Burlington Hawk Eye, January 12, 1890

Burlington Hawk Eye

January 12, 1890

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Issue date: Sunday, January 12, 1890

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Burlington Hawk Eye (Newspaper) - January 12, 1890, Burlington, Iowa '    .. *    >    f    '    "    %■    ,    ’    ,    f    -    \    V"™PART one THE BURLINGTON HAWK EYE, pages i-4 Established: June, 1839.]BURLINGTON, IOWA, SUNDAY MORNING, JANUARY 12, 1890.—EIGHT PAGES. [Pbice: 15 Cents pee Week THE HAWK-EYE PRESENTS OUR CITIZENS A SUGGESTIVE SKETCE Showing How a Bridge Was Built at Muscatine and How One Can be Built at Burlington—Structural and Financial Statistics. an- ex- The Burlington and Illinois Bridge company, composed of prominent business men of this city, was organized two years ago for the purpose of building a wagon bridge across the Mississippi river at this point. Three hundred thousand dollars’ worth of stock was subscribed and a special charter obtained from congress. The charter will expire some time this year but it is hoped to have it r^iewed. The company at its recent annual meeting re-elected the old board of directors and officers, comprising John W. Gilbert, W. D. Gilbert, N. R. Derby, Samuel Mellinger, John M. Bherfey, Charles W. Rand, J. S. Schramm, E, H. Carpenter, R. M. Raab, P. M. Crapo, .lohn M. Gregg, and II. W. Chittenden, directors. The officers are: President, P. M. Crapo, vice president, John W. Gilbert; treasurer, John M. Sherfey, secretary, Charles W. Rand. The situation was discussed at the nual meeting and a strong desire pressed to inaugurate the enterprise this year. Some correspondence has been had with railway companies whom it was thought might at some time desire to extend their lines into Burlington, but nothing definite in that direction has been accomplished nor is there any immediate prospect of a new road. A com • mitt.ee was appointed to investigate the cost of a good wagon bridge and to obtain all the information possible concerning bridge construction and the methods of raising money for such enterprises. Messrs. N. R. Derby and John M. Sherfey were appointed such committee with instructions to report on the first Monday in March; which by the way is the day of our municipal election. Mr. Derby visited Muscatine last week for the purpose of inspecting the new wagon bridge, now in process of construction at that place, and a sketch of which we are able to publish this morning through the courtesy of the Muscatine Daily News-Tribune. The engraving shows Muscatine, as viewed from the opposite shore. The upper roadway is the wagon bridge proper, and is the part that has been contracted for and is now being built. The cut shows beneath the wagon bridge a railroad bridge and a draw. This part of the bridge is not now being constructed. It can be added at any time, the railway superstructure resting on the same piers. The wagon bridge has one span 442 feet long, underneath which the draw-bridge can be built whenever it is required. The News-Tribune, in describing THE MUSCATINE BRIDGE says that it spans the river diametrically from the foot of Walnut street, striking the opposite shore a short distance above the ferry landing. Its total length will be 2,101 6 feet, consisting of the following spans, girders and trestle work: Six spans Hill feet each.................... WO.O One span 239 6 feet........................ 239 6 and begin construction; probably this year. Mr. Lilley said their people were enthusiastic over the highway bridge project and they expected great benefits to accrue to Muscatine. Mr. Munroe said: “As usual in such cases some of the younger men had to take hold of the enterprise. Men who really had the money to put in it set back and said it could not be done. But we aroused our people and took hold and now we have got a bridge and we are ad glad of it.” As heretofore explained in The Hawkeys, the funds for this enterprise were obtained from three sources. First, about $55,000 was raised by the taxes levied under the authority of Chapter 13 of the laws ai the twenty-first general assembly, a summary of which we will quote further on rn this article. Then the citizens subscribed $58,000 of stock and the company sold $60 OOO of bonds. This yielded nominally $173,000 Deducting the shrinkage in subscriptions and taxes the company had a total of about $170,000 The contract price, as stated, was $149,000. The contractors are to be paid $100,000 in cash and $49,-000 in bonds for the bridge. This will leave about $21,000 for other expenses, as the work upon the approaches, the survey and various incidentals The cost of the preliminary survey was $420. This preliminary survey is necessary to locate the piers, which must then be referred to Major McKensie, the United States engineer, at Rock Island, who four causes the taxes so levied to be forfeited if they are left in the county treasury more than one year af tv the same shall have been collected. The following is the ordinance adopted by the city council of Muscatine which we publish in full in anticipation that a similar ordinance will come np for consideration in Burlington: AN ORDINANCE. An ordinance authorizing and to provide for the construction of a highway bridge over the Mississippi river, between the city of Muscatine, in the state of Iowa, and a point opposite said city In the county of Rock Island, in the state of Illinois. Be it Ordained by the City Council of the City of Muscatine. Iowa: Section I. That authority is hereby granted to the Muscatine Bridge company, its successor* or assigns, to construct and maintain a bridge across the Mississippi river, from a point within the limits ef said city to the Illinois shore, said bridge to be such .as the said company is authorized by the act of congress entitled, “An act to authorize the construction of a railroad, wagon and foot passenger bridge across the Mississippi river at or near Muscatine, Iowa,” approved in 1888. and when built the said bridge shall be held by said company, its successors and assigns, subject to all the conditions imposed by sal* act. Sec. 2. The said bridge shall be constructed in substantial manner, of good material and of sufficient width for a roadway broad enough for two teams to pass each other. Before the commencement of such bridge, the plans for the same shall be submitted to, and receive the approval of the city council of the city of Muscatine. □ Sec. 3. The said bridge and the approaches thereto shall be so located and constructed as 11 afford the least possible construction to existing streets and highways, and so as not to interfere with the rights of way heretofore granted to, and used by railways. Said bridge and approaches may, subject to this limitation, pass over and occupy any of the streets. preach might be made on Arch street, intersecting Main street at its present grade. From the east side of the central channel where the draw bridge would be placed if it were ever built, the wagon bridge could descend by an easy grade to the landing on the Illinois shore. These are matters of detail, however, that must be determined after surveys have been made and plans carefully considered. But it is the judgments citizens who have carefully looked into the matter that the project is entirely feasible, both financially and as an engineering enterprise. That it would be of inestimable value to Burlington, no one questions. It would lead $o the improvement of the highway across the low lands of Illinois. Heretofore there has been a minimum interest felt in that road because of the uncertainty of the crossing at Burlington, but if our city constructs a high bridge, the people of Henderson county will then feel a greater interest in a good, substantial road above high water across the bottom lands opposite the city. There will then be some reason for making permanent improvement there and it will follow as a natural sequence of the building of the bridge. Burlington will then have direct communication with a magnificent stretch of country; a people who have acquired a competence and who are liberal buyers and who, with such ready access to our city, will be found upon our streets every week day during the year. For then they will not be depending upon the STUDIES IN BRITTANY. ESGAR L WAlEUrS SECOND LETTER TO THE HAWK-EYE. Similar Groupings of Pagan Monuments in Brittany, Ireland and Cornwall—A Bude Mythology — Druidic Practices. [Copyright, 1890, for Th* Hawk-Byi.1 Quimperle, Brittany, Dec. 26, 1889. —In the interweaving of Paganism and Christianity there was undoubtedly large ecclesiastical sanction entertained towards many of the superstitious practices of the Americans, the ancient Breton people. As with their race brethren of Ireland, Wales and Cornwall, the retention to almost the present day of a distinct language, and the fostering of the clan theory of society, left countless legends, superstitions and customs among this stolid though remarkably impressive and sentimental people. The most trivial study of the subject will reveal, especially in Brittany, Ireland and Cornwall, precisely the same tremendous groupings deeply sacred traditional association in their minds linking their lives and religion of the present to the Druidic beliefs and the practices and the heroic myths of the past It accounts not only for the sanctity with which all these relics are regarded, but also for the extraordinary demonology with which they are invested and those weird and semi-barbaric powers with which they are accredited. It is an universal belief in the department of Morbihan among the lowly, that one cures rhumatism by dragging himnftlf across, or timmgh a hallowed, Druidic stone and invoking the good offices of St. Etinne. Nothing could more clearly illustrate this than the blending of pagan and Christian influence and belief. A bit of stone chipped from these pagan monuments is a sovereigh cure for headache with the Breton peasantry. The ‘ ‘rocking-stones, ’ ’ or stones of the dwarfs, furnish tests of innocence, as in Ireland or Cornwall, but in an exactly opposite manner. In the latter countries one ac-cussed of guilt may move a rocking stone by the gentlest touch, if innocent. Here one’s innocence is alone certified to if the the |pplication of his greatest strength fails To cause its vibration. In a number of districts in Brittany there still exists the tradition of olden pagan summer time religious ceremonies, also still preserved in Cornwall. Each Saturday in June the youths and lasses repair to a pagan dolmen, rigorously excluding all married folk, for long and vigorous dances about the ancient and sepulchural monument. The men are provided with green wheat- iwna to fraternize with each other, or to quench their burning thirst at wells and streams. At this moment, all these wonderful treasures lay un-girded, and if the places are approached with certain herbs entwined with cinquefoil, a chance is given mortals to ob-tainthe coveted wealth. The difficulty in securing it, however, has always been the fear on the part of peasants that the stony hosta would rush back pell-mell from their yearly diversions to sentinel their posts, and claim the treasure-seaaearcher’s spirit ai their own. Brittany,always rich in heroic legends, is especially so in those ever delight fid ones which wreathe the memory of Britain’s “stainless king.” Arthur of the Table Round. Though Cornwall lays claim to Arthur"s birth-place, and place of death, at Csmelford, Brittany’s tenderest heritage of legend and song is in the imperishable traditions of his heroic exploits upon her soil. There is a rock in Finistere to which for seventeen years he fastened his steed. On the strand at Lannion he slew the dragon At Mont St. Michael dwelt the terrible giant who fell by Arthur’s arm. From the summit of the Menez-Arrez mountains his shadowy hosts is seen to defile at break of day whenever war is impend mg; “Horsemen all mounted on war-steeds erray, like the mist-wraiths: Coursers that snort with the cold on the heights of the mountains.” The shadowless isle of Avalon to which he was conveyed after his mortal hurt. TOE RELIGIOUS REALM. INCIDENTS OF VORSHIP AND OPINIONS OF RELIGIOUS LEADERS. Pope Leo on America—A Popular Cremation—The Y. P. S. C. E —Pious Students—An Opinion on Christmas. In bis latest allocution to date. Leo XIII contrasted the freedom and prosperity enjoyed by the Roman Catholic church in this country with its condition in Italy, praised our laws and the men who administer them, and said a good word for the new university at Washington. The Jersey City Tabernacle was packed to the doors the other evening, on the occasion of the solemn public cremation of a $11,000 mortgage. When Pastor John L. Scudder scratched and applied the match, the congregation applauded. Then "the mayor and leading citizens made congratulatory addresses. A correspondent describing himself aa an orthodox layman writes to the Boston Transcript: “Some one has remarked that it is fortunate that the twelve apostles, having received their commia-j sion from Christ to go into all the world and preach the gospel, did not have to submit to a human ordeal of inveatiga-i tion like that wnich the devoted young men of this century are obliged to paaa | through. Think of asking the apostles to wait until they had finished their studies in eschatology!” Professor Austin Phelps is quoted in the Boston Advertiser as saying of the Y. P. S. C. E :    “It    is the only move ment which has met adequately a peril to which our churches for many years have been exposed I mean the abaorb-I tion of churchly forces in methods of [usefulness outside of the church, and some of them ignoring its existence. This movement of 'Christian Endeavor’ seems admirably fitted to counteract that | danger. I am grateful for it, The rapidity of its success is proof that it was I needed.” View A SUGGESTIVE SKETCH FOR BURLINGTON’S WAGON BRIDGE. of Mluisoa.t.ine, from til© Illinois Shore, and the New Highway Iron Bridge Now Under Construction. Length 3,1016 feet—-8 stone and 3 iron piers—Grade 3.65 per ICO feet—Highest span above high water 55 feet—Roadway 18.2 feet in the clear—Double traok roadway and a sidewalk 4 feet wide—Cost of bridge, approaches, etc,, *170.000— Raised by a 3 per cent tax $55,000; stock *58,000; bonds $60,000—Contract for bridge proper $149,000. Two t pans3dJ feet each.... i\W I 22.U One span 41:^ feet..........   442.0 Throe iron girders......................... 158.0 Bix bents iron trtstle work...............120.0 Pile trestle work ........................ 260.0 Barth embankment....................... 200.0 Total......................................3101.0 Tho spans will be supported by eight b tone and three iron piers, which will be built above high water. The stone piers will be built upon pile foundations, heavily rip rapped. The iron piers are tubular and tilled with concrete. From these piers spring the iron towers resem bling in their braces the famous Eiffel tower of Paris, and which will hold the wagon bridge in their powerful arms. As clearly indicated in the engraving, the wagon bridge will ascend an arch from either side, the grade being 3.65 feet per hundred feet, until the 442-foot span is reached, which is fifty-five feet above high water and 71 6 above low water. The height from low water to top of this span is 128 6 feet. The roadway is 18 2 feet in the clear, and a Sidell walk on the south side will have a width of four feet. THE RAILROAD BRIDGE The railroad bed provided by the plan of the bridge will run under the wagon way b jtween the towers, and rest directly on the piers, as shown in our view, collecting in a south curve on the Iowa snore and in a north curve on the Illinois side. The draw for the railroad will be located under the 412 foot Rpan (see view) and will in no manner interfere with travel on the wagon bridge above. This is a great improvement on the Keokuk, 8t. Louis and Davenport bridges, on the first of which teams cross on the same door with railway trains, and on the two latter, beneath the railroad track, neces sitating the stoppage of wagon and foot travel during the operation of the draw. then calls a meeting of the board of river pilots, who determine whether the proposed location of piers will afford the least obstruction to the currents of the river and be the most convenient for boats and rafts. The cost of the plans for the bridge at Clinton now in preparation will be $500. At Muscatine this expense was not incurred, as the bridge building company submitted the plans which were accepted. The people of Muscatine were fortunate in letting their contract last year, as since that time there has been a sharp advance in the price of iron and steel, and it is estimated that this advance would now make the bridge cost over $12 OOO more than the contract price. And this fact, by the way, shows what Burlington has lost by delay, and the importance of taking prompt action before there is much further advance in the iron market. HOW TO BUILD A BRIDGE. Mr. Derby’s Report. At the citizen’s meeting held Thursday forenoon at the Board of Trade rooms, Mr. Derby who had returned from Mus caline called attention to the bridge pro ject and offered a resolution to the effect that it had the hearty endorsement of the people of Burlington. He gave few facts in relation to the Muscatine bridge and as the subject is of special interest to our citizens, and as the enter priseus considered of vital importance to our city, it was decided to defer action upon the resolution until the adjourned meeting next Thursday forenoon at the same place and time. In the meantime The Hawk-Eye, believing it best served the public by bringing cut ail the facts bearing on this matter so that when our citizens meet they will have a pretty fair understanding of what Muscatine has done and what it is possible for Burling ton, sought an interview with Mr Derby and asked him for such information as he could give concerning the Muscatine bridge. Mr. Derby saw Mr. Baker, the engi neer of the Bridge company, Mr. Ben E. .Dilley, a leading dry goods man and a brother of our Mr. W. W. Lilley, of the Burlington Fuel company, Mr. G. H. Monroe, secretary of the Bridge com pany, and ether citizens. Mr. Baker said they got a general idea of where to put tile bridge after the com pany had been organized and then they made a call for bids. Six bridge building companies responded, although only two finally put in bids. The limit of cost was put at $150,000 and the contract was awarded to the Milwaukee Bridge company at $149,000. Clinton, TM* Law Governing Sack Enterprises — Municipal Ald. We need not go further into the details of the history of the Muscatine bridge, excepting so far as pertains to the steps necessary to be taken at Burlington in a similar enterprise. One of the steps at Muscatine was to call a public meeting, held January 23d, 1888, in which the citizens seemed to have turned out in large numbers and to have aroused a good deal of enthusiasm for the project. Committees were appointed to inspect other bridges and at a subsequent meet ing, held February 2d, their report was favorably received and the council was asked to call an election upon the question of a three per cent tax in aid of the enterprise. Committees were also appointed to secure subscriptions of stock conditional upon the tax being voted. A petition was circulated for the signature of the majority of freeholders and was presented to the city council February 14th. Whereupon a special election was ordered to be held February 27th, 1889. and on the 21st of the same month an ordinance was passed granting a liberal franchise to the Muscatine Bridge company. The election ensued six days later and was carried by the friends of the tax by a vote of 1464 to 197. In the meantime stock was subscribed, bids for the construction were advertised and on .July 15 the contract was let to the Mil Waukee Bridge & Iron Works company for the entire construction of the bridge for $149,000, to be completed for travel by July 4, 1890. The first pile for the stone piers was driven October 21, 1889, and sines that date active work has been maintained. We want to call the atten tion of our citizens to the celerity and persistence with which the citizens of Muscatine moved in this matter. It is an example which we may wed emulate. The question now arises, HOW SHALL BURLINGTON FROCKED to accomplish a similar result? The act of the 21st general assembly to which we have heretofore referred, was ap proved February 25th, 1886, and it au thorizes cities to aid in the construction of highway bridges over navigable boundary rivers of the state of Iowa. Section one provides that a tax not to exceed five per centum on the assessed value of a city having over 5,000 inhabi tan ta may be voted, to construct or aid any company which has or may be in corporate! under the laws of the state o1 Iowa, in the construction of a highway bridge, commencing or terminating in any city across any navigable or bound ary river in the state of Iowa Burling ton and the Mississippi river come under that designation. Section two provides that whenever a petition shall be pre sented to the city council, signed by by a majority of the resident free-hold tax payers of the city, asking that the question of con struction, or aiding any company build such a bridge, shall be submitted to the voters thereof, it shall be the duty of the council to give notice of a specif election at least ten days before such election and the method of submitting such question and of voting thereupon , are set forth in detail, lf the taxes are voted, then, upon proper certification of Burlington and Muscatine got bridge I the fact, the board of supervisors of the charters at the same time but Muscatine I county, shall at the time of tim levyin ; is the only town that has begun the I of the ordinary tax, levy each year sue i work of construction. Mr. Baker is I taxes as ere voted under Abe provisions making plans for a bridge at Clinton and I of this act. Section third provides how they expect to get their charter renewed I the money ahu he paid out. Section alleys and public grounds of the city. If built across the public levee, the same shall be located to the satisfaction of the city council of said city, so as not to interfere with the proper use of said levee. The said bridge company. its successors or assigns, shall pay all damages to private property which shall accrue by reason of this grant, and the said exercises of the privileges hereby conferred, and shall forever hold the city free and harmless therefrom. Sec. 4. The city of Muscatine agrees, that said city will exempt said bridge and its approaches from all taxation for city purposes for the period of fifteen years from its completion. Sec. 5. The tolls to be charged by said bridge company, its successors or assigns, shall at all times be reasonable, but shall not be in excess of fifteen cents each way for each vehicle drawn by one or more horses, nor more than five cents each way for each footman. Sec. 6. At the expiration of ten years from the opening of said bridge to travel, the city of Muscatine shall have the privilege, upon giving six months notice in writing of its intention so to do, of purchasing said bridge by paying the full cost thereof, with eight per cent interest thereon, added to all expenses of the said company or its assigns and loss by accidents, repairs and replacements, less the amount of aid voted by the people of said city and drawn by said company, and also less all tolls received. Sec. 7. For the purpose of guarding the rights of said city of Muscatine in relation to purchase, the mayor of said oity, and a competent accountant to be selected from time to time by the city council of said city, shall have the right of acoess at all times within ten years after the completion of said bridge, to all account books, documents and records of said company, and call upon the said company, its officers and agents for verified state ments and details touching the property of said company, its indebtedness, income, outlays ana financial condition. Seo. 8. It is expressly understood that this ordinance, when accepted by said Muscatine Bridge company, shall be construed to be a mutual contract between the city of Muscatine apd said company, its successors or assigns. and all its provisions and conditions binding upon both parties. Bec. 9. The said city of Muscatine reserves to itself the right to establish and to enforce all proper police regulations at and about the westerly approach of and on said bridge. Sac. IO. Unless said Muscatine Bridge Company shall commence the actual construction of said bridge within six (6) months from the taking effect of this ordinance, and prosecute the same with reasonable dispatch until completed, then this ordinance shall become absolutely null and void, time being expressly made a condition hereof. Sec. ll. Before any aid voted by the people of said city to be used in the construction of said bridge can be drawn from the county treasury by said Muscatine Bridge company, its successors or assigns, the said company shall file with the city recorder a written ac ceptance of the terms of this ordinance. The Duty of Bnrllaitpa The question now arises what can we do in this line in Burlington after the public spirited action of Muscatine, which The Hawk-Eye has spread before the citizens of Burlington. We do not see how any of our citizens can reconcile themselves to anything but immediate action in the same direction. If we wait until some prospective railway company builds a bridge for us we may wait a long while and in the meantime our city will greatly lose; our retail trade will especially suffer. We cannot afford to sit down like Micawber and “wait for something to turn up,” and there is really no necessity for such dilatory methods. The Muscatine plan makes it entirely practicable to provide for a railway bridge whenever there is a necessity for it. The same piers will answer for both bridges, and by making a high bridge for the wagon road, the draw, with its expense of construction and operation, is dispensed with until needed for a railway track. The Muscatine plan, as is pointed out by our Muscatine cotemporary, whom we have quoted, of separating the wagon road from the railway track, makes it much pleasanter, safer and more convenient for public use. Another, and very important consideration is that by not attempting to build the railway bridge at present the expense is greatly reduced. We would estimate that if capital of $170,000 is sufficient for bridge at Muscatine, $200,000 ought to be ample at Burlington. There may not be that difference in the cost but we as sumo that a bridge at Burlington will necessarily be of greater length, including its approaches. The landing upon the Iowa shore will be very favorable for a wagon bridge if located in the vi cinity of the water works. The main channel and draw, in all probability would be nearest the Iowa shore, as is the case in thee., B. AQ railway bridge. That would be the point where the wagon bridge would reach its greatest altitude. From that point it would be a comparatively abort distance to Main weather or the uncertainity of a ferryboat during certain months of the year. CAN THE MONEY BE RAISED for this scheme? There is a good old motto, “Where there is a will there is a way.” The Hawk-Eye has an abiding faith in Burlington and the great enterprise of our people. If Muscatine, a smaller town, can build such a bridge, we are sure Burlington can. There are various ways in which the money can be secured. The Muscatine plan is a good one as it divides the sources from which the money comes; a portion being paid in by stockholders, who will hope for a dividend upon their investment; a portion being contributed at large by taxation, because it will be recognized as a -public benefit, and a third coming from abroad by the sales of the bonds. If it were necessary Burlington could levy the full amount of tax permitted by the statue. Five per cent upon $4,500,000 of assessed values would yield $225,000, and it might be levied and collected as in the case of the court house, in four annual installments. But as Darlington wants the bridge as soon as it can be obtained, it will probably be better to make the tax payable in two or possibly three years. But it is not probable that our citizens would determine to build the bridge wholly by taxation. There are various Mans that can be suggested. It might be built by levying a tax that would cover portion of the expense at present and issue bonds which could be redeemed by a very small levy in after years, similar to the water bonds sinking fund. Or it could be built under a financial scheme similar to that under which the water works was constructed. The present bridge company could pay in, say ten per cent, and issue bonds for the balance, the bonds to be retired a certain amount each year, as is done with the water works bonds. But if this plan were adopted. The Hawk-Eye hopes it will be determined beforehand who would own the bridge after the bonds were all cancelled and not leave us in a muddle like the present unfortunate water works controversy. We think it will be agreed by our citizens that some plan of this kind is entirely feasible and with a like unanimity will they demand that the enterprise shall be inaugurated at once. We have held in our hands for two years a valuable charter granted us ay congress. We have made no progress in that time. This is the year, this is our golden opportunity for action. Let us begin building a wagon bridge during 1890! _ MUM’ Nerve ti# Liver Flue. An important discovery. They act on the liver, stomach and bowels through the nerves. A new principle. They speedily cure biliousness, bad taste, tor pid liver, piles and constipation. Splendid for men, women and children. Small est, mildest, surest, 30 doses for 25 cents. Samples free at J. H. Witte’s drug store. A Stop Watch. “Is your watch a stop watch, Tom?” “Yes.” “Let me bee it, please?” “I can't. It s stopping for the present at mv uncle's."—Yankee Blade. the AccideniaUy O^erheax^. Mrs. Emptehedde (staring across bouse, while Lehmann and Perot ti are singing)—I declare, there is Mr!. Pumice-stone wearing the same old gown that she wore every night last season. She ought really to gA another or stay as home. Usher (entering the box, timidly)—Mrs. Pumicestone presents her compliments, and says she can hear your conversation clear across the house.—Puck. There’s not a speck, there’s not a stain Tfiat on Ute teeth we chance to see, Bat shadows forth decay and pain, If not removed right speedily, Br 80Z0D0NT. whose wondrous power Works miracles in one chort hoar. A woman who favors equal suffrage wants to know if it is a crime to be a woman. No, but it is not manly. We wil say no more.—Boston Transcript Nervous debility, poor memory, diffi deuce, sexual weakness, pimples, curse by Dr. Miles’ Nervine. Samples free at J. H. Witte’s drag store. of pagan monuments; startlingly similar customs and practices lingering as ine-xadicable outgrowth of a like pagan influence from a common Celtic parentage; a rude and almost barbaric mythology, half-pagan ond half-Christian, from a like stock and time; and, a wondrous troop of wraiths, fairies, elves, and quaint old legends clung to and treasured with the same interesting and defiant pertinacity. Brittany has leas of the quees and comical giants and giant-fighters like Bellerian, Cormoran, Jack the Giant killer, Holibum of the Cairn, Nancel* dry, Trebiggan, Blunderbus, Gogmagog, Thunderbone and Bolster, of Cornish mythology. Breton peasantry are perhaps not in the thrall of so many and such a variety of the “wee folk,” as may be found in the “brownies,” the “sprig-gans,” the “buccas” or “knockers” and the “piskies” of Cornwall, or the “banshee,” the “farshee,” the “dullaghana,” the “pookas,” the “hurlers,” and those rare little imps in green, the ‘ ‘leprechauns,” of Ireland; but still the Breton 'oik boast their giants bold, as wonder-'ul as Cornwall’s; their demonology possesses kindly elves and torturing fairy rascals of equal standing, and from the same origin as those of the Irish; while find innumerable portents, superstitions and superstitious customs precisely the same among the peasantry of each country. The remarkable thing about it all is that, while the lowly of Ireland and Brittany are fervent Catholics, there is scarcely a Catholic in Cornwall, nine-tenths of its people being equally as fervent Wesleyan Methodists, and the remainder, Church of England adherents. Yet the same merging of the Druidic religion into these violently opposing forms of Christianity exist; and the follower of Wesley in Cornwall, is as much of a pagan, in this respect, to-day, as the peasant follower of 8t. Patrick in Ireland, or the devout Catholic peasant in Brittany. Among all these people the wonderful stone monuments of their early pagan ancestors are the haunts of the “wee folk.” The latter hold possession of them; perform nightly the old Druidic rites about thpm; guard untold treasures beneath them; entice unworthy folk to them for all manner of confusion and worse: cause blights and charms to be wrought Within their weird presences, create tests of marital fidelity or of inno-cance or guilt of crime; provide sovereign remedies for certain diseases, give opportunities to those who will brave their presence at night for sale of their souls to the evil one, as well as for secret rites which effect expiation; and issue forth at all grewsome hours to all manner of folk with harm and help on expeditions of punishment and errands of mercy. All this is to that degree of likeness and persistent treasuring that, were there no other ethnological paral-ells, one could not escape the proof that the first Celts of Ireland and the first people of Cornwall and Brittany were not only common stock, but were, while pa gans, a people of common language, cub toms, and of interest as against the savage and finally all conquering Saxons. Another fact of interest has aided in investing these granite enigmas of pagan times with sacrd interest. When Chris tianity first strove to overthrow pagan ism in Brittany, Cornwall and Ireland, it was found necessary to temporize with existing beliefs. Thus, the early Christian missionaries dare not at once destroy, or cause the removal of, the ogham stones of Ireland, the huge monoliths of Corn wall and the mighty pillar stones and dolmens of Brittany. Instead, as mighty emblems of the new religion were built upon them, or beside them. Go where you will in these three lands, each mar velously rich in pagan remains, the great stone cross will be seen gleaming pure and white, upon or beside, the emblems of the Druidic frith. So intense was the reference for the latter among the early peoples, that no one save Charlemange, in Brittany, ever had the power or hard ihood to attempt their widespread destruction. This compromise effected and ever since maintained between Paganism and Christianity has always been thor oughly recognized by every priest of Ireland and meteor of Brittany: while the power of Wesley in gaining complete control ovm the hearts of the people of Cornwall was in no other way so remark ably shown as in his preaching, precisely as did St Patrick 1800 yean before bim, “The bustle is a thing of the past,” says a fashion excange. It always was a little  ^    _    __behind.—Binghamton Republican. street and we would suppose that an ap-1 a . C.Overholt. mane toner, at Lane * Hinton’# in the open fields, where the Christian ana the pagan monument, hallowed in common by the people, stood side by Cross and the side together. One mot know people, and facts to know understand the ■ ^ ...... -- m3 ears in their hat bands, the maidens with flax-blossoms pinned to their high white caps. On arriving at the place those whose affections or troths have been plighted, lay their wreaths of wheat and flax upon the giay old stones. If during the festivities their loves remain unchanged the offerings will for weeks remain green and fresh, but if their affections be diverted, the withering of the wreaths will instantaneously follow. A “rocking stone3’ not a mile from this town possesses powers of far more dreadful import; though I could not discover reason for the injustice of their applicability to women alone. It is called “The rock of the betrayed spouses.” It is consulted to this day by husbands who suspect their wives of infidelity. The partner of a faithless wife finds himself unable to move it: and it will rock violently if she be innocent. These are but few instances among scores I could cite of Breton belief in the supernatural powers, in common with a ike or similar belief of the Irish and Cornwall peasantry, inherently existing in these pagan monuments. When we come to the demonology, legendary lore and treasured every day superstitions and portents, the affinity is quite as marked and entertaining. The generic term for all fairies and elves of active viscousness geniality in Cornwall is “pixy;” in Ireland, “sidh,” Anglicized into “shee,” as “far-shee,” and “ban shee,” man and wo man of the mountains or faire mansions; in Brittany, “Korrigans,” of which there are many families, the principal ones, re presenting respectively good and «vil spirits, being the “Teuz,” and the “Kor-ils. ’ ’ The pagan sepulchural and Druidic monuments as well as Christian churchyards are invariably the headquarters of these little people; but for some inexpli cable reason the wild moors strewn with dolmens and pillar stones are especially the domain of powerful evil spirits. The ‘Tuez” issue from thir abodes in friendly beneficence to assuage all manner of ills at the humble Breton fireside, ann to exert the kindliest offices with the sodden peasant in his interminable toil in the fields, or to aid the fisherman in his hazardous labors along the howling coast; but the “Korila,” those malevolent imps of Breton superstition, are ever on the alert to annoy and distress. They dance and perform the wildest orgies around dreary dolmens and pillar stones from night fall until day break, and all manner of evil will befall him who chances upon their enchanted ground during these witching hours. The least penalty he will suffer is to be compelled to dance with such fury that every bone in his whole body seems breaking, until the crowing of the cock at the first streak of dawn; disbelieving ones who have braved their powers have been whisked through the air never to reappear in mortal form; drunken pipers, desecrating their roadside haunts with saucy rondeaux and roulades, when returning from the vil lage fetes, have paid penance with their lives; and these elfin enemies of mankind are at the bottom of every manner of mischief and misfortune befalling the humbler classes of Brittany. Breton folk have no sad and moumfu ‘ ‘ban shee” as have the Irish, but what could be more touching than the universal superstition that on the eve of the Fete des Morte, in Nouember, the souls of the departed are allowed to visit their laved ones upon earth and reinhabit the places they once occupied, all in benig nancy and content. On that night there is not a humble home in Brittany, where, on the awed and hushed retiring of the occupants, the fire-place is not bankec high with blazing Hr, and the table set with the best viands the household pos Besses, for the possible use of the ghost \y company,* ‘so numerous in the house,” Souvestre tells, “as the leaves in the deep Breton lanes.” Out of this belie! and practice has grown a superstition a' ake grimmest character. The return of the spirits of the dead nompels the appearance of a grisly retinue. These at tendants are known as “Lavandieres de Nuit,” washerwomen of the night. These phantoms wash the shroud of the dead. They work with incredible zeal and fury, and force luckless passers under penalty of death, to help them, never failing to dislocate their arms if they wring the linen the wrong way. There is also in Brittany a numerous brood of monsters, dragons and unhappy spirits whose offices sin especially to watch over the untold treasures concealed beneath pUlar-siones and dolmens. Once each year at the hour of midnight mass of Christmas eve, these tortured are freed from antagon- is held by Breton folk to be a little islet off the Cottes du Nora. And among the peasantry there is an almost univ areal loving belief in good Arthur’s final return in fulfillment of Merlin’s prophecy Along down this line of Breton wraith, mystery and portent come countless troops of every-day superstitions. Many books might be filled with them. Here are few any one can gather in this quaint land within a fort-night: Blight will come upon all infants unless blessings are bestowed before they are ltd, or if passers fail to call out, “God bless you”’ to its mother. Passing a sick person through the split trunk of a live fir-tree will remove disease. To shoot a raven will bring down a curse, as King Arthur’s spirit went into the Breton raven. The oxen at mid night of Christmas Eve may be found upon their knees groaning in prayer. The souls of fishermen lost at sea, without grace, “hail their names along the coast at each anniversary of loss of life. To put wooden shoes on the wrong feet is certain presage of coming temptation to great crime. As in Cornwall in the departments of Morbihan and Finistere bullock calves are still secretly burned to drive evil spirits from the herds. Hundreds repair annually to a men-an-tol, or holed pagan stone, near Carnac, to be drawn through it for the cure of rheumatism. If the flame in the fire-place ever assumes the form of of a coffin, death will presently come to that house. If one ob serves proper conditions of dress and mind and can place foot upon the plant herbe d’or, or selago, the language of any animal will become as clear to him as man’s. The old pagan custom of St. John’s-eve fires is universal in Brittany. Any Breton girl who dances around nine of these fires before midnight, will marry within the year Cattle driven through their embers will be preserved from wit'di-evils. Any one who will walk nine times around the great men-anotol, near Lan nion, nine times at midnight may ever after enjoy powers of the evil one; and a woman may become a witch by sacn Acing the blood of a blank cat at the same witching hour on a “stone of the betrayed spouses.” The howl ing of a dog with his head towards the house; the crowing of March roosters before midnight; the sudden appearance of swarms of butterflies; or the losing by a cow of her cud, bodes death. The crops of blackbirds hold the souls of those exposed to purgatorial fires; and the magpie is the repository of the soul of an evil-minded woman. Edgar L. Wakeman. In the course of a talk at Cleveland to the Western Reserve alumni of the Ohio Wesleyan University, the new president, Rev. J. W. Bashford, Ph. D., made a truly extraordinary statement, thus reported in the Cleveland Leader: He said that he was prouder of the character of the students than of their number. He actually has to discourage the attendance upon chapel exercises The chapel hall is so small that it will not accommcdate all of the students, and so he announced that if any desired to be excused from attendance he would issue seventy excuses. Actually only twenty made application. “There is another thing,” said Dr. Bashford, “which will show how the university has improved since you were there.” A correspondent of the Church Record says: “It is no extravagance to assert that the development of the tonic sol-fa system is the most important episode in the history of music since the invention of the staff. It practically opens tho world of music to all mankind. Millions will learn to sing by this notation who would have been voiceless without it.” “To our churches it means the introduction of anthems, oratorios, and classical music, correctly and pleasingly rendered, and a new and increased devotional element among our congregations. In fact, we are only just beginning to find out the value of music as an agency that maketh for righteousness.” Chamberlain’s Cough Remedy is the most successful preparation that has yet been produced for coughs, colds and croup. It will loosen and relieve a severe cold in less time than any other treatment. The article referred to is Chamberlain’s Cough Remedy. It is a medicine that has won fame and popu larity on its merits and one that can a1 ways be depended upon. It is the only known remedy that will prevent croup. It must be tried to be appreciated. It is put up in 50-cent and $1 bottles. For sale by all druggists. Mrs. sec* von \ Markka Improvement. Slirndiet (the landlady)—Glad ti' l»a< H. Mr. Dashaway. • How stout you are looking. Your clothes are really getting too tight for you. Dashaway (dryly)—Yes, madam. I have been away from your house some little time.—Clothier and Furnisher. BHV Deadly that “You dead?” “Yes.' “Great heavens! weapons used?" “The American Enoch. Weapon. both duelists fell What were the toy pistol.” — The BotkUa’a Alai— Mvt. The best salve in the world for cuts, bruises, sores, ulcers, salt rheum, fever sores, tetter, chapped hands, chilblains corns and all skin eruptions, and positively cores piles, or no pay required. It is guaranteed to cive perfect satisfaction or money refunded. Price 25 cents per box. For m!« at HmuVa rime «tnr*. Coffee may go up, but the erose roads variety of parched corn will be abundant as ever.—Baltimore American. The meet remarkable ernes of scrofula on reeprdt^ve^beemapcompliahed by Hood’s -V ' ...     111 * The Watchman < Bapt.) seems not quite fixed in its mind concerning Christmas. In one column it says: “We wish it could be said that the memory of the Savior’s birth were cherished in a spirit as reverent and religious as the event should evoke. We apprehend that mirth and jollity rather than sacred joy, predominate in the observances, and that musical display in the churches is more conspicuous than devotion. We would hope that a due proportion of the Christmas gifts shall express genuine affection and friendship, that along rith the festivity true neighborly kindness and sympathy may not fail to be manifest, and that from some hearts will ascend the sacrifice of praise for the divine love that was expressed in the incarnation of the Bon of God for a redeeming purpose in our behalf. Bo shall the festival be not only a joy, but a blessing.” But in another column it remarks: “Christmas day, like other things of human manufacture imposed upon ' I! churches of Christ, develops itself into a nuisance with accelerating progress.” The Independent says: “Our Catholic I friends must not talk too much of their Washington University Their leading I monthly says that "the intellectual side I of our church organization . is now crowned by a university where the deepest problems of philosophy and | science will receive the highest order of treatment.’ We wish it were true, but it is not yet a fact. The university is only about one-eighth of a university. It has only one department provided for, and that the department for theology. It is thus far simply a better equipped theological school, and it adds to the ordi-[ nary instruction of theology scarcely anything except better provision for teaching Oriental languages. But there is as yet no provision for teaching physics, or biology, or history, to say nothing of classical or modern languages and general philology. It is only a university in the sense in which Paul calls Christians saints, because it is hoped that they will be saints one of these days. By and by, when six or I eight more departments have been added, it may be proper to call it a university; I now it is only a theological school.” The London Church Times says concerning the cultus of the Blessed Virgin: * ‘That tile cult, as is usual with heresies of all kinds, has been morally disastrous is beyond all honest question. And for a simple reason. The Blessed Virgin is regarded on the one hand as wielding the prerogatine of mercy only, and not that of justice; and, on the other, as being peculiarly open to flattery, so that if given enough of that, she will not be exacting as to the conduct of her worshippers. Being, as she is, the highest ideal type of womanly purity, it might be thought that where her cult prevails it would actively promote that virtue, but as a fact ii; is precisely where it prevails most that unfaithfulness to the marriage vow is most frequent; and what is almost stranger, the cult is a very favorite one with profligate women. It has the same deadening effect on morals as the La theran tenet of Justification by Faith only has with those emotional which take it as granting i license to believers. It is, briefly, attempt to keep Christ aloof, as a i Judge, who mast be obeyed, mid to stitute St. Mary as a tender woman, who can be wheedled—a dishonoring mode of regarding her, which is a graver insult than that of the complete neglect with which the Protestants are too apt to to.- ;

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