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Mason City Globe-Gazette (Newspaper) - March 26, 1945, Mason City, Iowa NORTH IOWAS DAILY PAPER EDITED FOR THE HOME DEPARTMENT Of HISTORY ANO AHCHIVt THE NEWSPAPER THAT VOL U Associated Press asd Unitid Press Full Leaned Wire Cents a Cop3l One Mans Opinion A Radio Commentary bj W EARL HALL Managing Editor BROADCAST SCHEDULE KGLO City Suadiy p m KSCJ Sioni City Sundiy p m WOI Amu Wtdneidy t ra WSUJ City Wcdncitey p m Qulncy 111 Thuidar p m Good Neighborship Policy Progresses ALL THINGS considered United States 2 policies toward the other nations of the western hem Monroe doctrine promulgated in 1823 and good neighborship conceived by Dwight Morrow in 1926 and formally launched by Franklin D Roose velt in been measur ably advanced by the PanAmeri can conference recently com pleted in the Chapultepec castle near Mexico City Under the Monroe doctrine we appointed ourselves bit brother and protector of the weaker na tions of both North and South America With suggestive help al least from Great Britain we told the rest of the Europe and especially that we would countenance no in terference with affairs of the western hemisphere In the beginning this doctrine enunciated by President Monroe had the enthusiastic blessing of the republics the south ot us It was regarded as an assurance of security against the great and growing pressures from Europe Spain At that time we had not achieved the status of Colossus of the North AS THE YEARS passed by however frictions began to develop as between our country and the weaker nations we had agreed under the Monroe doctrine to protect Under a somewhat overstretched interpretation the document we made that doc trine a pretext for interceding in what the LatinAmerican coun tries conceived to be their Internal affairs When British influence was ex erted on the Falkland islands we conveniently were looking the other way When we wanted space for a canal we trotted out the big stick to acquire it When our com mercial interests were imperilec inNicaragua Mexico arid else where we acted through the me dium of marines or soldiers All the while of course 2 pow erful at least in comparison with other Latin American grow inr np in South America One of these was Brazil the other wa Argentina Perhaps Mexico should be included in this category Strains and stresses based on jealousy developed The result was that in 1926 when Dwight Morrow was Sent to Mexico City as ambassador by his old Amherst college friend Calvin Coolidge the United States had become the worlds best bated nation south of the Rio The term was one of pronounced opporbrium Mr Morrow a banker and busi ness executive sensed from the beginning of his ambassadorial service in Mexico that a principal source of this great and growing friction was Uncle Sams big brother attitude The Latins just didnt cotton to our proprietarv interest in them to our attitude of superiority THIS WAS THE beginning of good neighborship The term had its first actual expres sion in an address on foreign af fairs made by President Herbert Hoover It remained however for President Roosevelt in 1933 to in augurate this concept of inter American relations on a formal basis It was then that we began doing business on a partnership basis Under any fairminded apprais al it would have to be conceded that relations between Uncle Sam and his American neighbors have improved these past 20 years Ex cept for Argentina which I shall discuss later in this commentary our ties have been strengthened and our friendship increased This is reflected in the fact that every American republic save Argentina and tiny El Salvador is a member of the united nations today Im not sayine that no mistakes have been made in the working out of our policy or good neigh borship Im not saying it because it isnt true Mistakes some of them rather serious have been made Some of these I saw at close range during my factfind ing mission to South America 4 years ago ALL IM SAYING is that the net result of good neighbor ship has been decidedly on the plus side of the ledger Relations between the United States and the other republics of the western hemisphere are more cordial to day than have ever been within the memory of any person now living And for proof of this we have only to turn to that PanAmeri can conference recently held at Mexico City The principal act of that parley was one in which the participating nations committed themselves to the obligation to Cantiaoea on Page Z MASON CITY IOWA JHOXPAY MARCH 25 1945 MAKES ALL NORTH IOWANS NEIGHBORS 1SLARMYDRIVES 22 MILES STAUNREPORTS NEW OFFENSIVE ABOVE DANUBE Germans Shift Troops From Italy to Meet Coming Vienna Assault London Marshal Stalin announced Monday night the opening of a new offensive north of the Danube in Slovakia and said Banska Bystrica former headquarters of a Czechoslovakia underground uprising had been captured SThe push by Marshal Rodion Malinovskys 2nd Ukranian army was the 4th offensive launched by the Russians up the Danube and in Silesia in a converging drive on Vienna Moscow said the enemy has shifted forces from Italy and the sagging western front for defense of the Austrian capital The fall of Banska Bystrica 12 miles above captured Zvolen and 75 miles north of Budapest meant the Russians had forced the Hron river The town is about 100 miles southeast of Marshal Ivan Kon evs forces attacking Ratibor near the Moravian gateway into the German inner redoubt where Hit lers SS men are reported cach ing underground supplies for their last stand Banska Bystrica was the scene of a premature Czechoslovak up rising last autumn when the Rus sians were first invading eastern Slovakia The Germans announced they had liquidated the patriot force Berlin radio announcers said 9 Russian Infantry divisions and a tank corps plus other tank units were attacking on the Berlin front west of Kuestrin toward Seelow 23 miles east of Berlin but Mos cow had no confirmation Along the Baltic the Russians bad broken into Danzigs north western suburbs andihe Ger mans said Gdynia had been pene trated as well Below the Danube the Russians bypassed the fortress of Komarom and were fighting west of the stronghold Two Russian armies already had overrun fourfifths of Hun gary below the Danube and their spearhead was within 36 miles of the Austrian border and 77 miles southeast of Vienna Marshal Feodor Tolbukhins third Ukrainian army and Marshal Rodion Malinovskys sec ond Ukrainian army pushing up the Danube on the south side of that gateway had left the Vertcs mountains and Bakony forest be hind them and were rapidly out Hanking Komarom Severely mauled the Germans fell back intoa well fortified tri angle formed by the cities of Gyor Sopron Odenburg and Szombathely St ei n a the last big cities of western Hun gary This area is crisscrossed by the already swollen Marcal Raba Csorna and Guens rivers however and Moscow dispatches said all signs pointed to the most stubborn opposition despite German losses of 1000 tanks and 83000 prisoners in the last few days Vienna probably will be defended as stoutly as Berlin Moscow said In this area between Lake Bala ton and Lake Neusiedlcr just in side Austria the Russians were batlqring ahead only 6 miles south of Komarom 20 miles northeast of Gyor They were fighting further west about ID miles from Gyor To the southwest they were 4 miles outside Papa 25 miles south of Gyor and 40 miles east of Szombathely Sopron in a tip of Hungary southwest of Lake Neusiedler is the westernmost point of the Ger man triangle and It was about 50 miles from the Russian col umns Tolbukhin and Malinovsky had effected a junction in the neigh borhood of KJsber 22 miles south east of Gyor Malinovsky was attacking Kis ber from Szbend 6 miles to the northeast while Tolbukhin was 8 miles south of the town The Russians had not confirmed Hie start of the offensive north of the Danube but Moscow dis patches said such a drive appeared probable as part of the manydi rectional advance upon Vienna Col Gen Ivan Pctrovs 4th Ukrainian army in northeni Slo vakia appeared likely to siring into motion as a part of the plan said these Moscow reports Official Russian announcements were silent concerning Konevs drive south and southeast of Bres au in Silesia where he was re ported by the Germans to have crossed into Czechoslovakia at several places German resistance had stiffened rreatly in the passes in the Sudet enland mountains but Konev was 1 still hammering at a point about 160 miles north of Vienna f CROSSING THE RHINE the British 2nd army in Buffaloes dash across the Rhine river near Xanten Germany to cross to the east bank which is visible m the background CONSIDER RAISE IN MEAT PRICES Would Break Black Market Insure Supply Washington prices for consumers were pro jebiedat asenate food investiga tion Monday as a means of break ing the black market and provid ing better distribution of avail able supplies Wilbur La Roe Jr counsel for the National Independent Meat Packers association told of losses he said packers have suffered for months on their operations Sen ator Ellender DLa com mented The only solution as I under stand your argument would be to raise the price to the consuming public No you can increase the sub sidy interjected Senator Aiken Is there any way to break the black market except by getting a fair price for producers pro cessors and dealers asked Sen ator Shipstead I dont know of any La Roe replied Senator Lucas DIll pressed for a suggestion as to what con gress should do in the present meat situation alter Ln Roe tes tified that packers under OPA regulations have lost money for 2 years on operations have avoided bankruptcy only by prof its on hogs and since August have been losing on hogs He hoped La Roe replied that OPA could be persuaded to change its regulations He sug gested that the senate committee call in Price Administrator Ches ter Bowles and talk to him about it Many of 1944s ration mistakes are known now to have been caused by military and civilian official belief that Germany was considerably nearer defeat than she proved to be Both the OPA and the treasury are moving against meat black marketeers And perhaps some of ficials are considering methods or enticing legal steaks to market War Food Administrator Marvin Jones confirmed to the United Press reports that there are about 80000000 head of beef cattle on the range That is a record breaking number Jones refused to speculate why these steaks and roasts remain on the hoof Some meat packers contend that this beef does not come to mar ket because OPA ceilings are too low to permit profitable market ing A United States Chamber of Commerce publication blames food shortages on disregard of the facts of the situation by government of ficials This shortage said the CofC is the payoff for a longcontinued disregard of the basic conditions essential for the continued pro duction of adequate food supplies Jones told the United Press that nobodys going hungry in this ountry but he said there would e no immediate relief even with he fall of Germany Unofficial es timates that very few men will be discharged from the armed serv ccs for other than medical rea sons prior to defeat of Japan sug gest that the war and navy depart ments will continue to draw hesv ly on home supplies Tokyo Claims 2000 Yank Invasion Troops Attempting to Land in Okinawa Group Guam Tokyo said Monday that 2000 American invasion troops were storming 2 and perhaps 3 tiny islands in tne Okinawa Coward Japan proper only A broadcast quoted by HBC by the Americans tried to get ashore on Okinawa island the principal island in the group Thirteen aircraft carriers II battleships 10 cruisers 32 de stroyers and other smaller craft were supporting the invasion with a terrific air and naval bombard ment that began Friday Japanese broadcasts said The troops attempted to land from 100 invasion barges on Tokoshika and Aka 4 and 5 mites respectively west of the southern end of the airnaval base island of Okinawa itself at a m Tokyo time Sunday Tokyo said One broadcast said invasion barges also approached Zamami just northwest of Tokoshika Though not saying specilically that the Americans had succeeded in landing on Tokoshika and Aka Tokyo reported that our garri son units are now intercepting en emy forces which attempted a landing Another broadcast said the gar risons were offering stiff re sistance There was no official confirma tion of the landings available at Pacific fleet headquarters but 1 and possibly 2 task forces of the Pacific fleet were known to be in the Okinawa area Headquarters did confirm that battleships other warships and carrier planes had bombarded Kerama Hetto includes Tokoshika Aka and along with Okinawa and other islands in the Ryufcyu chain stretching from the south ern tip or Japan to Formosa on Friday and Saturday A landing in the Okinawa group wo old put American ground forces nearly twice as close to the Japanese homeland as the ma rines on newlycaptured Iwo 696 miles south of Japan How ever luo lies only 750 miles south of Tokyo whereas Tokoshika is nearly 1000 miles away The Okinawa group also is less than 400 miles from the China coast at a point south of Shanghai Tokoshika and the other islands m the Kerama Retto appeared of no importance themselves except as bases from which to attack Okinawa site of a naval base and important air installations mid way between Kyushu southern the Japanese home islands and Formosa Okinawa largest island in the KToup of the same name is 67 dlh of 10 miles Thicklypopu lated it has some 450000 inhabi tants of which 66000 are concen trated in the Naha area of the southwest coast opposite Toko snika Japanese reports of landing op erations in the Okinawa group followed announcements at Guam of the sinking of 8 Japanese ships in the northern Ryukyus Satur day and the wrecking of 6 indus Iowa Argues Key School Bill Bes Moines house in volved itself Monday irrarguments as to whether the state superin tendent of public instruction should be elected or appointed Under consideration was one of the key school code bills a measure proposing reorganization of the state department of public instruc tion The bill as passed by the senate would provide a state board of public instruction of 1 mem bers appointed by the governor the board to appoint the slate su perintendent Rep Fred Schwengel HDav enport sought to amend the bil by providing an elected state board of public instruction of 8 members one from each congres sional district and leaving the state superintendent elective by all of the people as at present The house recessed until Mon day afternoon without taking any action on the measure other than to defeat a motion to defer con sideration of the measure until Tuesday Schwengel reviewed education al development in loira and as serted the state held a high place among the states in the accom plishment of education He con tended the 8member elective board would be more responsive to the people than the 7 member appointive board He said the su perintendent should remain the choice of all the people Rep F A Latchaw HWilton Junction criticized the Schwen gel plan as cumbersome He said it would make the board farther removed from the people than the appointive plan He contended the superintendent now was concern ed daily with political problems and thnt an appointive superin tendent would be removed from politics latchaw also declared that a board elected by congressional districts and a superintendent chosen by he stale as a whole would cause constant friction if not actual contention between the board and the superintendent He declared the measnre was one of the key school code bills that it uas worked out by persons fi miliar with schools and that the proposals outlined In the senate bill the result of a study covering 4 years SHARP CLASHES Rome patrolling became more aggressive along the 5th army front in Italy Monday and there were a number of sharp clashes particularly in the area southwest of Bologna DAVIS IN LONDON London Davis di rector of the office of war infor VOTING HEAVY IN CITY ELECTION 1895 Ballots Cast by in Mason City A total of 1895 votes had been cast in the municipal election in Mason City by oclockMon day afternoon indicating com paratively heavy balloting Voters in this election were se lecting a complete slate of city of ficers under the mayor and coun cil form of government to which the city will change the first Monday in April Voting started at 7 oclock Mon day morning in the 8 precinct voting places in the city Polls will be open until B p m The vote by precincts at p m was as follows 1st precinct 1st ward 239 2nd precinct 1st ward 162 1st precinct 2nd ward 400 2nd precinct 2nd ward 202 1st precinct 3rd ward 315 2nd precinct3rd ward 187 1st precinct 4th ward 258 2nd precinct 4th ward 132 TOTAL Polling places are as follows 1st precinct 1st administration building 2nd precinct 1st water works plant 1st precinct 2nd house 2nd precinct 2nd Kinley school 1st precinct 3rd Motor company 2nd precinct 3rd velt junior high 1st precinct 4th and R Chevrolet garage 2nd precinct 4th Refrigerator company 620 South Federal Eaker Says German Air Force Grounded Rome CfPj Lt Gen Ira C Eaker chief of the Mediterranean allied air force declared Monday that the German air force is virtually grounded Noting that the last 6 German oil refineries still in operation within range of his bombers have now come under attack he said Every day our pilots see a modern German fighting force parked on airdromes for lack of fuel They i average 20 missions daily We average more than 2 000 The luftwaffe is virtually grounded I mean just that 9th Cuts Lippe Line 3rd Paris S 1st array tanks drove 22 miles through disorganized German lines northeast of Coblenz Monday and in the north the American 9th armor cracked through nazi de fenses on the Lippe river east of Dorsten 17 miles from the Knme In the south American 3rd army troops besieged Frank luit and had dashed across the Main river to Aschaffenburg miles southwest of Betv lin seizing a bridge intact Believe Raid Hit Formosa Power Plant Manila bombers were believed Monday to have Paralyzed all enemy war produc tion in twothirds of Formosa by shattering the islands big Jitsu getsu HydroElectric plant More than SO Liberators and escorting Lightnings from the 5th airforce hit the hydroelectric in stallations Friday with 145 tons of explosives which wrecked the Poiver plant and transformers A communique said the raid left water pouring from the pen stocks and a spokesman estimated the attack knocked out 75 per cent hydroelectric gener The whole southern twothirds of Formosa and its war industries Hoge Makes Habit of Taking Intact Bridges With V S 3rd Army Gen William Hpge is making a habit of capturing important German bridges intact Hoge commanded the combat force which seized the Remagen bridge over the Rhine in a coup that gave the 1st army its entry into the heart of Germany Now Hoge transferred from the ath armored division to command of the famous 4th armored divi sion of the 3rd army has taken the Aschaffenburg bridge over the main river east of Frankfurt airforce staff member said follow ing a study of reconnaissance pho tographs AH southern Formosa will suf fer an enforced blackout and its industries an enforced layoff he said The probability of repair is out of the question because all transformer stations were de stroyed and generator stages in the Plants received a number of di rect hits by 2000pound bombs The plant which was divided into 2 sections and powered by water from Jitsugetsu lake had a total of 170000 rkjlowats Among tne main war factories to feel the power loss will be the two large aluminum plants at Takao and Karenko They have an estimated 40000toii capacity each and arc Believed to have provided la per cent of Japans aluminum supply One Liberator was lost to anti aircraft fire In the Jitsugetsu raid which was the 2nd 145ton strike in 2 days on Formosa While the 5th air force was concentrating on the island fort ress search and patrol planes of the rth fleet ranged over the Lhma sea to continue the block ade of Japans shipping lines Six freighters wore sunk or probably destroyed and a destroyer escort and 3 fighters damaged in the latest sweeps Friday The 13th air force also main tained neutralizing attacks in the central Philippines Friday with Liberators and Mitchells hitting Cebu City with 210 tons of bombs Large fires and explosions invital installations were started oj Cebu which Is near American controlled Panay In the ground campaign on Lu zon bloody fighting raged in the ramsivept northern mountains around Belete Pass escape route into the Cagayan valley Six heavy Japanese counterat tacks were repulsed by 1st corps troops Thursday night in the vi cinity of Kapintaian Japanese resistance has been increasing steadily as the enemy troop backed into the Pass which also was being attacked by American troops from the north American bombers and fighters joined in the assault with a heavy attack on the pass and on Japa nese installations in the Cagayan valley PROLONGED FLOODS Memphis Tenn along the Mississippi river ap peared Monday likely to be pro longed as the result of generally heavy rains through the valley Weather Report FORECAST Mason City Partly cloudy Monday night and Tuesday Cooler Mon day night loiva Partly cloudy Monday night and Tuesday Colder in central and east portions Tuesday Minnesota Mostly cloudy with no decided change in temperature Monday night and Tuesday Oc casional showers north portion Monday night and extreme north portion Tuesday IN MASON CITY GlobeGazette Weather Statistics Maximum Saturday G7 Minimum Saturday 55 Maximum Sunday 64 Minimum Sunday 43 at 8 a m ilonday 43 Rainfall 76 inches YEAR AGO Maximum 3S Minimum 23 American and British airborne were crashing through broken and disorganized en emy for huge gains against light opposition in the northern sector The 90i armys 30th infantry division breaking through nazi defenses on the Lippe river col lided with infantry of the Ger man 116th panzer division and a field dispatch saida heavy battle was raging Sweeping out of their positions along the Issel river British para chute troops drove to within little more than a halfmile of Brunen G miles northeast of Wesel and were still advancing There is nothing to halt a breakthrough the commander of an American airborne unit said Monday night The 3rd army sent its tanks urt plain a bare 250 Russian lines in the The v accounts hours before had placed Lt Gen Creorge S Pattons mighty shock troops 6 miles away The citys radio went dead Sunday night The 4th armored division again had burst loose 40 miles beyond the Rhine in a sweep so swift that the Germans were caught without time to blow the Aschaffenbnrg bridge 21 miles southeast of Frankfurt The breakthrough divisions coup was so complete that Frankfurt was hopelessly HanltedFrankfurt acity of 547000 is the 9th largest in Ger many and one of the reicha great est railroad centers The U S 3th and British 2nd armies in the north of the Ruhr were 10 miles past the river on a solid 31mile front and battle dis patches said a general breakout mere was expected momentarily The decisive fighting of the whole war is unequivocally under way in the west a German mili tary spokesman said by radio from Berlin 235 miles from van guards o Pattons army The 9th army fought in the northeast suburbs of Duisberg vast inland port of 431000 and within 10 miles of rubblepiled Essen where the sprawling Krupp works have been rebuilt 7 times after bombers calls The Germans reported righting outside the Baden capital of Karlsruhe suggesting yet another crossing by the 7th army which had cleared the Palatinate and routed the last Germans west of the Rhine between Switzerland and Holland The whole western front was becoming fluid as Gen Eisen hovers offensive turned into a powerful floodtide The humblest infantryman sensed complete vic tory over Germany because the Russians also were pushing in from the east in massive power Gen Eisenhower smiling broad ly from a jeep crossing a pontoon bridge across the Rhine visited the 1st army front where sweep ing new gains were made east wartl The 3rd army more than 40 miles beyond the Rhine and run ning ahead unchecked within 235 miles of Berlin Germans were surrendering by the thousands The 21st army group in the north engaging the bulk and best of the 60 or so undersized German divisions in the west has taken more than 10000 captives Tle total 3rd army bag bulged with manv more than 300000 since DDay The 1st army took 3147 Sunday alone headquarters said Z18882 Germans had surrendered since March 1 upward of 60000 more had been killed or wound ed seriously Essen home of Hermann Goer ing and the 7 times rebuilt Arupps munitions works was 10 miles or less from surging 9th army columns The hollow was exposed Daggered en i more 300000 effectives in the west alone since the start of this month had neither the force nor the mobility to recover from the multiple blows Eisenhower was sfrnmfhm increasng and Final victory was in the air and m the songs of infantrymen riding eastward on clanking tanks and every conceivable conveyance lin superhighway to Ber lin north of Duisburp was cut in at least 3 places First and 3rd armies elements were barely 6 miles apart in the Coblenz area Much of Pattons
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