. Cotton of Eau Claire, Wis., event Malenkov really wants to j vice president in charge of the demonstrate that his peace talk is sincere. One idea administration leaders are reported to have come up with was that the Soviets might agree to some acceptable plan for resolving the prisoner of war issue which has been the most persis- tent point of deadlock in Korea truce talks. One fact about the current round of peace statements which was also true of earlier word ex- changes with the late Premier Stalin is this: Neither of the lead- ing powers of the two blocs into which the world is divided can operating department of the com- pany, said, "There is no question in my mind that combined opera- tion of the gas, electric and heating operations has resulted in lower operating costs and better service to all He testified before William Swift, a hearing officer for the Securi- ties and Exchange Commission which wants Northern States Pow- er Company of Minnesota to sell all of its gas properties along with some electric and other facilities. The Wisconsin company is a sub sidiary of the Minnesota company afford to be backward in its ex-1 Cotton traced the history of gas pressions of devotion to peace. service in La Crosse, Eau Claire Both normally hedge their state- i and Chippewa Falls, in Wisconsin, ments or put them in such gen- j and in Winona.and Red Wmg in eral terms that they are not com-1 Minnesota where Northern States mitted to any concrete action, I of Wisconsin provides gas service 'GREATEST SHOW TOP PICTURE Shirley Booth, Gary Cooper Get Oscars By BOB THOMAS HOLLYWOOD The Academy Award event last night was a little long, a little dull, and at times very exciting. The from length and the steady dullness come procession of awards. Each year the academy seems to find new reasons for giv- ing out Oscars. Not even the wit of Bob Hope as emcee could re- lieve the dullness for the general public. But Oscar night is always ex- citing too. The thrills come when the major awards are handed out. Even when the winners are gen- erally predicted, as Shirley Booth and Gary Cooper were this year, it is still thrilling to learn the real news. Contrary to what some peo- ple think, no one knows the win- ners beforehand. The big surprise came with the naming of "The Greatest Show on Earth" as the best picture. No one expected that. The Cecil B. De Mille circus film was greatly enjoyed by all audiences, but the other nominees were more artistic jobs. As with last year's surprise winner, "An American in the Oscar went to the most enter- taining film of the year, not the most artistic. The 72-year-old film veteran fin- ally received his honors with the best-picture and Thalberg awards. Until now, the academy has over- looked his vastly popular and earthy epics. Best lookers: Olivia de Havil- land, Teresa Wright and Janet Gaynor. The Pantages" Theater audience was responsive, although it grew restless during the TV commer- cials, a novelty at the awards event. Miss Gaynor drew the big- gest applause, looking like a star- j Vivien Leigh, the other top win- the first i ner last year, was slated to hand the award to the best actor. She left for England Wednesday night, let, although she won Oscar for an actress 25 years'ago. Bob Hope also drew a big hand JLJUU aiou vjAtTi- when he won his special Oscar, however, after suffering a complete nervous breakdown. Before she col- lapsed, she told me she hoped to give the award to Gary Cooper. But she added that she was aston- ished that her husband, Laurence Olivier, and Ralph Richardson had not even been nominated. Walt Disney won new honors as the top name mangier, a position formerly held by Samuel Goldwyn and Claire Luce. He bobbled four names, topping the two previous record holders. Star of the arrival festivities was an unidentified woman wh( stepped from her car and droppet For the first time in his life he seemed almost speechless. His biggest laugh came with the re- mark: where movies go when they die." Presentations of the song nomi- nations were a weak part of the programming. Of the singers, only Peggy Lee had much of a voice. Joan Crawford, sole star nomi- nee to appear at the Hollywood show, appeared flustered, although she claimed she had no idea of winning She said she bad bet Shirley Booth ?50 that Miss Booth would win. Oddity: Miss Booth made crinoline slip from under Dei Broadway debut in 1925 opposite a juvenile named Humphrey Bogart who won an Oscar last year. dress. She calmly picked it up ant placed it in the car while the onlooking fans howled. Pacts Legislature 1st to Approve European Army Dulles Hails Bundestag Action As 'Step Forward' By BRACK CURRY BONN, Germany Vest Germany emerged today as he first nation to meet America's demand for "clear and visible" irogress toward creation of a two nilh'on roan European army to in- clude German troops. By the sizable margin of 224-165, .he Bundestag (lower house) of the West German Parliament fi- nally approved the treaty last night. Its companion Allied-Bonn Peace Contract was okayed 226- 164. Although the treaties still face stiff legislative and court tests in Germany, the Bundestag was the iirst European legislative cham- ber to act on the army pact au- thorizing recruitment of Germans for service with pro- jected six nation, one uniform Western defense force. Action Laid Down The action laid down a clear challenge to other West European nations, especially France, to get on with ratification of the treaty in their own parliaments. In Washington, Secretary of State Dulles hailed the Bunde- stag's action as "a truly signifi- cant step forward." In a statement issued a few hours after the legis- lative balloting, the secretary said: "There is now increasing likeli- hood that the European Defense Community will become a reality." Dulles had warned European leaders during his February tour of the continent that the American Congress might balk at voting big- scale funds for foreign military aid unless the army project geti rolling by April. Under the companion pact the peace contract the Big Western powers renounce most of their postwar occupation rights and grant West Germany near sover- eignty. Britain and the U. 'S. al- ready have ratified this, leaving only France and West Germany to complete action. In Paris, an official French spokesman was quick to point out that the army treaty "still has to go through the upper house (of the German Parliament) where the vote will be a lot closer and then through the German Supreme Court where Socialists are attack- ing the proposal as' unconstitu- tional." The anti-rearmament Socialists claim the pact would alter the nation's Constitution and therefore requires a two-thirds vote for par- liamentary approval. The margin in the lower house balloting yes- terday was little better than 57 per cent. The German Supreme Court ha.s said it won't rule on this point until after both houses ratify the treaty. important Signal But Chancellor Konrad Adenauer declared the Bundestag vote "will be an important signal to other European partners to ratify the European Army Treaty." He hailed the legislative action as a "political event of first rate im- portance" and said: "I am firmly convinced that hereby the whole work of Euro- pean integration has taken a big step forward. I am convinced all partners will approve the Euro- pean army pacWbut naturally in the course of time." WEATHER FEDERAL FORECAST Winona and Vicinity Cloudy and warmer with showers tonight. Saturday cloudy and' colder with occasional showers mostly in the forenoon. Low tonight 38, high Saturday 48. LOCAL WEATHER Official observations for the 24 hours ending at 12 m. today: 51; minimum, 27; noon, 51; precipitation, none; sun sets tonight at sun rises to- morrow at AIRPORT WEATHER (No. Central Max. temp. 51 at noon, mm. 31 at p. m. Thursday. Noon read- clouds at feet, visibility 15 miles, wind 18 miles per hour from east southeast, i barometer 29.89 steady, humidity j 90 per cent.