Get 1 more page view just for clicking
to like us on Facebook
Winona Republican-Herald, The (Newspaper) - August 18, 1952, Winona, Minnesota Fair Tonight And Tuesday, Temperature Same Tuesday Last Day to Register For Sept. 9 Primary VOLUME 52, NO. 155 SIX-CENTS PER COPY WINONA, MINNESOTA, MONDAY EVENING, AUGUST 18, 1952 EIGHTEEN PAGES TODAY McCarthy Problem For Ike By JOSEPH and STEWART ALSOP WASHINGTON anguished comes from Denver that Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower's toughest campaign problem has split the Republican High Com- mand right down the middle. The divisive problem is what to do about Sen. Joseph R. McCarthy of Wisconsin, Sen. William Jenner of Indiana and the other Republi- cans of their peculiar ilk. Originally Gen. Eisenhower planned to solve this problem by a compromise. He would make a major speech, early in the cam- paign, simultaneously denouncing softness toward Communism in the administration and character as- sassination and smear tactics any- where, including his own party. He w.ould then refrain from visiting Indiana or Wisconsin, and would thus avoid sharing a platform with either McCarthy or Jenner, the twin masters of the modern politi- cal smear. This compromise plan has now been upset by heavy pressure from the Indiana, Wisconsin, Ohio and Illinois Republican organizations, seconded by Arthur Summer- field, Chairman of the Republi- can National Committee. Gen. Eis- enhower's speaking schedule al- ready calls for a major appear- ance in Indiana in the second week of September; while an appear ance in Wisconsin is being consid ered for. later in the month. The official word is being passed out that the general will endorse all Republican candidates in these states, including Jenner and Me Carthy. Test Cases McCarthy and Jenner are test cases for a very special reason. A good many other Republican senatorial and congressional can- didates have persistently and ve- nomously attacked almost every- thing Gen. Eisenhower stands for. But McCarthy and Jenner have an unusual distinction. They have publicly described. Gen. George C. Marshall as a traitor to the United States. Jenner has told the Senate that Marshall was "a liv- ing "a front man for traitors" and a "co-conspirator of treason." In his famous Senate speech against Marshall, McCarthy whol- ly surpassed Jenner. As everyone knows, Gen. Mar- shall stood almost in a father's re- lationship to Gen. Eisenhower, from the humble beginnings to the splendid climax of Gen. Eisenhow- er's military career. The forego- ing gems of modern American elo- quence, taken together with Eis- enhower's relationship to Mar- shall, explain Eisenhower's reluct- ance to offer Jenner and McCar- thy a ride on his coat tails. The arguments that are being used to break down that reluctance amount Reds to Step Up Far East War Ike to Invade South Before Kasson Talk By MARVIN L. ARROWSMITH DENVER Dwight D. Eisenhower, planning a flying foray into the traditionally Democratic South, reportedly is convinced he can swing some Southern states to the Republican column in the November presidential election. The GOP nominee, it was learned, is arranging for a swift tour by plane which will take him into perhaps a dozen major cities in at least 1928, when Herbert it without personally Mrs. Clara Thomas, 74-year- old grandmother, looks at a six-foot, five-inch, 162-pound tarpon she boated at Browns- ville, Tex., after a 45-rmnute battle. It was the heaviest reg- istered tarpon ever caught in Texas waters, topping the pre- vious record by 18 pounds. Shortly after this catch, she boated a second fish which weighed 118 pounds. (AP Wire- photo) Kaiser Accuses Saboteurs of seven Southern states. The Dixie campaign tour un- precedented for a Republican pres- idential candidate is scheduled tentatively to start Sept. 2, the day after Labor Day. Eisenhower is planning to fly south from New York and spend two or days in a whirlwind in- vasion of Democratic strongholds. The decision to campaign in the South was made after the general conferred here' a week ago with an eight-state delegation of Dixie supporters. GOP Has Chance They reportedly convinced him the Republicans have a chance to crack the Solid South for the first time since Hoover did campaigning there. Eisenhower's projected Southern swing by plane will be a departure from the traditional whistle-stop campaigning by train. However, he will turn later to that type of travel. Eisenhower aides planning the Dixie trip say privately it is likely the general will speak in: Richmond, Va.; Atlanta, Ga.; Birmingham, Ala.; Miami and Jacksonville Fla.; New Orleans, La.; Dallas, Ft. Worth and Hous- ton, Tex., and Memphis, Term. The Birmingham speech will take him into the home state of the Democratic vice presidential nominee, Sen. John J. Sparkman. And the tentative plans for visit- ing three Texas cities underscore the Eisenhower camp's optimism about carrying his native state. j Speeches in several of the South- j ern cities will be at the airports. Additional cities with airports able] to accommodate the big DC3 plane in which the general will travel may be put on the itinerary later. Present plans call for an over- night stop in Miami, either Sept. 2 or 3. Plans for the Southern tour j came to light after an announce- ment over the weekend that Eisen- hower will make a major cam- paign address on world peace in Philadelphia Sept. 4. It will be carried nationally on television and radio. At Kasson Sept. 6 Arthur E. Summerfield, chair- Stevenson Maps Major Speaking Tours of Nation First Talk Before American Legion Convention in N.Y. SPRINGFIELD, 111. Uft Gov. Adlai Stevenson and his nine- member strategy board have sketched in broad outline these tac- tics for the Democratic presiden- tial year campaign: Major speaking tours by Steven- son, traveling by train and air- plane, geared for the most part to a television time table. A country-wide speaking barrage by a team of 100 Democratic Sena- tors, representatives, governors and other party leaders. The tecHnique of the 1952 cam- paign, said Sen. Mike Monroney of Oklahoma, will junk "old style ora- tory" in favor of "short, clear presentations" of issues. Monro- ney is chairman of the Democratic National Committee's speakers TAHOE CITY, Calif. UPl In- dustrialist Henry J. Kaiser today accused unknown saboteurs who j man of the Republican National :ampered with two speedboats he I Committee and Eisenhower's can- lad entered in races here of "a paign manager, also announced to a plea that Eisenhower be un- i murderous attempt on my life." jthat the general will make a farm Damage to the powerboats was j policy speech at the National Plow- true to himself. Loss Feared la particular, the Indiana, Wis- consin, Illinois and Ohio leaders have been threatening the general with losing their states, unless he campaigns as a "real Republican." To do this, they say, he must era- brace all other Republicans, in- cluding even McCarthy and Jen- ner. The general may well be sus- ceptible to this sort of pressure, but only because of his political in- experience. -.If he were more ex- perienced, he would know the men who are now pressuring him are the same ones who charged Gov. discovered a half hour before race time yesterday. "I'm sure it was an attempt on my life, one of the most diabolical things I've ever the 69-year- old steel aluminum automobile magnate declared. Harry Johnson, Tahoe City con- stable called on the case, said the sabotage was crude and might he the work of a crank, or of Lake- side residents who have com- plained that Kaiser's boats are too noisy. A hunt for fingerprints was started. Details Worked Out Plans, perhaps in greater detail than announced, were worked out in weekend conferences between Stevenson and his strategy board. Stevenson planned to begin a brief vacation Tuesday at Minoc- qua, Wis. When he returns to his desk and indications were he will con- tinue to occupy the governor's chair while campaigning for the presidency Stevenson faces this rigorous schedule: Aug. 27-28 A series of speeches and appearances before the Amer- ican Legion Convention, Legion Auxiliary meeting, New Yorjc State Democratic Convention, New York Liberal Party Convention in New York City, and a New Jersey Democratic convention. Sept. 1 The campaign "kick- off" speech at Detroit, coinciding with President Truman's opening campaign speech for Stevenson at Milwaukee. Trip to West Coast A few days later his first cam- paign trip, to California, Oregon and Washington, and possibly in- cluding the Southwest, will begin. A plane tour of major Southern cities will be made a bit later. Stevenson cited Saturday his own record as governor of Illinois record questioned by Sen. Everett R. Dirksen, Illinois Repub- lican as the best answer to whether he can "clean up the mess in Washington" if he is elected president. The Illinois governor implied that he would use "ruthless objectivity" ing Contest at Kasson, Minn., jn cleaning house, in a letter to Sept. 6. On Sept. 9 there will be another major address by the general in Indianapolis. He will travel by air in filling all, of those engagements. Along about Sept. 15 he probably will set out by train on a whistle-stop swing around the country. On Wednesday he will fly to Boise, Idaho, for a campaign con- ference with the Republican gov- ernors of 10 Western states. From the State Capitol steps after that Kaiser said he suspected the! meeting he will make what aides tampering was the work of "the have labeled his first frankly polit- the same ones who charged Uov. samg who have (o jcal spe-ech since winning the nom- Thtomas E. Dewey with willfully destroy everything, I've tried tolination. losing in 1948 because of his me buM He did not elaborate. From Boise he will fly to Kansas too" campaign. And Gen. Eisen- hower would also know that this, story about Dewey is patent stuff and nonsense. Take the three states where comparison is possible, Ohio, Il- linois and Indiana. Dewey carried Indiana. He lost Illinois and Ohio by a little over votes and a little over votes respec- tively. Meanwhile, in these same states, the venomously partisan, violently reactionary local Republi- can candidates ran hundreds of of thousands of votes Dewey. The margins ranged from The damage was discovered by Kaiser's mechanic and driver, City, Kan., for a conference Thurs- day with GOP leaders and other Max Collins, after he noticed a j supporters from seven Midwestern hacksaw blade in the bottom of' the 32-foot Gold Cup racer Hot Metal. The boat's main drive shaft had been sawed half way through and the carburetor blower had been stuffed with rags, nuts and bolts. The bilge and hull of a 24- foot runabout had been soaked with an estinatcd five gallons of gaso- i political. line, which could have ignited at j the slightest spark. states. Friday and Saturday will be spent in Denver. Sunday the gen- eral will travel by plane to New York, where the next day he will address the American Legion's na- tional convention. Eisenhower has said that speech will be non- have said. Either sabotage could ___ ____ killed Kaiser 152 m votes in'lndianay where the j The sawed shaft would have "brok- governorship was won by the en and ripped.boat _and driver to Democrat, Schricker, who is now challenging Sen. Jenner, to votes in Illinois, where the gov- ernorship was won by Gen. Eis-1 have jnade fire enhower's present opponent, Adlai Stevenson. Did Not Help Dewey The Indiana, Illinois and Ohio organizations went all out for their local candidates, and they did not lift a finger for Dewey. The in- ference is plain, that in these states Dewey was dragged down by the unappetizing persons on the ticket with him. Add the fact that embracing Sens. McCarthy and Jenner will cost Gen. Eisenhower just about the whole huge inde- pendent vote of the West and East Coasts. The course of political wis- dom then clearly seems to coin- cide with Gen. Eisenhower's na- tural inclination. Such, at any rate, are the argu- ments now being made by Sen. James Duff of Pennsylvania and other leading Republicans who want Gen. Eisenhower to "run as Dwight D. Eisenhower and nobody else." Buttermaking Champ Of Minnesota Picked shreds" and the stuffed blower on ST. PAUL Wi Kenneth Lind- the Gold Cup boat and the gaso- strom of Reynold Creamery at line poured into the runabout would Long Prairie today held the but- 'almost tcrmaking championship of the Minnesota State Fair which opens "industrialist explained it j Saturday. He scored 99.84, an al- was decided at the last minute most .perfect record, to win over that he would pilot the runabout and Collins the Hot Metal, It was widely known, he continued, that he was undecided whether to drive the Hot Metal, an experimental craft. 174 other entrants who submitted what judges termed the highest average quality butter in the fair's history. Chester Thompson, Kettle River Co-operative creamery, "was second with a 99.51 score. TUESDAY LAST DAY TO REGISTER FOR PRIMARY Tonight and Tuesday, and then it'll be too late to register in the city of Winona for -the Sept. 9 state primary election. The city recorder's office on the top iloor of the City Hall will be open from 7 to 9 o'clock tonight. last day to register will be open from 8 a. m. to noon, from 1 to 5 p. m. and from 7 to 9 p. m. You must register: 1. If you have never before voted in the city; 2. if you were registered here but did not vote in 1950 and and have not re-registered since Jan. 1 of this year; 3. if you have moved since last voting here. 1 editor Tom Humphrey of the Ore- gon Journal, Portland, Ore. His letter appeared to accept as fact that there is a "mess" in the na- tion's capital. A Presbyterian minister who is a personal friend of- Stevenson, de- clared from his pulpit in Spring- field Sunday that Sen. Dirksen told a "blatant lie" when Dirksen said recently that Stevenson was "the worst governor we've had since the turn of the century" in Illinois. In his sermon, Rev. Richard Paul Graebel identified the speaker of the "lie" only as a United States senator who is also "an Elder of the Presbyterian Church." But he told reporters later he meant Dirksen. Stevenson was in church to hear the sermon. Termed Irresponsible Graebel called Dirksen "one of the most irresponsible men in the Senate and his own party." Dirksen could not be reached for comment, Stevenson's letter was in answer to one from Editor Humphrey noti- fying the governor that the Oregon Journal was supporting him. Hum- phrey had asked Stevenson ques- tions on various subjects and the governor's reply was published. As to the Stevenson wrote "I can only give my best, with ruthless objectivity, as I have done here, to the pain of the politicians, the gamblers and the businessmen who liked it the old way." Stevenson said he received the nomination "without commitments to anyone about anything in- cluding President Truman." He added that his job is to persuade Members Of The Suburban Oak Forest, HI., fire department work to revive Jack Lee, a fel- low fireman, after he was overcome by smoke battling a blaze in a model airplane factory yes- terday. Four fireman were overcome. George Struzyna, president of the plant, and his brother, Casimir, were critically burned as the lacquer-fed blaze roared through the structure. (AP Wirephoto to The Republican-Herald) Grill Machinist In Murder of FOND DU LAC Arn- old Sook said Sunday certain things didn't add up in the story of a 24-year-old machinist who admit- tedly gave a ride early Saturday Flash Floods Hit England, 39 Dead LYNMOUTH, England toll of known dead rose to 39 today with112 others missing in flash floods that struck a 15-mile stretch of Southwest England's holiday coast Saturday and almost washed this picturesque resort town out to sea. Police said it may be another week before the final toll is known. The coast was crowded with holidayers when the flood struck and it to Agnes Jaeger. The body of the was feared some missing persons might not even be reported yet. Meanwhile, Army engineers pretty 24-yearold telephone opera-j raced desperately against newly tor was found in a field several i threatening skies to corral the hours later, the face battered j surging Lyn River, using dynamite beyond recognition. i and bulldozers to get it back to The man, charged with vagrancy, j its course. It was feared a further was freed on bond Saturday water pileup would spread the still and his case continued to today, j widespread flood waters to a The charge specified that he could i greater area, not account for his whereabouts] New Gales Near from between 2 a. m. and 6 a. m. j of that dav Threatening gales and more rain Sheriff Sook declined to reveal jwere forecast for later today, the alleged discrepancies in thei First estimates put the property man's account of what happened after Miss Jaeger and a compan- ion, Miss June Coyne, also a tele- phone operator, had asked him for a ride home from a tavern. The man stated at his arraignment be- fore Municipal Judge Hazen W. McEssy that he left Miss Coyne off at a corner near her home at about 1 a. m. and about 10 minutes later let Miss Jaeger out in front of the courthouse in downtown to his apartment to wash up, pick- ed up his wife at a relative's home at 2 a. m. and drove her home. The man said he then went to a Couple Held For Kidnaping Texas Girl, 9 DALLAS, Tex, W) Eva Lois Phillips, 9, was back home in Odessa, Tex., today after a ride home with police. Also back in Odessa was Mrs. Helen Corine Woods, 20, who along Lilt WJkJU Jt III UW TTULU 41 Fond du Lac. He said he then went was estimated at more than two million pounds over 5te million damage in the whole flooded area at over seven million pounds (al- most 20 million The catastrophe's full force fell on Lynmputh, a picture postcard little holiday resort which turned with her husband, George Vernon into a boulder-strewn shambles j Woods, 27, was charged with kid- jnaping Eva Lois. The girl was missing from home for four days. Eva Lois is the daughter of C. H. Phillips, who lives in a trailer camp next door to the Woods. Phillips and Eva Lois and two other children live alone. The hus- the placid little Lyn into a torrent boiling through the main street. The flood damage here alone dollars. Twenty houses and 20 ho- tels had disappeared. At least 40 other houses were damaged. friend's house and played cards I Pob'ce sealed the town to pre- until 6 a. m. and those who played) vent looting. More than vil- with him could bear him out. j lagers and holidayers had been The judge said, "You have not evacuated from the ghost village explained your whereabouts tween the hours of 1 and 2.' fowa to Advertise DES MOINES, la. joins the states propagandizing their pro- ducts, scenery or other virtues next year. Iowa's motor license plates for 1953 will carry the words "The Corn State." I to inland ballrooms and halls hasti- i ly converted into refugee centers. Five vacationists, including three Boy Scouts, were listed among the dead and nine vacationists among those missing and presumed dead. Survivors from Lynmouth gave a graphic description of the terror that suddenly burst on them in the night. State GOP Plans Big Ike Welcome band is estranged from dren's mother. Soviet-Chinese Partnership to Be Strengthened Additional Help From Russians Sought by China By ARTHUR GAVSHON LONDON diplomats expressed the view today Russia and Red China may be planning to apply more pressure against the Allies in Korea, Indochina and Japan. Moscow radio quoted Chinese Prime Minister Chou En-Lai as saying he will call for more credit, goods and arms to supplement the 300 million dollar five-year loan granted by Russia two years ago. Additionally, Russian help may be enlisted to rebuild the indus- armament-producing potential of Manchuria in view of the heavy drain imposed on the Chinese by the Korean war. Fulfillment of two other 1950 agreements between Russia and Red China are expected to follow the Moscow talks. The first bound Russia to quit the Port Arthur naval base in Manchuria by the end of this year. The second bound Russia to hand over the Changchun railroads to China, also by the end of the year, British Prime Minister Churchill have been predicting privately for some time that a general switch of Red pres- sures is taking place from Europe to the Far East and particularly to Japan. Plan to Tighten Military Alliance By THOMAS P. WHITNEY MOSCOW UPl Chinese Premier Chou En-lai and Kremlin leaders prepared today for major talks aimed at tightening the military, economic and'political ties of the Chinese-Soviet Communist partner- ship. The Premier, who is also Red China's foreign minister, flew to Moscow yesterday from Peiping with a big delegation that included his deputy premier, Chen Yung, and a sizable group of military I experts. The nature of the top-level dis- cussions between the world's big- gest Communist nations was kept secret. It was evident, however, that military questions would rank high among those taken up since Chou brought along the deputy chief of Peiping's general staff, Su Yui: his Air Force commander, Lyu jYa-Jow; Deputy Navy Commander Lo Shun Chu. and Deputy Com- mander of Artillery Tsu Chuan. Closer Ties Sought Judging by others in the party, closer economic bonds will be sought also in the talks. Economic specialists with Chou included Min- ister of Heavy Industry Wan Hao- shou, Minister of Fuel Chen Yui, Deputy Minister of Communica- tions Wang Cheng. Deputy Minis- ter of Machine Building Wang Tao- han and economic expert Li Fu- ghung. Mrs. Woods, who has no chil- the chil-1 On the political side were the head of the Asian department of the Peiping Foreign Ministry, Chen Chia-kan; the chief of the the country that it can have changing and that "the hazard of changing parties may bring bad with good changes." Milk Hike Expected In Minneapolis MINNEAPOLIS W price of home-delivered mijk in the Min- neapolis area is expected to go up By THE ASSOCIATED PRESS Minnesota Republican leaders today w-ere preparing "a terrific" welcome for their party's top man Dwight D. when he flies into the state Sept. 6. Meantime, with the state pri- mary election less than a month off, campaigning stepped up for the state offices. The general speaks about noon Sept. 6 to farmers and others at- tending the National Soil Conser- vation Day and Plow Matches near Kasson, in the southeastern part of the state. Henry Snow Farm P. Kenneth Peterson, Republican state central committee chairman, said he and other Minnesota Re- publican leaders planned to be on one cent to 22 cents for the first hand when the GOP presidential quart. The boost is expected to candidate lands at Rochester. Then come following an increase Friday of 52 cents a hundredweight. The1 they will drive the 17 miles to the out details of what he said be "a terrific" welcome for ihc general. Robert Hurrlc, Rochester, pro- gram manager for the big farm event, estimates 100.000 persons will hear Gen. Eisenhower when he speaks from a plank platform on the Snow farm. The platform is to be erected in a natural amphi- theater that covers about 18 acres. Address Broadcast Hurrle said radio broadcasting companies are arranging for lines to the Snow farm to carry Eisen- hower's talk, expected to be de- livered between a.m. and p.m. In case of rain, the platform is to be protected by tent- ing. Two state political figures speak next Sunday at the annual Mon- son Lake Observance, near Will- mar. Sen. Hubert H. Humphrey will discuss public affairs from the ___ Henry Snow farm, one of the j Democratic standpoint and State farms being used for the conser- Auditor Stafford King will seek to The price of additional home-jvation day events, delivered quarts of milk is expect- i Peterson was meeting today with ed to go up a cent to 20 cents. 1 other state party officials to work further his campaign for the Re- publication nomination for gover- nor in the Sept. 9 state primary. dren, told officers she wanted all j soviet and Eastern Europe depart- the Phillips children. "I told my husband that I was going to take Eva Lois. He said it was all right if I did. .He said he would meet me in Dallas in a week. I haven't heard from him since then." And Eva Lois said it was all right with her. too. "I've been having a good she told newsmen, "but I wish it had been during school time. But I do want to get back home to daddy." Before the woman and child were found here Saturday night, the girl had been the object of a search since Wednesday by hun- dreds of police and volunteers throughout West Texas. WEATHER FEDERAL FORECAST Winoaa and Vicinity Generally fair tonight and Tuesday with lit- tle change in temperature. Low to- night 57, high Tuesday SO. LOCAL WEATHER Official observations for the 24 hours ending at 12 m. Sunday: Maximum, 79; minimum, 60; noon, 75; precipitation, trace. Offical observations for the 24 hours ending at 12 m. today: Maximum, 78; minimum, 54; noon, 78; precipitation, none; sun sets tonight at sun rises to- morrow at AIRPORT WEATHER (CAA Obttrvati'oni) Max. temp. 78 at p. m. Sun- day, min. 53 at a. m. today. Noon .at and feet, scattered; visibility 15 five miles per hour from southeast, barometer 30.15 steady, humidity 76. Additional weather on page 8. ment, Hsui Yi-hsin, and the min- istry's political secretary, Shih Cheh. The Chinese got a full red-car- pet reception by top Soviet leaders at the the high importance the Russian govern- ment attaches to the conference. Replying to the official welcome, Chou paid tribute to the "brother- ly and unselfish aid" which China is receiving from the Soviet Union and said he had come to strengthen co-operation between the two coun- tries even further. Chou's last conference in Mos- cow, in January, 1950, preceded the Korean War by six months. May Broaden Pact It appeared certain the new talks will aim at expanding collab- oration within the scope of the 1950 Soviet-Chinese Friendship and Mutual Aid Pact, the formal basis of the two countries' present close relationship. It is expected an at- tempt will be made also to broaden the pact and augment it with ad- ditional agreements. The Chinese are almost certain to ask for aft increase in their 300-million-dollar credit for the purchase of Russian Industrial transport and agricultural equip- ment and for more Soviet techni- cal aid. They will likely seek also expansion of Soviet-Chinese trade to counter the West's partial block- ade of China. Clauses of the 1950 agreement providing for Russia to return the Port Arthur naval base and Man- churian-Railway to China are due for discussion since the agree- ments were to be implemented ei- ther when the Japanese peace was concluded or by the end of 1952, whichever was earlier. It is thought here that a Chinese request for the return of the base and railway will bring a sympa- thetic Soviet response.
Once upon a time newspapers were our main source of information. Now those old newspapers are a reliable source for hundreds of years of history and secrets of the past. Now you can search for people, places, and events without the hassle of sorting through mountains of papers!
Newspaper Archive is the world's largest online newspaper database featuring over 130 million newspaper pages. Plus our database expands by one newspaper page per second for a total of around 2.5 million pages per month! The value of your membership grows along with it.
Those looking to find out more about their forefathers can empower their genealogy search with Newspaper Archive. Within our massive database, users can search ancestors' names for news stories and obituaries. We must understand our past to understand our future!
24 hours a day Monday-Saturday
Your full introductory membership payment will be credited toward the cost of full membership any time you choose to upgrade!
"It is amazing how easy and exciting it is to access all of this information! I found hundreds of articles about my relatives from Germany! Well worth the subscription!" - Michael S.
"I love this site. It's interesting to read articles about different family members. I've found articles as well as an obituary about an uncle who passed away before I was born, and another about a great aunt. It's great for helping with genealogy." - Patricia T.
"A great research tool. Allows me to view events and gives me incredible insight into the stories of the past." - Charles S.