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Pella Weekly Herald (Newspaper) - August 23, 1892, Pella, Iowa , ~---r-<:"";v 'WJ' OLUME 3. PELLA, IOWA, FRIDAY AUGUST 23 1892 NUMBER 40, OBLEMS OF TAXATION, OR THE SINGLE TAX ON LAND VALUES. REMEDY FOR EXISTING SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC ILLS. An address by C. S. Eastman before "The Live Issue Club," Omaha, Jan. 27, 1892. LOOKING BACKWARD," �In that original state of things which proceeded botli the monopo-c appropriation of land and the accumulation of wealth by the few, whole produce of labor belonged to the laborer, and he had neither lord nor master to share with him. Then if man's hrst perceptions ishce and moral rights had not been dulled and warped by that 5and "reed in tne race for gain, so manifest in our time, and -dcontinued to treat aright the purpose of the broad, fair earth ehim, containing as it did all the forces and elements to satisfy an desires, which if not misdirected, being a guarantee of centuries appiness and progress in moral and material life this earth, so olivtne Creator of all things, given to man-all men-as an in-'lance forever, providing with it, in the grand scope of His economy, llknce to man to so direct the forces of nature to conduce to his lure and advance, and the use of certain elements for the renewal of hforces when worn out. And if man had not abused the faculty of intelligence ami by avarice ami loss of moral sensibilities thwarted beneficent designs of his Maker. If the power and intelligence of a men had not imposed on the weakness and ignorance of other men, idbly seized and turned into monopolies the opportunities ami : of nature intended for all men, thereby denying the universal and rights of all men, then iudeud, the suffering, private-nines and the immoralities of the centuries would not have been, history would liave been different. Why is it that in this marvelous era of inventions and progress, nimproved machinery and the various ingenious devices are being vitaifor the aid and efficiency of labor and the creation of wealth, nscionec and intelligence are developing and applying forces that are increasing the wealth of the world, when experience and intelli-eshould be able to handle the generous material conditions, to pro* moral and material prosperity, continuously to all men? That in-of which we are all familiar with the economic phenomena known iressions," "hard times," scarcity of money and other ills of the "'ma world? It is well known that these ills are common to all iesregardless of climate ami kind of government; and are notiee-F more intense in countries of the greatest material progress, where th is the greatest and population the densest. If so, it must be evi-liat there must be a common cause. Wise and experienced doctors fowceand business men have tried to solve this problem and not agree, yet all look wise and each gives his opinion ex cathedra. .Some say it is from "over consumption;" others give itoutas "over 'notion," demand and supply of labor, etc., &u. Clearly a eontra-hon. But it stubbornly remains the enigma of our times. The con-ltauts of the phenomena mentioned, are facts ami experiences with thwc are all familiar. They are tin') deadening discouragements of vainly seeking employment; conditions that produce the tramp, the I that create in the midst of the greatest material progress, aa'or aiui we. where in the roach of abundance thousands, starve, f�ty and misery that excite the interest of charity and philanthropy, solution aud cure of which the socio-economic experts try in to bring about. With some it is popular to reconcile it with the itrcss and poverty exist because of the inscrutable decree of ,*nce, a reason that should be repugnant to us as incompatible with ttat ideas of His tenderness and mercy. But.instead, that poverty can largely be laid at the door of the maladjustment of human ' and the ' can I believe be made clear. THE GENESIS OF TAXATION. N The history of taxation is'the history of man politically and socially, 18 man multiplied on the face of the earth and on account of his nous tendencies and social instincts, it was inherent in the situa- _ ^governments should be formed and for political and sanitary " lilttlle Peol)le must be assessed or taxed for the support of such intent. � The manner of raising taxes has varied with the time of history and ient'H C1V,'lii!ation'tl,e modes invariably more or less crude and on .-^principles. The history of tax raising from the earliest ich'th^ �'eXt0rtion and cruelties'tno n,ost conspicuous feature whTtt*8 P��r oltt8308 were the, oppressed and bore the bur-Itheir riCh privileSed clllS80B through various schemes Ptiac'TS'lare *'16 0l,rrent 8ystem may uo based on nearer scien-lihoroiol",a"^?.rl.erfcaxat-ion' but it is too true that the poor and greater share of the burden the same as monopoly of the opportunities and forces of nature by w classes still bear the ........._____......----aa'UKW ! brethren of earlier times. Ft is true to that it is not quite so ap-Jwniwltls more refined in its mode of application and op-masses, white having a vague consciousness of beiug wrongod, *4'on the queatlonof their rights and their place in society, t� ignorance, law,, U8ageB and the press. Also, through genera-"Wentsubmissions to conditions which at Hrst excited their �W. but seeing no way out of it, gradually grew to accept what to'Uabioy yet always Inexplicable The present popular systems are, import, export and stamp duties, ami assessments on personal and real properties. The first three, being indirect, are easily imposed and collected, as they become pint of the price of the goods when such goods reach the consumer and cannot be detected, hence not realized. But taxes on real and personal property are more tangible, because we put our hands in our pockets and pay such taxes in cold cash. 1 am persuaded that few of us do so without a feeling that it is an extortion aud too much, that the next time we will "fix" Ui<; assessor and be less conscientious in giving in our personal worth. These two last and too common expedients alonoxwould seem sound reasons for some correction. I would like to go back and trace up the history of this subject to show that while we have advanced in material things, the arts and civilization, we have made bu^ few steps in the art of scientific and equil-able taxation. But in the art of making the extortion loss real, in the art of educating the masses to the acceptance of the results as pan of the economy of nature and the laws of the survival of the fittest, through the channels of those moulders of public opinion, the press, homilies from the pulpit and the stump orator, dealing in platitudes, iridescent generalities and optimistic .'prophesies of the future on present lines, all tending to throw dust in the eyes of the masses, confusing them as to their rights and wrongs, and to take existing conditions as natural and should be accepted in a sensible and pliilsoophie. spirit. I will prove why our current systems are inequitable and illogical and are born by those least able to bear more than their share; tending to create monopolies and privileged classes, the source of bribery ami corruption, aud are so complex that the machinery for their collection is costly through its army of tax eators. Few of us are so innocent as to believe that honest returns are made on personal property. Perhaps in no other way do men scheme and exercise such ingenuity to escape taxation as in swearing to their per sonal worth. The elasticity of the conscience is amazing. It surely is the best field for the Father of Lies to encourage prevarication as offering the greatest returns for the least effort. The facilities for the evasion of personal taxation are boundless. Of the incompetency and corruptibility of assessors, the impossibility of reaching the valuables, jewelry, stocks, bonds, etc., in the hands of the. very rich and monopolists, we are well aware of. No one will deny the farce of the returns they make. Compare from year to year the reports of the increase of real estate values, then in the same way compare the reports on the personal property: values* and it will be noticed that while realty values have iiicreajptt^ejBi'Jj^Hinpnear^tp tiejno increnselnjiet^; i^tf^r^'infwiyD^ebs this yeaT tfrnnTifst.- ' *' ~* ,v - sUnality Wealth As wealth, production* and the arts increase, so does personal wealth increase. It is understood by economic statisticians that improvements and personality, values will on the average reflect the value of the land on which they rest. But take the latest returns of personal wealth and we are amazed at the poverty of the country. Compare the chaucesof the poor to evade taxation. Where is the assessor who has a motive to be light on the poor mechanic's tools, the widows cow, the sewing machine of the seamstress in the large cities, who, to eke out a precarious existence with her machine, perhaps making shirts at $1.00 or less per dozen. The men and women who are small property holders, the mass of whom are too timid or too ignorant of the ingenious devices by which the wealthy escape. Trustees of the estates of widows anil orphans have not the pecuniary interest to prevent full returns of properties in their care. If tho rich and influential thus escape their share, and the poor and the estates of orphans bear more than their share, it needs no fine casuistry to point out where the wrong is. To correct this unequal taxation aud force fair and full returns has been found impossible. It has been tried in all countries for centuries since taxation was seriously thought of. In ancient Borne, so dull was consciences, yet so shrewd were men that the use of cruel torture failed to wring from them a true account of their wealth. The devices of the peasant farmers of England to evade the unjust hearth tax, and the cruel torture used to collect it in that era is a part of history. Likewise the tax farming of England and France. The Hies of the press at the season of assessments, the contests before boards 0f equalization, tho proved ease of evasion by the rich, and the crushing weight on the .poor and other glaring proofs are sound and urgent reasons why a remedy should bo looked for. Johnson's Encylopedia says of taxation: "On this, the prevalent moral sentiment is low-consciences are too weak to resist the strong temptations to make false representations, and commit perjury when deteetien is impossible. In theory it is admitted that taxation to be equitable must draw in duo proportion from all kinds of property; but the attempt to fairly apply this fails, and involves such a manifest and glaring inequality that a cry is raised for a reform." One might right here be tempted to stop ami moralize on the vieioiisness of such a system, to prove that if private conscience gets to so low an ebb, what can be expected of the public conscience. How it foments discontent among the masses, who realize they are in some way discriminated against, and are not so dull but that they see it keeps them poor. I believe! have made it clear how unjust and how much of a farce it is to try and impose and collect a tax on personal properties. My next object will be to make it clear that the current methods of taxing real property is based on wrong principles and that the results are far-reaching in their influence upon the liberty aud happiness of the people. If the current system is based On any method or supposed correct principles of political economy at all, I believe it is restingon false premeses based on, false assumptions, which create confusion and most of the financial phenomena oxporjeneod in the business world. The treatment of the relation of land to woalth, labor, interest, rent and the fiscal ;md economic affairs of society and government should be understood. At an early period of man's existence and the forming of communities proceeded it was realized that government was needed, and civilization developed, the need of schools, police and sanitary regulations, as a benefit to sooloty at large hence the people must contribute to a fund for that purpose in proportion-to the interest each one has to be benefited, and a fund for such purposes must be raised by a tax levy. From time immemorial all kinds of schemes have been tried. To tax this, to tax that, tax on incomes, tax .on occupations, tax on productions, tax on Gontiniiedonpitgudtli^ To The Patrons ol The Public Schools. Pella Last \car was pleasant and harmonious, and the work done by both teachers and pupils was earnest, and progressive. Next year, more than ever, will hard study lie a necessity on the part of those who are to succeed. Great care will be taken on the part of teachers and .superintendent in regard to promotions, and special effort will be made to determine fully the merits of each one and to be honest and frank with parents. Then! is often an inclination cm the part of some parents to urge the promotion of children before they are prepared for the work of the. next grade. While it is an unpleasant duty to. perform it is necessary to say "no" to such demands and take a firm stand for a high standard of scholarship, I desire to speak most sincerely of the general etlicieney of our corps of teachers, anil their hearty co-operation in everything that tends to build up our schools. 1 thank the Board of Education for their firm support and uniform courtesy, and the people in general for words of encouragement so often given. The work of public education is a difficult one, and it is only when all its friends are united that the best results can be attained. We bespeak for our schools the coming year your sympathy and aid. What we wanted to say par-ticularlv is this: The years worn will begin Monday, Sept. 5th. bond all ehildrefrtUfljt^^^ , � * Cordially, J. H, Gahbek, Supt. IOWA STATE PAIR, PKATtriiES Of TIIH GICBAT KXTOSITION THIS VEAIt. The Iowa State Fair begins at Dos Moines on August 26 and will oloso on September 2. The premiums offered aggregate $35,000, and are liberal in all tin; departments of stock, farm, garden, dairy, workshop and household. "The Iowa State Fair always pays all premiums awarded in full. There are barns for a thousand horses and cattle, pens for thousands of hogs and sheep, a line largo poultry house, ami commodius buildings for the display of fine arts, grain and grasses, pantry and kitchen, fruits and flowers, dairy implements, machinery, etc. The grounds are beautifully located and well supplied with water and all conveniences for the comfort and pleasure of exhibitors and visitors. In a natural grove ot timber there is a magnificent camping ground, lighted by electricity and provided with water. Those coming with teams, the horses will be separated from tho camp to prevent accidents. All this is provided free to those who enjoy the pleasure of camp-life in a pleasant and independent way, and at the same time enjoy the fair. All Iowa railroads make a half-fair rale to the fair. Premium lists and all additional information may be had by addressing tho seoratrry, John K. Shatler, at Des Moinis, A carpenter by the name of M. S. Powers fell from the roof of a house in East Des Moines, Iowa, ami sustained a painful and serious sprain of the wrist, which he cured with one bottle of Chamberlain's Pain Balm. He says it is worth $5 a bottle. It cost him 50 cents. For salo at Brinkhoff's Pntg* storo Bucklens Arnica Salve The Best Salve in the world for Cuts Bruises Sores Ulcers Salt.'Rheum Fever Sores Totter Chapped Hands Chilpain' Corns and all Skin Eruptions rad positively cures Files or no pay required It is guaranteed to give perfect satisfaction or money refunded I'rioeSQ ct per box For Sale B F Koables 4 m m x m ft m r it m m G G to Hf \
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