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Cedar Rapids Gazette (Newspaper) - November 20, 1974, Cedar Rapids, Iowa Tfireof capacities expand By Sandra Stencel WASHINGTON The mot-ling be- twcen President Ford and Soviet leader Brezhnev in Vladivostok on Nov. 23-24 will he attended by a new kind of nucle- ar threat. This threat is not the familiar one arising from the atomic armament possessed hy the two superpowers, although the meeting docs once again focus attention on (he continuing strug- gle to arrive at mutually acceptable formulas for arms limitation. Tho new aspect is (hut a sixth nation, India, has entered the once-exclusive nuclear club and a host of other coun- tries, either now or in the near future could join America, Russia, China, Brit- ain and France as possessors of nuclear weaponry. What worries arms-control experts is the knowledge that any nation with a functioning nuclear reactor has within its grasp the basic materials pluto- nium or highly enriched uranium needed to make an atomic bomb. More than 50 countries now have some kind of operating reactor. This concern over the spread of nuclear technology was heightened by the disclosure that Hie United States had offered to sell nuclear reactors and fuel to Egypt and Israel. "The world has dealt with nuclear weapons as if restraint were automat- Secretary of Slate Henry Kissinger told the United Nations General Assem- bly on Sept. 23. "Their very awesome- ness has chained these weapons for al- most three decades (but now) politi- cal inhibitions are in danger of crum- bling. Nuclear catastrophe looms more plausible whether through design or miscalculation, accident, theft or blackmail." There seems to be less concern about the possibility of a nation diverting weapons-grade nuclear material from a reactor than about the possibility of a terrorist group stealing enough material to make a bomb. Physicist Theodore B. Taylor, a former designer of nuclear weapons who now crusades for tighter safeguards, argues that it would be comparatively easy to steal nuclear ma- terial and make a bomb. nuclear weaponry Opinion Page Views Ideas Insights Judgments Comments Taylor and Mason Willrich, a law professor at the University of Virginia, received a grant from the Ford Founda- tion's Energy Policy Project to study the safeguard problem. In a recent book, "Nuclear Theft: Risks and Safe- they wrote: "Under conceiva- ble circumstances a few persons, possi- bly even one person working alone, who possessed about ten kilograms of plu- tonium oxide and a substantial amount of chemical high explosive could, within several weeks, design and build a crude fission bomb." The authors insisted that such a bomb could be constructed "using ma- terials and equipment that could be purchased at a hardware store and from commercial suppliers of scientific equipment for student laboratories." Nuclear industry spokesmen say such statements lend to undereslimate Ihe difficulties of manufacturing a bomb or obtaining nuclear material. They con- lend thai il would lake someone with Taylor's special skills and experience to pul together a credible Ihreat. A key element in ensuring that gov- ernments do not diverl nuclear materi- als from civilian uses to weapons programs is the safeguard system ad- ministered by Ihe International Atomic Energy Agency, operating from Vienna under U. N. auspices. The objective is "the timely detection of diversion of sig- nificant quantilies of nuclear materials" through stricl accounting procedures. Present safeguards, however, are nol designed lo prevent the theft of nuclear materials or to recover them if they are stolen. This remains the responsibility of each nation. Grilles of existing safe- guards say thai this is a major flaw in the system. According to Sen. Adlai E, Stevenson III the agency exists lo prom-Jtc the International development and use of atomic power. "When questions of safeguards, security, sanctions and research ho wrole recently in Foreign Affairs magazine, "answers which interfere with access to nuclear power plants may not enjoy much sup- port." Stevenson has suggested that Ihe Uniled Slales lake the lead in curbing the spread of nuclear technology by declaring a one-year moratorium on the sale of nuclear reactors. Because of the Inadequacies in exist- ing international controls, (he United Stales has proposed addilional safe- guards for Ihe sale of reactors to Egypl and Israel. For one thing the used fuel, from which plulonium could be exlracl- cd, would be extracted outside the two countries. To belter protect nuclear facililies in Ihis counlry from Iheft or sabotage, the Atomic Energy Commission last year imposed stricter security requirement on Iho operators of fuel-reprocessing plants, fuel fabrication plants and cer- tain other licensees of the agency. These regulations, plus some addi- tional ones the AEC proposed on Nov. 7, were designed to lighten security in the Iransporlalion of nuclear malerials. Most experts agree that transporlalion is a vulnerable link in the system. Further changes in nuclear safe.- guards are expected once Ihe energy reorganizalion acl, signed by President Ford on Ocl. 11, goes into effect. Within 120 days of the signing, nonregulatory funclions of the AEC musl be trans- ferrcd lo Ihe newly crealed Energy Research and Development Administra- tion. The AEC will be reorganized as a five-member Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The White House hopes that Ihe reorganizalion will quiet criti- cism thai the AEC could not effectively both promote and regulate the nuclear industry. EdltoHol Rescorch Reporls HAVE NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Spam Sweden Yugoslavia Umlei! Slales Substituting Mose for Nets By Russell Baker WASHINGTON When the senate saw the Bonk of Goldberg, whom it spake of no good, it hardened its heart lo Rockefeller, and said unto Ford, Be- hold, if a man poison his foe with words, shall the hand of the senate not be set against him? 2. We will go throe months journey into television that we may make sacri- fice of the abomination of Rockefeller before the eye of the people, suying, Lo, is not thy senate a righteous senate which keepeth a rich man from entering the kingdom of vice-presidents? 3. Then was Ford sore smitten with remorse, for he saw that Rockefeller did not please the senate, and lie called his people unto him, great and small, say- ing, Name me a man whose stature exceeded] even that of Rockefeller, that I may please (lie senate in its rage for righteousness. 'I. And his people said, 0 Ford, no man whereof men speaketh be more righteously spoken of than Moses, born of l.evi's daughter. a. Wherefore did Ford go nnlo Ihe senate and sailh, Thou shall have a vice-president of stature nii'ch exceed- ing even Rockefeller, and Ills name is Moses. (i. But the scmilo answered, suying, del thee unto this Moses and saith I hat though his stature he greater'I ban Rock- efeller's even by forty cubils, yel will the senate smite him if he be found lacking in fair play lo bis foe. 7. Then Ford called for Moses and said, Thou musl he i leaner than a hound's toolh, and sent Moses forth un- lo the senate, 8. And Ihe senale spake In Moses, saying, When thou were four-score years old, anil Aaron four-score nml three years old, didst thou not conduct a campaign against Pharaoh? !l. And Moses answered, saying, Be- hold, I have no memory of these tilings, seeing that they befell these many gen- erations past, but I have reconstructed those events even with the aid of re- cords, and affirm that thou spcakest rightly, to the best of my knowledge. 10. And the senate was not pleased with Moses. 11. Didst thou not, Moses, in thy campaign against Pharaoh cause Egypt to be smitten with a plague of spake the senate. 12. And Moses did not answer, for he did not remember the plague of frogs, and he said nnlo Ihe senate, Thou must be merciful with me, 0 senate, for I was sore beset with problems in that cam- paign and, lo, may have approved a plague of frogs hastily, having heark- ened unto old and trusted advisors. 13. Then did the senale speak in terrible rage. M. Anil il said, Wonlilst Hum practise deceilfulness upon us, Moses; for surely no man who hath smitten all Kgypt with a plague of frogs to discredit his foe Russell Baker would fail to dine rout on Ihe reminis- cence thereof, lo, these many genera- tions past. 15. But Moses turned away the wrath of the senale with softness, saying. Ye must remember, 0 senators, that to me at that lime a plague of frogs would have been no more unusual than pulling a fly in (lie soup of a foe wouldst be to any of yon loday. 10. For, spake Moses, so marvelous with si range devices was Ihe Pharaoh campaign lhal I wrought a pestilence of plagues, and among these were a plague of locusts, and ii plague of darkness, and a plague of flies, and a plague of lice, and a plagjie of hail and a plague of boils, the which were as nothing compared to Iho murrain of beasts with which Pharaoh was smitten, for I was so grievous doep hi pestilences that 1 was unable to learn what a murrain of beasts might he. 17. To which Ihe senale replied, sav- ing. We shall gel to Ihe murrain of beasts later; now, 0 Moses, will thou stretch forth ttiy candor and loll us who financed Ihe plague of frogsV IS. And Moses did not answer, but went forlli and spake unto Ford, saying, Behold, 1 am an administrator, the which no man can be if he must pass all Ihe days of his age speaking unto right- eous men of frogs. 19. Wherefore Moses said unto Ford, I judge that the senale dolh not desire an administrator, and for Ihis cause do I urge Mice lo shew them in my slead some man of small decision and weak smiling haibils, whomof Ihis senale may pass its days in (rifling enlrealmenl lo pursue righteousness. 20. And Moses wont out, and said no more, for he was sore unfit for high of- fice in the land; wherefore Ihe seuale found coirtenlment in Rockefeller New York Times Service PARTS -1 UBOR ON All 23 INCH CONSOLES Free Philco AM-FM RADIOS TO BE GIVEN AWAY. 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