Questions? Call (888) 845-2887 Hablamos Español

Mason City Globe Gazette Newspaper Archive: April 24, 1936 - Page 1

Share Page

Publication: Mason City Globe Gazette

Location: Mason City, Iowa

Issue Date:

Get 1 more page view just for clicking

to like us on Facebook


   Mason City Globe-Gazette (Newspaper) - April 24, 1936, Mason City, Iowa                                NORTH IOWAS DAILY PAPER EDITED FOR THE HOME THE NEWSPAPER THAT MAKES ALL NORTH IOWANS NEIGHBORS HOME EDITION VOL XLII FIVE CENTS A COP1 D PRESS CEASED W1KE SERVICE MASON CITY APRIL 24 1936 ER CONSISTS Of T SECTION ONE NO 171 Ickes Plan Has Support PWA Favored Over Hopkins by Many in Congress By CHARLES P STEWAKT 4 SHIN G TON tary of the Inter ior Harold L Ickes has sold a large number of members of congress on the idea that the kind of relief employ ment he advo cates is better than the kind Re lief Administra tor Harry L Hopkins favors Approximately ISO representa tives actually have petitioned President Roose velt to see that Ickee has the dispo sal of at least half or thereabouts of the additional asked for by the administration to keep PWA and WPA activities going Briefly Ickes wants relief money to go into permanent improvements while Hopkins argues for made popularly known as boon ARCH BREEDING GETS CLEMENCY Italian Army Drives on Addis Ababa REPORT REBELS OF HONDURAS ON WAY TO CAPITAL Robertson and Scadding Had Despaired of Life Before Rescuers Came Air in Mexico City Tell of Revolt the country should get something ol real and lasting value for what it is spending instead of broadcasting funds in what virtually is charity Has No Objection Copyright 1330 by The Associated MOOSE RIVER N the long dark hours before their rescue from the Moose River gold mine Dr D E Robertson and Charles A rn 1nr Scadding despaired of life it became Known Friday from the Dy full story of their 10 day entombment Dr Robertson practicing his profession as physician even through his own danger helped Scadding to keep alive and held Herman Magill in his arms when the third man died Patiently and quietly the two survivors conserved their strength facing their dangers sensibly and working to overcome them until the miners of the tunneling rescue crew finally arrived Whole Story Learned Only Friday when Dr Robertson was recovering rapidly in an emergency hospital here and Scadding was being treated in the Halifax hospital to which he was flown was the whole dramatic story learned Four sharp cracks like giant rifle shots warned the three men of approaching disaster Easter Sunday night while they were making an inspection tour of the mine three leaped from the By JOHN P MCKNIGHT Copyright 1JJli by The Associated MEXICO CITY Travelers ar riving by air from Nicaragua re ported Friday a bloody revolt broke out in the Central American repub lic of Honduras with rebels moving on Tegucugalpa capital of Presi dent Tiburcio Carias government Senora Anita Lagos de Lopez Gutierrez widow of one time presi dent of Honduras Gen Rafael Lo pez Gutierrez who lives here said she received information indicatin Hopkins it scarcely is necessary j that the insurgents were successful to say has no objection to lastin value and indeed asserts that he is getting quite a bit of it out of his so called His conten tion however is that the sort of improvements insisted on by Ickes cost too much for raw materials not leaving enough to go into wages Ickes admits that a job of leaf raking for example undoubtedly is nothing whatever but wages except for the price of the rake whereas the construction say of a new pub lic building involves the purchase of steel cement and numerous other items as well as expenditure for la bor to put them together Further more he points out labor is re quired to in their first engagement Loyal Troops Defeated Her reports said rebel forces de feated loyal troops commanded by Col J Inez Perez and Col Juan B Chavez at Duyure 10 miles from Teotecacinte and about 35 miles southeast of Tegucigalpa and drove them across the border into Nicar agua The travelers efter coming here by airplane from Nicaragua south ern neighboring republic of Hondur as brought word that rebels who they said were under the leadership ci Gen Inez R Duenas were ad vancing toward Tegucigalpa from three sides These reports could not be con Strict Censorship The travelers explained the ab sence ofdirect advices from Hon duras with an assertion that Presi dent Carias had imposed a strict censorship on telegraph telephone and postal communications Senora Lagos said she understood the rebels were well supplied with arms and ammunitions for cam paigning in the mountainous coun try of Honduras She named as leaders of the re ported movement General Duenas Gen Eusebio Rivera chief of the Honduran army general staff Gen Concepoion Peralta Gen Mariano Baltran Anduray Gen Tacho Guardiola Gen Valle Carcemo Gen Felix Vasquez Gen Santos Guillen and Col Alfredo Lara et cetera Thus according to his ver firmed immediately sicn as many hands are employed ir the erection of a useful building as can be employed at useless leafiak ing Too All that may be true concedes Hopkins but it is too slow a pro cess what is needed now is iramed ate employment No rejoins Ickes it is not a slow process work on a new building cannot be started in a minute but the instant it is authorized the pro ducers of the material required for it will get busy Hopkins denies this Much time is lost he says in merely planning a big improvement but a huge force of men can get to leafraking on almost no notice at all And it is true planning public work is slow ExPresident Hoover before the boom burst suggested that the planning be done in prosperous times to be ready to carry out upon the first hint of a depression But he never did anything about it It is the old storyWhen the roof leaks it is impossible to get out in the rain to fix it when the rain stops it is not necessary Boondoggling Favored Besides urges Harry Hopkins Even supposing that a prospective new building doea make a deal of work for steel mills cement factor ies and sashanddoor plants a sub stantial share of the cost of this ac tivity goes into the pockets of the owners of these they do not so much need relief as the workers do on the other hand is gravy almost exclusively for the workers Economically speaking Secretary Ickes makes a better case than Ad ministrator Hopkins does As a welfare worker perhaps Hopkins is better informed than Ickes Ickes however apparently is stronger in congress than Hopkins It is not so certain that Hopkins is not stronger with the president than Ickes FORECAST IOWA Mostly cloudy Friday night and Saturday probably lo cal light rains cooler extreme west Friday night and in south west Saturday MINNESOTA Mostly cloudy Friday night and Saturday prob ably light rain in south and rain or north except Friday night h Northeast continued cool to MASON CITY GlobeGazette weather figures for 24 hour period ending at 8 oclock Friday morning Maximum Thursday 66 Minimum in Nipht At 8 A M Friday 46 Rainfall Trace PRESIDENT AWAY FROM HIS DESK Roosevelt Nurses Cold and Works on Speech for Saturday Night WASHINGTON GP President Roosevelt remained away from his desk Friday to work on the speech tc be given in New York City Sat urday night and to nurse a slight head cold The regular semiweekly press conference scheduled for Friday morning was canceled The presi dent sent over word he didnt have any news anyway The head cold which has bothered the president occasionally in the past was described as slight and not serious but with a talk sched uled for Saturday night the presi dent decided to take care of it He is giving considerable atten tion to theaddress to be delivered before the National Democratic Clubs in New York City Political observers are awaiting it with in terest Mr Roosevelt will leave Saturday for New York City and spend the night at his home on East 65th street He will motor on Sunday to the family residence at Hyde Park N and return early in the week to Washington Troops Called Out to Stop Clashes Between Hindus and Moslems BOMBAY mes sages from Poona Friday said troops have been called out follow ing communal rioting between Hin dus and Moslems In which 85 per sons were reported injured The report stated that attempts were made x to burn temples and mosques The trouble started it was said in a dispute over music being played in front of a Hindu temple All operating shaft to the 141 foot level and for four hours after the cavein they heard the grinding and rumb ling of the earth continuing like thunder During this period Dr Robertson believed the whole mine area had collapsed and that rescue was im possible Barred From Knowledge More imaginative Scadding pic tured the mine shaft house as top pling into the pit carrying its crew with it and thus barring rescuers from any knowledge of the where abouts of the entombed men at the time the fall occurred Magill already ill when he en tered the mine was too sick to worry about the chances for res cuing His two companions during the first five days of their impris onment saw little chance of rescue They could not hear dynamite blasting at the surface mond drill Because they did not hear the diamond drill break through to their underground pit last Saturday night the three did not tell the world they lived until early Sunday morning Fear Dynamite Blast When a flare was dropped into the shaft through the diamond drill hole they retreated as far as they could fearing that they had caused a loose stick of dynamite to ex plode Only when a siren sounded through the hole did they realize that communication had been estab lished They rushed over shouting and tapping the pipe and the miners above knew then for the first time hat the three were alive After communication was estab ished Magill did not talk to his ON THE INSIDE JOHN K VALENTINE Sees Million More Income Tax Revenue ON PAGE 2 Ethen Allen Gives Tips on Playing in Outfield ON PAGE 9 New Grafton Church Dedication Is Sunday ON PAGE 16 Camden Murder TwentySixth Chapter ON PAGE 6 Plans Progress for Repaying of Federal ON PAGE 12 wife although Dr Robertson and Scadding spoke often Magill did not want his wife to know he was in serious condition suffering from stomach ulcer pleu risy and pneumonia Held in His Arms For hours Dr Robertson held Magill his partner in the mine ven ture in his arms trying to keep him warm Monday morning less than 24 hours after the diamond drill broke through Magill sat up suddenly spoke incoherently and in two minutes he was dead While Magill 30 years old suc cumbed the 62 year old Dr Rob ertson contracted a cold and Scad ding 44 year old timekeeper suf fered from trench They lost surprisingly little weight however because they had plenty of drinking water The drill broke through some dis tance from the dry cavern where they had made themselves as com fortable as possible and they were fed soup through a tube from the surface Refuse to Talk Again When they went to report MagilPs death they asked that the tube be hoisted so that their voices would be heard clearly The next time the tube was low ered they refused to make the trip to the drill hole to get it The severe physical exertion of climbing up and down 12 rungs of the timber work leading to their cave outweighed their desire for food even after a week in the pit Believing rescue was near they decided to conserve their strength They had to pass through water to reach the hole and the last trip they made was to get the telephone speaker through which they talked i to the men at the surface until the rescuers arrived early yesterday INDICTMENT OF OTHERS IS SEEN 5 Men Named in True Bills by Grand Jury Probing Wendel Case BROOKLYN possibility of additional indictments was indi cated Friday in the kidnaping of Paul H Wendel whose repudiated confession of the Lindbergh kid naping caused a threeday delay in the execution of Bruno Richard Hauptmann With five men named in the true bills Thursday District Attorney William F X Geoghan said the ad ditional indictments might be forth coming against persons not within the jurisdiction of Kings county He refused to amplify the remark The indictments charging kid naping and second degree assault were against Ellis H Parker son of a New Jersey detective who had been prominent in certain phases of the Lindbergh case Mar tin Schlossman and Harry Weiss and Murray Bleefeld who have not been located despite a search in several states Wendel later was taken to the home of Ellis H Parker at Mount Holly N and then to a sanitarium A New Jersey grand jury upheld Wendels claim that the confession was untrue shortly after Hauptmann was electrocuted as the convicted slayer of the Lindbergh child Escaped Convict Caught FORT MADISON A Bergen 26 escaped convict serving a 10 year sentence for forgery was apprehended at Portland penitentiary officials here said DEMOCRAT HITS NEW TAX ACT ON FLOOR OF HOUSE Gruening Backs Tydmgs Proposal for Freeing Puerto Rico WASHINGTON admin istrations tax bill struck its first blast of democratic opposition in the house Friday when Representative Lamneck DOhio contended it would destroy the na tions business The member of the ways and means committee which wrote the measure took the floor after Repre sentative Reed RN renewed the republican opposition to the in tricate tax plan with such terms as drastic and Support of the bill by Senator Tydings to give Puerto Rico an opportunity to become inde pendent if it wished was expressed by Dr Ernest Gruening head of the interior departments bureau of ter ritorial affairs Other developments Denounced by Vandenberg Senator Vandenberg denounced a suggestion which he said appeared in a publication of the democratic national that a guillotine be set up in front of the new supreme court building He called the article either ghastly joke or an ominous pros and sent to the ex tending indefinitely andthe privi lege of trading in unlisted stocks on national securities cier federal regulation Under the securities exchange act this privilege would have ex pired June 1 By unanimous agreement the senate also decided to take up next Monday the Vandenberg resolution asking Secretary of Agriculture Wallace to report all AAA pay ments exceeding a year CoOrdinatlon Proposed A proposal by Representative Bankhead for an investi gation of executive agencies of the government with a view to coor dination was given rightofway to the house floor Utilities contesting the constitu tionality of PWA power projects contended in court that a city owned plant could not pay inter est on a WPA loan if it were re quired to charge fees no higher than those now in effect A heavy increase in American im ports including many agricultural products was reported for 1935 by the Chamber of Commerce of the United States Speaks of Claiming the Roosevelt adminis trations blessing Tydings as chairman of the senate territories committee offered a plan whereby a plebiscite would be held in Puerto Rico in November 1937 If the voters favored independ ence this island domain of 000 population acquired by the United States in the war with Spain would be cut loose Tydings spoke of the millions the United States has spent on the island and what he termed the ingratitude of Puerto Ricans He referred to recent disorders there culminating in the assassination of Col E Francis Rlggs American chiefof police Bill Nears Floor An appropriation bill carrying the President Roose velt requested for relief for the next financial year neared the house floor ready to take its place after the tax fight is over It will bring the sessions appropriations over the mark in cluding the soldiers bonus This was a day of rest for Rep resentative Marion Zioncheck of Washington state and so the capi tals police could breathe easier An uproarious round of incidents in which Zioncheck scuffled with officers talked back to a judge and spent some time in a police bull pen ended yesterday when he was fined on charges of con tempt and driving his automobile 70 miles an hour Russian Found Guilty of Sabotage to Die LENINGRAD U S S railway court Friday sentenced T Poveryaeff convicted of sabotage to death after presentation of testi mony that as head of a white guard regiment in the civil war of 1919 he ordered the execution of 11 bolshe vista Fall of City Would Not Finish War By THE ASSOCIATED PRESS The drive of the Italian army from Dessye to the Ethiopian cap ital was in full swing Friday ac cording to a communique from Marshal Pietro Badoglio com manderinchief of the fascist armies in east Africa Marshal Badoglio reported that a body of native Eritrean Askari part of the large force of Italian troops which arrived in Dessye for the campaign had taken Uorra Ilu a town about 38 miles south of Dessye Ahead of these troops of the main Italian army in the north were the advance contingents who Italian re ports placed some 70 miles from Addis Ababa Advance on South The Italian commander said the advance was progressing in good form on the southern front Air planes continued bombing Ethiopian defenses of the second largest Ethiopian city of Harar A government spokesman in Addis Ababa denied Italian reports that no defense would be made of the capital He said of Italian dis patches stating that a mission would meet the Italian armies be fore Addis Ababa with a white flag of surrender that they were inten tionally Even if the capital were taken by the fascists the spokesman said the war would go on with the Ethiopians starting large scale Guerilla warfare against the in vaders Dessye Crown Prince Asfa Wosan was discussing plans for defense of the capital with the cabinet and tribal chieftains Other reports in Addis Ababa said Emperor Haile Selassie was endangering Dessye his for mer field headquarters now in Ital ian hands The intentions of nazi Germany in regard to the Locarno question and colonial expansion took the spot light in the capitals of France and Great Britain with the Paris gov ernment asking British authorities to demand of Adolf Hitler whether he intends to obtain foreign colon ies It was learned in Paris that the French government wanted to know what the reich meant by the expres sion German and if it meant the recapture of former Ger man colonies necessary to secure tois Celebrate In Germany Meanwhile in Germany many cities celebrated the 52nd anniver sary of the declaration of a protec torate over German Southwest Af rica by colonial memorial The opinion in informed quarters was that the next major move of der fuehrer would be to demand restoration of Germanys former colonies In London authoritative quarters said a note would be sent to Hitler at the end of next week demanding clarification of his proposals for ne gotiations of new nonaggression treaties as a substitute for the Lo carno pact Disorders swept through several small towns of Spain although the larger cities were generally peace ful One person a civil guard was clubbed to death in Lebrija Sevilla province and leftists attempted to burn a church Escapes Gallows ARCH BREEDING SKIES OVERCAST ALL OVER STATE Topcoat Weather Lingers on With Further Rains in Prospect DES MOINES UPI Topcoat weather lingered on in Iowa Friday with overcast skies which dripped scattered showers and kept temper atures down The weather bureau here forecast cloudy and unsettled conditions for most of the state Friday night and Saturday Further light rains also were in prospect Temperatures early Friday were somewhat above normal but did not rise appreciably during the day Sioux City had Thursdays state high of 72 and Friday mornings low was 40 at Estherville Traces of rain fell at Sioux City Council Bluffs Des Moines Du buque Davenport and most other points ADMITS MURDER OVER TAXI BILL Wemett Confesses That He Knocked Carbine Down Searched Him DUBUQUE T J Ry der said Friday afternoon that Don ald Wemett 27 had confessed to the murder of Mike Carbine 53 during an altercation over the payment of a taxi bill which occurred on No 20 highway seven miles west of Du buque at 8 oclock Thursday eve ning Wemett confessed the sheriff said that he struck Carbine with his fist and knocked him to the pave ment Carbines head struck the paving shoulder and he was knock ed unconscious Then Wemett con fessed the sheriff said that he rolled Carbines body into a ditch and went through his pockets in search of money He found none Carbine for many years a mould er in DDbuque had been working on a farm near Peosta Dubuque coun ty for the past several weeks Met in Tavern The sheriff said that Carbine came to Dubuque Thursday after noon and met Wemett and George Peil 20 in a tavern The sheriff asserted that at about oclock Carbine expressed the desire to return to Peosta and that We mett called a cab Wemett Peil and Carbine entered the cab and order ed the driver Milton Barr to drive to Peosta The sheriff said that the trio stopped at several taverns enroute Near Centralia Wemett be said demanded Carbines share of the taxi fare When Carbine refused to pay the sheriff said Wemett forced him out of the car and ordered him to walk the rest of the way to Peosta While thecab driver was turn ing the cab around to drive back to Dubuque Wemett left the cab and accosted Carbine The taxi driver the sheriff said reported that he saw Wemett standing over Carbine who was on the ground bleeding and also saw Wemett searching Carbines cloth ing Gets Into Cab When Wemett got back into his cab the sheriff said Barr sug gested that the sheriff be notified that a man was lying in the ditch alongside the highway and Wemett consented to this suggestion Barr drove his cab to the county jail and told Deputy Sheriff Em met Kennedy what he bad seen Kennedy placed Wemett and Peil under arrest then drove to the spot where Barr said Carbine was at tacked The deputy found Car bines body in the ditch His skull was fractured His pockets were turned inside out and nothing of vaiue was found in them Wemett is a married man and has a family Wemett maintained that it was not his intention to rob Carbine but that he was seeking to obtain Car bines share of the taxi bill Two Reprieved Hour Before Hanging Time SACRAMENTO Cai ernor Merriam Friday reprieved Al exander Mackay a British subject and Joseph Kristy an hour before the time set for their hangings at San Qmentin prison He took the ac tion in response to the request of the British government upon the urging of Secretary of State Hull Heads Ames Department AMES Paulena Nickell assistant professor of home man agement at the University of Illin ois was named head of the home management department of the home economics division at Iowa State college RED OAK SLAYER NOTTOHANGFOR MURDER OF WIFE Governor Herring Alters His Sentence to Life Imprisonment DES MO1NES Clyde L Herringcommuted Arch Breed ings death sentence to life impris onment Friday less than 70 houra before the former Red Oak marshal was scheduled to be hanged for the murder of his wife Governor Herring announced his decision at a m It was the first time since he took office in January 1933 that the governor has exercised his execu tive powers to save a condemned criminal from the gallows While waiting for his formal statement to be typed Governor Herring said If a mistake is made it is better to make it on the side of Appeal From Daughter The governor also said that Breedings 19 year old daughter Bernice had appealed to him to be merciful to her When the governor refused two months ago to commute the former marshals sentence he reported that the daughter employed at Glen wood talked with im but main tained a neutral The girl saw Breeding shoot and kill her mother at their Red Oak home After issuing his formal state ment the governor commented that if this case had gone to trial Breeding undoubtedly would have been convicted but we may not as sume he would have received the death Troubled by Case Governor Herring reopened con sideration of Breedings fate Thurs day after receiving a delegation of Red Oak residents I am very troubled by this he said His decision today stands in con trast to his previous decision con demning Breeding to death Then he said If under the law this is not a de liberate cold blooded premeditated murder of one whom he had sworn to defend I cannot conceive of first degree murder under any condi Breeding confessed he killed his wife pleaded guilty of murder but claimed he had been drinking and did not realize what I was Entire Bar Association In his formal statement the gov ernor reported that the entire bar association of Montgomery county with the exception of County Atty Lester L Orsborn had asked him to save Breeding from the hang mans noose He also said that the county at torney informed him he would not oppose commutation of the death penalty to life imprisonment The formal statement quoted at length from the dissenting opinion of Justice Paul W Richards of Red Oak who described the lower court hearing as perfunctory It also quoted from the opinion that the entire court hearing which resulted in the imposition of the death sentence by District Judge H J Mantz took place in one day and that Breedings counsel had been appointed on that day and did not have time properly to prepare a defense Denied Twice Before Pleas for commutations for other condemned criminals twice had come before Governor Herring and had been denied The governor re fused on previous occasions to grant clemency to Elmer Brewer and Pat Griffin and to Reginald Tracy an other convicted wife slayer In his formal statement the gov ernor said The enormity of the crime here involved is not overlooked It was an heinous The statement follows This application has been re heard and fully reconsidered upoa the application and request of mem bers of the family including the daughter of the defendant of members of the bar of Montgomery county excluding the county attor ney and of citiztns of the commu nity The members of the bar iii a letter to the county attorney petitioned for commutation and ha in a letter of April 23 1936 to the members has stated in part Knows New Facts Since the trial of this case I do not know of any new facts which would cause me to make any rec ommendations to the However any decision rendered by the governor will not be opposed by me In making recommendations tot the governor you have my author ity to submit this letter to him   

From 1607 To The Present

Once upon a time newspapers were our main source of information. Now those old newspapers are a reliable source for hundreds of years of history and secrets of the past. Now you can search for people, places, and events without the hassle of sorting through mountains of papers!

Growing Every Second

Newspaper Archive is the world's largest online newspaper database featuring over 130 million newspaper pages. Plus our database expands by one newspaper page per second for a total of around 2.5 million pages per month! The value of your membership grows along with it.

Genealogy Made Simple

Those looking to find out more about their forefathers can empower their genealogy search with Newspaper Archive. Within our massive database, users can search ancestors' names for news stories and obituaries. We must understand our past to understand our future!

Choose the Membership Plan that is right for you!

Unlimited 6 Month

$99.95 (45% Savings!)

Unlimited page views for 6 months Learn More

Unlimited Monthly

$29.95

Unlimited page views for 1 month Learn More

Introductory

$9.95

25 page views for 1 month Learn More

Subscribe or Cancel Anytime by calling 888-845-2887

24 hours a day Monday-Saturday

Take advantage of our Introductory Membership offer and become a member for 1 month only for $9.95!

Your full introductory membership payment will be credited toward the cost of full membership any time you choose to upgrade!

Your Membership Includes:
  • 25 page views for 1 month
  • Access to Over 130 million Newspaper Pages
  • Ability to View, Save, and Print
  • Articles featuring over 100 million people
  • Weekly Search Alerts - We search for you!
  • & Many More Features!
Subscribe for a Monthly Membership only for $29.95
Your Membership Includes:
  • Unlimited Page Views
  • Access to Over 130 million Newspaper Pages
  • Ability to View, Save, and Print
  • Articles featuring over 100 million people
  • Full Access To All Content including 10 Foreign Countries
  • Weekly Search Alerts - We search for you!
  • & Many More Features!
Subscribe for a 6 Month Membership only for $99.95
Best Value! Save -45%
Your Membership Includes:
  • Unlimited Page Views
  • Access to Over 130 million Newspaper Pages
  • Ability to View, Save, and Print
  • Articles featuring over 100 million people
  • Full Access To All Content including 10 Foreign Countries
  • Weekly Search Alerts - We search for you!
  • & Many More Features!

What our Customers Say:

"It is amazing how easy and exciting it is to access all of this information! I found hundreds of articles about my relatives from Germany! Well worth the subscription!" - Michael S.

"I love this site. It's interesting to read articles about different family members. I've found articles as well as an obituary about an uncle who passed away before I was born, and another about a great aunt. It's great for helping with genealogy." - Patricia T.

"A great research tool. Allows me to view events and gives me incredible insight into the stories of the past." - Charles S.

Search Billions of Newspaper Articles 130 Million+ Pages and More Added Weekly!

Uncover 400+ Years
of Newspaper Archives
(1607 to today!)

Browse by Date

Research Newspaper Articles from 11 Countries
& all 50 U.S. States

Browse by Location

Explore 6,200+ Current &
Historical Newspaper Titles
and Counting!

Browse by Publication