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Cedar Rapids Gazette (Newspaper) - April 7, 1974, Cedar Rapids, Iowa Gazette; SUJL. April 7, 1974 Next Costly Space Project, Shuttle, on Drawing Board THE ARTIST'S concept shows a reflyable space shuttle about the size of a DC9 airliner re- leasing its payload in orbit. Such a shuttle's first function will be to carry unmanned satellites into desired orbits, eliminating the need for conven- tional throwaway space rockets. Each shuttle will be capable of making 100 or more trips into space. At left, huge, bell-shaped rocket exhaust nozzles are showing protruding from the tail of a shuttle mockup at Rockwell International, Downey, Calif. The shuttle will take off like a rocket, fly like a spaceship and land back on earth like an airliner. Its two solid fuel rocket boosters also will be reusable. Operational goal for the shuttle is 1980. Ah Pollution Report This is a weekly report of data submitted to The Gazette by the air pollution control division of Linn county health department. Airborne Dust A measurement of particulate matter is made in terms of micrograms per cubic meter. The national standards, to be enforced by 1975: 75, average for a year (geometric mean) and 260 maximum 24-hour concentration, not to be exceedec more than once a year. Location Date 445 First street SW ..........March 30 Jane Boyd Community House March 30 Noelridge park ..............March 30 800 First street NW ..........March 30 751 Center Point road NE .March 30 Reading 94 89 47 71 108 Sulphur Dioxide The national standards (in terms of parts per 0.03 average for a year (arithmetic and 0.14 maximum 24-hour concentration, not to be exceeded more than once a year. Daily averages at 445 First street SW were: March 29, 0.017; March 30, 0.014; March 31, 0.019; April 1, 0.021; April 2, 0.027; April 3, 0.022; 'April 4, 0.021. Average for the period was 0.020. Daily averages at 800 First street NW were: March 29, 0.002; March 30, 0.001; March 31, 0.004; April 1, 0.005; April 2, 0.017; April 3, 0.015; April 4, 0.004. Average for the period was 0.007. Coefficient of Haze Another measurement of particulate matter. A reading of 0.53 is said to be equivalent of 75 micrograms per cubic meter, a national standard for airborne dust as outlined above. Readings at 445 First street SW were: March 29, 0.29; March 30, 0.16; March 31, 0.09; April 1, 0.20; April 2, 0.17; April 3, 0.22; Aprir 4, 0.13. Average for the period was 0.18. Readings at 800 First street NW were: March 29, 0.29; March 30, 0.14; March April 1, 0.25; April 2, 0.18; April 3, 0.26; April 4, 0.10. Average for the period was 0.20. Most Autos Go On Short Trips Of the billions of trips made by automobile in the United States In 1972, surveys reveal that about 54 percent were less than five miles long and nearly 75 percent were less than 10 miles, the World Almanac notes. According to the Motor Vehicles Manufacturers Assn., the aver- age auto commuter traveled 9.4 miles to work while the average shopping trip was some 4.4 miles. A trip to the doctor or dentist averaged about 8.3 miles. Compressed Air Helps Waste Industry Fuel WAKE FOREST, N.C. (AP) The amount of fuel used to produce compressed air that is wasted by industry would heat a community of some per- sons for a year, according to a survey made here. "About 10 percent of the com- pressed air used by 1.2 million industrial and service establish- ments in the United States is being lost, according to our plant says Donald Sicklesteel, vice-president ofi Scovill's Fluid Power division, a maker of air control equipment. "This translates into annual preventable fuel wastage of about 100 million gallons of oil, or tons of coal, or 15 billion cubic feet of natural gas. The dollar value is about million." Want ads will find buyers for items you no longer use! Dial 398-8234. EDITOR'S NOTE It takes off like a rocket, flies like a spaceship and lands on earth like an airliner. The revolutionary space shuttle may make transpor- tation into space routine for researchers, engineers and business men seeking new ways to turn a All in the next decade. By Howard Benedict CAPE KENNEDY, Fla. (AP) On drawing boards across the nation, a new American rocket ship, the re- flyable space shuttle, is tak- ing shape. At Cape Kennedy, construction crews are begin- ning to build a spaceport for this revolutionary vehicle. In Europe, engineers of nine nations are designing a small space station to be fer- ried into orbit by the shuttle. It will be inhabited by re- searchers of various lands. Industries around the world are studying how best to util- ize the shuttle for profit. An era of rocketing Amer- ican astronauts to the moon and into space orbit is nearly over. Only a joint space flight with Russia, to take place next year, remains. Then will follow a period of inactivity while dramatic changes are made in the U.S. space pro- gram and in the role of the N a t i o nal Aeronautics and Space Administration. By 1980, space should cease to be a remote frontier open only to astronauts. Over the next decade it will become a place any man or woman can visit afler only minimal train- ing. NASA is shifting from its pioneering position as an ex- plorer and designer of space payloads into a transportation agency, serving more as a bus or truck line for U.S. in- dustry, other government agencies and other countries. The over-ail goal lis to use the unique qualities of space to benefit mankind. The Skylab program, which concluded Feb. 8 wilh the re- turn of the third three-man crew to earth, marked the end of an era in U.S. manned space flight. The project, dur- ing which crews inhabited the space station for 28, 59 and 84 days, set guidelines for the future. "Skylab has been an affir- mation that man can live and do very useful work in said project director William C. Schneider. "That says we are free to proceed with the space shuttle. We're free to plan on a long-term space station. And eventually this same data will be used to assure ourselves that if we ever want to go out to a dis- tant planet, why, that too is attainable." The first payoff from Sky lab probably will come from the research resources survey conducted by the astronauts acrsi for the homt Drapery Depf., 2nd Floor SMULEKOFF'S Open Monday Night 'til 9 Give Your Bedroom a 'Springtime Touch" with a Quilted Bedspread Your Choice of __ Fitted or Throw Style, most in King, Queen, Full or Twin Size Toss one of these delightfully gay floral bedspreads 'across your bed, and it'll be like bringing a spring garden's joy into.your room-to keep pleasurably all year -round. It'll be like having a new bedroom, when before your eyes, you see it transformed into a dream room. Even your furniture will come brightly into bloom again! These colorful spreads are expertly tailored and most of are sparkle-sheen 100% A.cetate, polyester filled. So shop Smulekoff's this week, get your beautiful, flowerful bedspread and add a "Springtime Touch" to your bedroom Save NOW on our biggest and greatest 20% off Custom-Made Drapery Sale! Save 20% on fabric and 20% on labor and choose from our MARSHALL, TEMPO, and ROSEANN fabric collection, plus! ANY FABRIC NOW IN STOCK! Experts now are analyzing thousands of photos and miles of electronic tape to deter- mine how a space science can best be developed for locating hidden oil and mineral re- serves on earth, for improv- ing agriculture, for estimating umber volume, for mapping snow cover and assessing wa- ter runoff, for charting air and water pollution, for weather forecasting, and for locating good fishing grounds. A series of metals experi- ments on Skylab proved that purer, stronger and more de- pendable metals castings can be manufactured in space. The combination of weight- lessness and vacuum makes it possible to manufacture materials and alloys free of contamination unavoidable on earth because of gravity and convection. Another Skylab experiment produced semiconductor crys- tals 10 times larger and far superior to any formed on earth, according to research- ers. Crystals of this type could be used as efficient semiconductors in power switching and control circuits and in large integrated cir- cuits for computer and com- munications systems. The promise shown by such experiments has attracted potential investors in space laboratories and faciories, re- ported Christopher C. Kraft, jr., director of NASA's John- son Space center in Houston. "More and more companies are showing an he said. "I think in another few years they're going to be in- terested in building their own space labs for delivery to and from space." Kraft and other officials also foresee the day when oil and mineral companies, farm, fishing and timber organiza- tions and other industries will want to have teams of researchers in space to con- duct their own survey. These ventures await the development of the space shuttle, which is set for ini- tial test flights late in this decade, with an operational goal of 1980. The first five shuttles are to be delivered to NASA in the late '70s at a cost of billion for development and manufacture. This compares with a cost of billion for the entire Apollo moon pro- gram. The shuttle will take off like a rocket, fly like a spaceship and land back on earth like an airliner. Its two solid fuel rocket boosters also will be reusable after being para- chuted back to earth. Work starts soon on modi- fication of the now idle and deserted Apollo and Skylab to handle the shuttle. Con- struction of a land- ing runway is getting under way. Later in the decade, another shuttle base will be built at Vandenberg air force base, Calif., mainly for mili- tary missions. Capable of making 100 or more trips into space, each shuttle will be able to carry seven persons, with pilot, co- pilot and mission specialists making up the basic crew. The size of a DC9 airliner, the shuttle will carry pounds of payload. The shuttle's first function will be to put unmanned satellites into desired orbits, eliminating the need for con- ventional throwaway space rockets. If a satellite stops operating, a shuttle crew can fly up to fix it or return it to earth for repair. Thus, (lie cost of building the satellites will come down because they no longer will have to be su- perdependable. In a study of 131 satellite failures of the past, 78 were related to launch failures which would be avoided with a reliable shuttle. Of the 53 other failures, the payloads were inoperable or erratic and could have been returned to earth for repair had a shut- tle been available. Because it can be used over and over, the shuttle will sharply reduce the cost of operating in space. NASA es- timates each shuttle launch will cost about million, compared wilh ?450 million for an Apollo moon flight. Just as other government agencies, industry and foreign governments now pay NASA to launch specialized satel- lites, they will do the same in the shuttle era. Seats will be purchased for specialists wanting to do research in or- bit for periods up to a month. One projection shows a shuttle launch rate of 50 a year during the 1980s, with NASA purchasing as many as seven shuttles from its main contractor, Rockwell Interna- tional, builder of the Apollo spacecraft. 3 Soloists for Today's Annual Shrine Concert Three soloists were listed Sat- urday for today's Palm Sunday concert by the 46-piece El Kahir Shrine band and the 20-voice ihrine Chanters. The program, including both sacred and secular music, will be open to the public free at 3 his afternoon in the Veterans Memorial coliseum. Serving as ushers will be members of the El Kahir Shrine 01 unit, under the direction of V e r n o n Spurrier, president. They will also provide each con- cert-goer with a free program isting all selections and partici- pants. George Baldwin will play the 'himes in the program's open- ng number, "Rock of Soloists for Ihe Chanters will ie Donald Johnson in "The by Jean B. Faure and V a y n e Dunlavey, Chanter director, in "Holy City" by Ste- ihen Adams. Iowa composer Karl King will ie represented on the program vith two selections by the band, mder the direction of William The numbers are "The few Corn Palace March and The Cardiff Giant Selections by other noted band omposers also will be present- d, including "On the Campus" y E.F. Goldman and "Lassus 'rombone" by Henry Fillmore. The band also will be heard in variety of other music includ- ng C.M. Von Weber's "Invita- on ala Caesar Giovan-j ini's "Symphony in One Move-; Albert Ketelbey's "In aj Persian Market" and R.E. Hil- dreth's "Sir Alternating with the band in presentations, the Chanters will open with "Lift Thine Eyes" by Frederick Knight Logan and "Easter Parade" by Irving Ber- lin. The opening segment also will include two folk tunes, %aura Lee" and "Michael, Row the The Chanters also will present two long-popular B. Adams' "Remember Now Thy Creator" and Will James' 'Almighty God of Our Fa- Finale to the program will be a joint presentation with both :he band and Chanters in "Bat- tle Hymn of the Bearded Brothers Did Found Company NEW YORK (UPI) The bearded Smith Brothers, whose portraits have appeared on box- es of cough drops for more than a hundred years, were the ac- lual founders of a company sased on their father's secret recipe for "a flavorsome and efficacious cough candy." In 18C6, William and Andrew Smith started the cough drop concern in Poughkeepsie, N. Y., according to Robert Marston and Associates, Inc. When their jictures first appeared on the rax over the word "trade- the printer mistakenly split the word so that William became "Trade" and Andrew SMULEKOFF'S Lve io each oilier BANDS From Smulekoft's has a complete selection of wedding bands. It's your choice, make it perfect. Open Monday Night 'til 9 SMULEKOFF'S Jewelry Dept.
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