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Cedar Rapids Gazette (Newspaper) - August 11, 1974, Cedar Rapids, Iowa After lengthy strife, a chance for healing Editorial Page Sunday. Ajguit I 1, 1974 on DST? N OT OFTKX CAN a croup from holli political parties. agree unanimously on an> ilium. They are like fanners, newspaper cdi- hirs and most of the reM of us in that respect. Thus it came as quite a surprise when all the governors attending their Midwestern ernors in Minneapolis last month voted solidly to call for an end to year-round Daylight Saving time. The governors come from states representing a pretty good cross- section Michigan. Illinois. Wis- consin, Minnesota and Missouri having an urban flavor with most of the other states, like Iowa, be- ing rural. But every last one of the governors there voted alike on the DST question. According to reports, their main concern was over the safety fac- tor. Unquestionably, each gover- nor has been receiving considera- ble heat from parents of school children who don't want them go- ing to school in the dark. Obviously the governors feel that the safety disadvantages should outweigh the energy-sav- ing advantages in determining the length of DST and rightly so. .However, they took their position in spite of the U.S. department of study showing fewer school-age children traffic deaths last January with DST than in January, 1973, without DST. A total of 57 children lost their lives in January, 1974, in pedestrian or pedalcycle accidents, compared to 98 in the same month of 1973. Another governmental agency. the Federal Energy office, reports 'that it is now possible to es- timate energy-saving qualities of DST at from 1 to :i percent probably I percent. This compares to 11 percent savings in energy during World war II hen DST and other cnnsrrv al ion measures were in effect. The nnammiiN of Midwestern governors in calling for a return to six-months DST from the end of April through October, will carry considerable impact, although it is doubtful that congress will repeal the present law, which has another year to run. Meanwhile. Americans ap- parently are growing more accus- tomed to year-round DST. This was evidenced in the results of a poll taken at the Allamakee county fair recently by Roger Ilalvorson of Momma, a candidate for state representative. One of his several questions asked for pro or con opinion as to all-year DST. Allamakee is a rural county. Its citizens could be expected to vote overwhelmingly against DST. But those who voted split right down the middle. When the two year DST period ends, we should have more conclusive figures on both safety and energy-saving factors than we have now. If they continue to show a decline in deaths of school children over pre-DST "days, and an increase in energy-saving, that would make a good case for year- around DST on a long-range basis. If not. then it would be easy to revert to six-months DST during the summer period or, perhaps, to fA compromise eight- or 10-month period that would exclude the severe winter months. This might prove more satisfactory to more people than six months under DST and six under local standard time. Gas-price gouge THE LAST thing anybody needs now is another jump in gasoline prices. That is what we'll regardless, if the senate follows through on its commerce committee's advice and passes a house-approved bill that used to be labeled the "cargo preference" bill but has been euphemized to "energy transportation security act of 1974." It would require that 20 percent !of all petroleum imports be brought to the U.S. in domestic tankers instead of mostly in cheaper tankers under foreign registry, notably from Panama and Liberia. By 1977 this percen- tage would go up to 30. Pure and simple, this is union- lobbied, shipping-lobbied protec- legislation geared to favor special interests under the guise of headway toward U.S. indepen- dence from foreign-flag oil ship- ping. What it would do, inescapably. People's forum Wonderful Iowa visit To the F.diioi Please, vvoiilu vmi spare me a tew lines lo convey my impressions and thank- lor a wonderful thn-e-ueek holiday spen! in the U.S.A.. m Iowa'.1 No wonder n means "beautiful land I have had the pleasure over abuul 17 years ol writing to m.v mends, Lois and Will Fcickcrt (route :i. Cedar Kapidsi To meet for the first lime and lie welcomed into their home was such a wonderful experience, 1 felt 1 must try to express publicly some of my feelings My thanks, first !or a conducted lour of The for an interesting tour ol the police station, lor a chalice to gn hospital and admire the modern layoul. (or a visit lo Kennedy high school that made me wist: lo back lo learning, lor a pastor's welcome in church and the honor ol cutting Ins anniversary cake, for the friendliness of family and friends I met loo numerous to mention Oh, your shops how1 I loved lo u under, everywhere sn clean and Ihc is: (1) Reduce the supply of pe- troleum available because a lack of U.S. ships would cut down im- ports. (2) Increase the potential for shortages. (3) Result in re- taliation by other countries against U.S. products just as any other quota, tariff or protectionist ploy does. (4) Raise the cost of importing oil. (5) Contribute further to inflationary prices. (6) Hurt the consumer, who pays in the end. To their credit, all of Iowa's members of congress except Rep. Scherle voted against the cargo preference bill when it went through the house. Opponents in the senate can further justify resistance on the ground that this enactment would go counter to the country's foreign trade policy and violate a number of existing treaty commitments. If the bill should pass in spite of this, it would become an excellent subject for President Ford's first veto. shop assistants so friendly and helpful. Bui so many goods with only a 44- pound weight allowance on the plane 1 really had to curb my spending. The generosity of your people is something 1 shall remember always. Your friendliness to visitors has made me realixe we need to forget to lie reserved anil welcome our tourists vviih open arms. I'll remember, too. the ex- travagance and waste in this instant, throw-away, new world Kv erv >A here 1 was struck hv the smart and colorful men If only I could get in. husband into pink trousers, pink shut, pink lie. But thankfully our younger generation is more flamboyant, and nr. son so thrilled with the blue check pants I look him home. I do feel that more' good comes (nun these meetings of ordinary folk to promote more understanding between nations than the meetings of heads of state achieve Al least we learn there's more to America than the Kennedy lainily, Nixon and Waler'L'ate. and you'll appreciate there's more to England than fog. hot tea w ith milk and William Shakespeare 1 wonder if American women how luckv they are. hut perhaps even I am spoilt not many husbands would lei their wives go off half-Hay across the world alone. After I've repaid my hosl and hostess with a holiday of showing them our wo.i- By James Reston WASHINGTON The e.ipnal.....k Ihe news with remarkable serenity almost as if it had lost a President but found Mseli- ln Ihe last 11 years, a ius seen cue President murdered, another choose, under attack, not to run again, and a third driven from office. So it was vagueK sad. 'out at the same time it was The relict was tangible in '.hi- comments even of ihc Presidi-n; unit must loval snpporiers in congress, ami in the fares id' Ihe people wlui gathered nuielh outside ihc mm palings arnimi! [lie vUiite House The fears of an uncertain result, of (livisinii. bitterness and recniuinaliun. and nf a trial of a President. MI menacing only a I'eu short days ago, had heel! avoided. And the na- tion's piiluieal institutions, so long under skeptical allark, had held together and citnic out uith a clear decision and a fairly united people. In the end, Mr. Nixon did. as he had done sn many limes liefore, what he said he would not dn. As he had switched on China, the Soviel t'ninn, nn economic pulley, executive privilege, and many other things, he abandoned his threat tu fight both impeachment and conviction. "Leaders should guide as I'ar as they can, and then 11. ti. Wells once wrote. "Their ashes should nut choke the fires they have lit." Almost all Nixon s friends gave him this advice, and finally he tuok it. What has been the effect of all this on the nation, its people, its political parties and other institutions, and its relations with the rest of the world? These were the questions that were being asked here even before .Nixon resigned. Sympathy foreseen The personal and practical questions of leadership are unprecedented in the his- tory of the Republic. There are 89li days to go before the end of the term Nixon was elected to fulfill by the largest popular majority in the history of American presidential elections two years and months. The nation will be led in this period, including the anniversary of the Declaration of Independence on July 4, 1076. by President Gerald Ford and a vice-president yet to be chosen, neither of whom will have been elected-by the people nf the United States a situation that was not foreseen, and probably would have startled the founding fathers. Nevertheless, the outlook is that Ford will have the greatest support and sym- pathy, even if not elected by popular ballot, of any President since Lyndon .luhnson took over the White House after the assassination of President Kennedy. In Washington, there is already a marked change. Nixon was a secretive, furtive, and fundamentally intricate man, who regarded the congress and the press as his enemies. Ford is just the opposite: open, un- complicated and modest. He is conser- vative and partisan, but he has spent must of his mature life in the give-and- take of the house, and regards the majority Democratic leaders not iinly as powers that have to lie dealt with, but as his personal friends. His tastes are simple, his ambitions limited, his method open and trustful. He regards this whole drama as an accident, in which he now has to play a role far beyond his ambitions or desires, and in the life of his family, this astonishing turn of events has come at the wrong time. At fit. he has got beyond all ambition. dert'ul country so full of history, so small and quaint. I'll lie saving again to return to your wonderful land. May l.od bless America. Bi.keways To the Kditc" An article in the AiiLf -1 bv Sleu- Hello pointed In public apathy as one of the haiiL'-uns in regard to Ihe building nf bicycle paths. II is my opinion Hiaf it isn t so much a case of public apathy as it is apathy on tin- par! of our oily and county officials I am quile sure that Ihe public didn't have to solicit new cement roads when Hie automobile came on the scone as a permanent mode of In fact, I am certain that public viev.s are overlooked many times, as was the case when I-WI became a reality and we had su many families disrupted in spile of their pro- tests and for what'.' A piece of cement that will allow people In travel Ttf) mpli between Iowa Cily and Waterloo II there have been petitions presented to the city council, it would seem to mi' thai those would be enough of a driving force In gel the city to move in Ihe right direction concerning our future modi' of travel. Hcsidcs bikeways. to be used exclusively for bikes, sireeis can be posted as bikeways so motorists will be before long, and like Ininian, lie is HKeiy lo change most of his cabinet the in fact, has achieved far beyond his dreams. He was planning to retire to private life, on a promise to his wife, even before Xixon picked him as vice- president. There are even reasons for believing now, though he would never admit them. that he will regard himself as an interim President, who would try to bring about the reconciliation of the country in the next two years, and then retire. In the nation, the spirit of the people may very well be going with Ford at least for Ihe time being. It has gone through a long period of division over Vietnam and Watergate, and is tired of contention, and is longing for a little peace and quiet. There is a strong feeling here that Ford could be an ideal President in such a time, .lust as C'oolidge took over after the scandals nf the Harding administration, and quietly calmed things down and created an atmosphere that kepi the Republicans in power for another nine years. Ford has a chance to revive the fortunes of the Republicans in the elec- tion years of 1974 and 197ti. Meanwhile. Watergate has had its ef- fects on the country as a whole, and Ford, with his simple moral approach to the presidency, may be very much in touch with the mood of the country. Though he is a party man, he is likely to support reform in campaign financing, preservation nf personal privacy, and strict control over the integrity of the Internal Revenue Service, the FBI, and the CIA. Unintimidated One of the interesting things about Ford, though he is no intellectual, is thai, unlike Johnson and Nixon, he does not feel uncomfortable or threatened by ex- cepiional lalent. In tins, he is more like President Truman, who could trust the sophisticated minds of Acheson and Ijivett and bring into the cabinet strong men like General Marshall. This is really the mam question in Washington now: How will Ford approach his new responsibilities? It is clear that he will keep Kissinger at state, but who will be his vice-president, and his chief of staff in the White House? These are the questions now being asked in the capital. The front runner for vice-president, with the backing of Mel Laird, is former New York Governor Nelson Rockefeller, but there is a lot of support for George Bush, the chairman of the Republican national committee, who is young and attractive and could lie a candidate for the presidency in if given a chance at the vice-presidency now. All this, however, is speculative. The main thing is that even the thought of a Ford presidency has changed the mood here, and increased the hope for a more open, candid. and cooperative presidency. New York Times Service History's sobering scope-sight 'A-bomb decision was political' By Norman Cousins THIS PAST Tuesday marked the 29th anniversary of Ihe atomic bombing of Hiroshima. The terrifying question asked al the time still not been put to rest: Was the bombing The answer given at the time by President Harry S Truman and his as- sociates was that the bombing was necessary in order to avoid a land in- vasion of Japan with a cost of hundreds of thousands of lives. The historical evidence, however, points in a different direction. The evidence begins with the Yalta Conference in February. 1945. President Franklin Roosevelt, Prime Minister Winston Churchill anil Premier Joseph Stalin met at a villa on the Soviet Black sea coast In consider questions of com- mon strategy. Roosevelt put maximum pressure on Stalin to open up a second front against Japan. Roosevelt had been heavily criticized by congress and the press because the United States was fighting on two overseas fronts whereas the Soviet Union was engaged only on its western land front. Roosevelt told Stalin the United States felt justified in asking for a Soviet com- mitment to join in the war against Japan. Stalin argued that the Soviet Union was Norman Cousins on the alert for bikes. Additional strips also can be put on either side of existing roads, or portions of existing roads even can be marked off for hikes with a pos- sibility of eliminating some car parking. Other cities atid states are far ahead in bikeways due to enterprising officials who can see into the future. Wouldn't it be great if everyone who was able could ride a bike to work? Think how manv parking places would be released to mo- torists who can't ride bikes. Please, let s not wait until we have one. five, or ten people killed due to our shorlsightedness. Let's act now and remember Ihe old slogan: "Try it you'll like it Kenneth L. lioscndahl 1 -1L'2 F.ighlh street NW Civic center To the Editor I know this is an story in Cedar Hapids. hut alter seems. lornhc show. Gaynor "Thealer of the Stars" and Ihe people who IIIMI mi! lor such events in I ean'l help wonder vvh.v oil! nl.v Miles ilinui ,1 civic eeliler. Ill the area hisi planned Mr F.ric man on First avenue bearing most of the brunt of the Nazi military onslaught and that it would be unwise and dangerous to take a single Russian soldier off his western front. Roosevelt continued to press the point. Finally. Stalin agreed that, once Ger- many was defeated, Russia would dis- patch all of its forces to the Far East and would become a full partner in the war against Japan. Roosevelt asked for a specific date. It was agreed that the Soviet Union would enter the war in the Far East 90 days after the war ended in Europe. Xow. consider the following: 1. The war against Germany ended on May 8. 1945. Under the terms of the Yalta agreement, therefore, the Soviet Union was to join the fight against Japan by Aug. 8, 1945. 2. On July IB, 1943, the United States secretly and successfully tested its first nuclear explosion in New Mexico. This meant we had a weapon with the capability of putting a swift end to the war. It was at about this time that U. S. intelligence intercepted a secret message from Tokyo to Moscow in which Japan asked the Soviet Union, then not yet at war with Japan, to act as intermediary in seeking peace terms from the United States. 4. Stalin did not inform Washington of Japan's request for peace terms. The reason was obvious: Stalin knew from the message he received that Japan was on the brink of defeat. He saw an easy op- portunity to establish a claim on the oc- cupation of Japan at bargain prices. 5. President Truman, knowing everything that Stalin knew, wanted to knock Japan out before Russia entered the war in Ihe Far East under the terms of the Yalta agreement. He wanted a Japanese unconditional surrender and he wanted it before Aug. 8. A negotiated peace with Japan was rejected because there was not enough time to complete such negotiations before the Soviet entry into the war. ti. Leading U. S. nuclear scientists who developed the world's first atomic explosives sent a letter in July. 19-13. to President Truman on the implications of atomic warfare. Ultimatum Truman had only recently dime to of- fice following the death of FDR. The scientists feared thai the President might not have been fully briefed about Ihe nature of the new weapon. They believed it important to raise profoundly moral questions about the use of a single explosive that could obliterate an entire city. Moreover, they believed that the use of the bomb would make it difficult In head off a world atomic arms race after the war. Al the very least, Ihe scientists, urge.l the President lo hold a demonslralion of Ihe power of Ihe bomb, perhaps al a spot somewhere ill the Pacific Ocean, nn the basis of vvhioli all ultimatum could be is- sued lo Japan. Japanese representatives and internallonal observers would be permitted lo witness the demonstration. If Japan did not heed Ihe ultimatum, she would have to bear the responsibility for the use of the bomb against her people. Truman rejected the plea of the atomic scientists. It became obvious later that the reason was that there was not enough time to make all the elaborate arrangements for a demonstration and an ultimatum in a few weeks remaining before the Aug. 8 deadline. Deadline 7. The United States proceeded at full speed with its knockout plans. Hiroshima was hit by an atomic bomb on Aug. 6 (Aug. 5 Japanese Our ears were tuned in for sounds of unconditional surrender. The sounds we heard from Tokyo were not to our complete liking and we proceeded to bomb Nagasaki three days later. The atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, therefore, were designed primarily to beat a deadline. It was primarily a political rather than a mili- tary decision. In January, 1949, I interviewed Gen. Douglas MacArthur in Tokyo. He said that all the information available to him indicated that Japan had decided, shortly after Germany's surrender, to give up the fight and that an invasion would not have been necessary to end the war. What the bomb did. Mac-Arthur said, was to obliterate Japan's bargaining position with respect to peace terms. Further evidence is to be found in Dwight D. Eisenhower's book, "Crusade in General Eisenhower wrote that, once Germany was defeated, the big need was to finish off Japan before the Soviet Union came into the war in the Far East. It may be argued that the political decision to use the atomic bomb on human beings was necessary in order to give the United States an upper hand in the coming struggle with the Soviet Union for a world balance of power. But this is completely different from saying that we dropped the bomb to spare casualties in an invasion. Lei us be honest with ourselves. Dif- ficult though it may be to come to terms with the fact, the use of nuclear explosives on Hiroshima and Nagasaki may be regarded by later generations as "no of the gravest mistakes in American hislorv. Isn't if fhe truth? We suffering citizens must not he un- fair. We should recognize that it is not entirely true that congress is an associa- tion of sclf-servers and hypocrites. Only of the members of (he species Pol- omaous F.xoticus help themselves on oc- casion, say one thing ami do another. The I'osl of Iheni say it and don't do a thing. "Gorl Iras given you ooe foco, nnrl you make yourselves another." William Sholospearo
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