Fort Wayne Weekly Sentinel, December 15, 1909

Fort Wayne Weekly Sentinel

December 15, 1909

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Issue date: Wednesday, December 15, 1909

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Publication name: Fort Wayne Weekly Sentinel

Location: Fort Wayne, Indiana

Pages available: 37,632

Years available: 1860 - 1917

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Fort Wayne Weekly Sentinel (Newspaper) - December 15, 1909, Fort Wayne, Indiana FISHY FLAVOR IN BUTTER CAUSE OF THIS TROUBLE ATTRIBUTED TO THE PRESENCE OF ACID CON- DITIONS IN THE CREAM USED BY.B. C. MILLER, What causes the fishy flavor in but- ter? That is something no one has ,been able to find out until the govern- dairy foods undertook the task. "But even the government cannot find out all the causes, Cor there are more than' one. the main cause seems to' be some particular substance produced by. the oxidation oC one of the combinations of the acid develop- ment in the ripening of the cream. .In other words, it is caused by a slow, spontaneous, chemical change to which acid is essential and which is favored :b'y the presence of small amounts of ;0xygen. .It. has been a generally accepted the- ory among buttermakers that sour :crea.m made the best butter. This idea is, reversed by the investigations, which bring- forth the conclusion that butter made from sweet cream does not con- tain'the elements that go to make fishy flavor. In all the experimental butter made in the last three years there has been no trace of fishy flavor in that made from pasteurized sweet cream, churned without the addition of a starter. In butter made from pasteurized cream with starter added, but without any. subsequent ripening, there has been no tishy flavor, with one or two doubt- ful exceptions. On the other hand, many lots of experimental butter made from well ripened cream developed marked fishiness. It is evident, therefore, that there is a direct relation between the acidity of cream and the development of fishy flavor in the butter. However, as the work progressed it became apparent that the acidity, although having a de- termining influence on fishy flavor, was not the sole cause. With this factor controlled it was impossible to. make butter with any certainty that it would become-fishy. Frequently butter made from cream with a high acidity showed no trace of this flavor. It was found that .overworking the butter increased the tendency to nsh'.i- ness, and this flavor produced with reasonable certainty by. overwork- ling high-acid butter. All butter con- tains considerable quantifies of air, and this is Increased by the working, thus producing conditions more favorable to oxidation. Fishy flavor may be prevented with certainly, says the govern- ment expert, by making butter from pasteurized cream, 'without ripening. The addition of a starter to pasteurized sweet cream without subsequent ripen- ing improves the flavor .of .the .fresh butter without adding- enough acid to cause fishiness. Pasteurization of sour cream will not prevent the development of 'fishy- flavor. A CHEAf MANURE SHED Of all things upon the farm the ques- tion of .how, to get the best out of manure should .be foremost with us all. shows a shed 8x10 feet, seven feet to the eaves; sides high. The end boards are held in place by: stakes' at two corners, while one side is. movable-and .may be left out until shed is partly; filled. If all manure iso gathered .from the cow lot every two''or, three days arid all sods arid.'forest leaves about the place gathered and mixed with.; the the stable manure, and the suds from the .week's washing-, put on the manure and' all forked over farmers whci are now trudg- ing rocky road with only one suspender arid a twine for a bridle rein could be, riding in auto- mobiles and It's the little leaks that sink the ship its the manure that's leaked out and wasted that1 bankrupts many farmers. GRUBS IN THEY SHOULD BE LOCATED AND REMOVED, THEIR PRESENCE PAIN AND INJURY TO CATTLE BY A. 8, ALEXANDE3, Wisconsin Coliego -of Agriculture The raised painful "bunches" notice- able upon the backs of cattle during the winter ssason and early spring months are due to large grubs or larvae and are commonly, The grubs are the product of eggs deposited by the ox warble fly (hupo- derma lineata) during fly time in sum- mer, and unless destroyed on removal from the backs of cattle, burrow into the earth and emerge after a time in the form of flies, to carry on their pes- tiferous work. The old and apparently sensible.idea, of: the life history of these grubs is that the parent fly deposits her eggs upon or-Just'under the surface of the skin of the cow's back at a place where she can neither protect herself' against the fly 'by licking with her tongue nor switching with her tail., The eggs then hatch out arid the young larvae, after penetrating' the deeper layer of the skin, form a the connective tissue, where they live and grow in a. collection of inflamma- tory lymph. This inflammatory fluid is caused-by the irritation set up b'y the constant movement of the hard bristles protrud- ing from the segments'of. the'body of the. grub. Ah orifice will be found in the top of each warBle and through it the grub obtains air l while growing and snakes its escape from the skin when fully matured'in.the spring. Of recent years government' gators have published a .different theory to the effect that the. fly deposits her eggs upon the: legs and heels' of the animal, which licks'them off-and swallows, them, whereupon the eggs hatch in the gullet and the young, lar- vae penetrate Us walls, find ..their wiy into the connective' tissue and ly burrow their ;way therein until thej arrive at the one'part of the body .if which they 'are invariably found. The letter-.theory.'is'little, credited- by; practical stockmen and veterin- arians. If it is how; that-..the grubs are found" in but part ofitliS And that we do npt come across them in their through the tissues? 'Prevention of these- pestr, is 'to bs Bought- by Backs 8t the cattle during fly .time arid washing theirvbacks with' strong -silt water during then each grub that matures 'squeezed Out' and r The 'grub, causes much- misery ;to- their, living 'host''and cause serious damage to the hide ior the purposes .of the -tanner. GROWING APPLES UNDER IRRIGATION i .1J..J_...________ Planting Two-Year-Old Trees and Root Pruning Are Highly Recommended BY E. Ii. STEWART, We have. ah.ideal apple country and, there is not 10-year-old apple orchard in' the- Yakjma valley that is .planted to .the demanded in the east and has been Well cared for that can be., bought to-day for less than to per .acre, and are even. selling up to an acre. With ordinary care in selection of .location 'and right varieties and planted about eighty trees to the acre, your .orchard will.'in ten years be worth an average of per acre. This would be an increase of per acre each year in the value of your land. The first five! years you can grow crops in the. orchard to its benefit, and the next five years. the orchard will pay you twice as much as the same acreage in hay or any cultivated crop. As to varieties, .out dis-, tinct varieties --of winter apples we should confine our lists to tess-.than ten, and for my part, if planting ,100 acres, I would not use over .four varieties. By investigation, decide what you will plant, and pay no attention to the tree ageht's hot air. who is only interested Mn his commission, and the more un- he can work off on MIU the larger his profit. There are as g-ood trees, grown by nurseries in the Yakims valley as anywhere else, and the nearer home the better. .A: large of writers tell us t6 "plow deeply, 'subsoil, dig large holes.. so as to take roots without cramping, etc'1 In our soil an ordinary plowing is all that ''is needed.; Neither is there need for "large deep holes." a 1-year-old tree I.would cut-off reach lateral root to a length of two or.three inches arid for a 2-year- bld I would not plant a. root .over six inches long. All authorities agree that it-is highly important to1 compact ths soil firmly about, the roots and that a root cannot grow except th6 soil is well firmed, etc. Then why dig up a large just to get. to firm it back? I would small holes. Fifteen to eighteen inches across is plenty large. Then instead of .trimming the broken roots'as most writers advise, I would cut each root, as stated above, to a length of three to six inches. In this way we establish the divisions of the root system close-in to the trunk, and for each root cut off we get.'from three to five bunches, multiplying by that much the food gathering capacity of the system. ..As.'the success-of the tree depends on its roots, we cannot take too much pains in caring for them. By rights, no tree should ever leave the nursery until it is 2 years old. It should be taken a yearling, its-roots close- ly pruned to make them branch, reset, headed and allowed to grow a year be- fore being permanently planted. All things considered, T believe 2- year-iolcl trees are. best, for the reason tjiftt their roots have more Wood in them artd: caii. stand more exposure without seric-uB .damage than old trees. In handling trees reriiember they can-stand being out of 's'o'il about as well as a fish out 'of water, and the roots.must at all times be kept wet' A LABOR SAVER The little''picture, tells it all. This little device may be worked through any cellar door or will many steps when'your time is .most valuable. Try it once and be Convinced. WHAT OTHER PEOPLE ARE DOING W. H. Chandler of Uong JBeauh, (Jal., that, he gathered three gallons Df blackberries from the Logan Valley s me feet out last year when it was but two inches long. It now measures ;wenty-one inches. A new harvesting machine has been introduced in Nebraska. The harvester is piopelled by its own power and is followed by a truck-carrying gasoline engine which operates the harvesting mchanism of the machine. This is used maihly m wet fields where- the power of the Harvester is not sufficient to 'iiiake headway. More than pounds of coca leaves by .the. farmers of South Africa, a large 'proportion of ale sent to this country to be used in {he manufacture of cocaine. Mrs. C. C. Dodd of Laredo, Tex., sold over worth of onions from 130 acres of land. At the Ramsdell farm in Mlnot, Me., electricity runs the feeding gear, rings an alaim for the hired hands, operates four clocks, sounds art alarm of chicken thieves and fires, saws wood, runs a threshing machine, separator, corn :She11er, grindstone, fanning mill and sewing machine, tVhlte strawberries, which were brought West, Indies many years' ago, are being successfully cul- tivated heaf Koxbury, 'These fberrlefc am alao cultivated to sonie ex- tehi tn Michigan. Wives of farmers in', central Indiana haw rebelled Against, the practice of making hands, and! threshers now find they y eanrtot cofitracta rinjess they pro: fti'th. arid sleejo- MUCH IN RIGHT SELLING 'Between raising meat for market and producing butter the butiermaker has the edge. Keep the heifer calves of your host cows and don't forget to keep them well, for this is the way to make them better cows than their mothers ever were. The calf that is horn, in Way comes at a time when all nature is prepared to Kelp it live and thrive. TJic trouble, with this is that the cow which comes in May is beginning to fail by the time cold, weather comes and the weather increases the disposi- tion to this. Between the two wo would choose fall calves and get the most profit from the cows. The old belief th'at a, calf needed (whole milk in order to thrive has beeri exploded. A good pedigree is a good thing to have attached to a. good cow, but a good cow is more essential to a good pedigree. The answer is, never keep a cow unless she lives up to her pedi- gree. This rule does not work both ways, for once in awhile there is a mighty good cow without a. pedigree to her name. They are accidents, however. Garget is a serious and painful afflic- tion for a cow, and often a. very costly one for her owner. A good way to keep it in the background is to rub the udder and work it. between the fingers for awhile every day if there is any sign of trouble in that, direction. Don't forget that a calf will begin to eat nicely cured clover or alfalfa hay when very young and it is good for it to have something of the kind within reach all the time. 'No alfalfa for the orchard. It takes too much moisture out of the ground. Sheep Must Have Good Shelter Too often we see good ones at in places'" like that shown i.n the picture. I'Thig picture was drawn frOm a photograph taken on the farm of a well-to-do farmer. One can imagine what the interior of this hole would be after the winter rains. It is dark and entirely without ventilation except for the front, and in a. case of a .driving would be in a worse condition inside out. A'SHEEP Sheep. never thrive if confined in '.Sheds', that .are draughty, too close, or badly ventilated, and it is surprising that men who have raised sheep -for many years with poor results do not seem to appreciate this fact. A shed with an open side on the south and; with an allowance of about twelve feet of floor space for each sheep, should be provided. Every sheep farm should.have a dog-proof fence. Professor Walter. 1. Quick of the Vir- glnia experiment station says that the loss of lambs in that state from ex- posure arid insufficient protection is very great. Very, frequently the only protection afforded is an open shed, providing only sufficient standing room for the flock. Most of the dead lambs are-found outside of the shed, the ewes'having taken a fence corner or soine exposed place where-the chilled before being able SIDE LIGHTS M HOME LIFE B7 JTTUE OOKDOK. There is born in the .heart of every man and woman a love .of ful atid a desire for comfort. This germ of appreciation may early lives of children are.ajr lowed to grow Up'in th'e cold, comfort- less surroundings, or it may be rhade to blossom and expand into, a deep love of beauty if it is cultivated by placing within their daily sight and touch beautiful things in A child's character is shaped largely by, environment, and it is our sacred duty to make it as beautiful and- hopeful and as clean as our opportunities will permit. -.This work begins right at home and it is positively wicked to-neglect'the FALL CARE OF THE FLOCK It.h'as been my .experience in .han- dling breeding ewes that one cannot place too much importance upon plan- ning their-feeding and management so that by the time the mating season arrives the ewes will be in a vigorous, flesh-forming condition. If is a serious mistake to have the breeding ewes in a poor, run-down and unthrifty condition at mating time. The lato summer is a .very trying time, on the breeding ewes, and unless a man mantains the flock in strong, vigorous deleterious influ-; ences are bound to creep in and cut down the annual profits. It is very desirable, at weaning time to have an abundance of pasture and supplemental forage so that the ewes may be able to recover their normal condition gradually and be ready to be mated as soon as the mating period arrives. Ewes that have suckled their lambs well during the summer are sure to be reduced in flesh at weaning time, and every effort should be made to bring them to a strong, vigorous condition before the mating season arrives. The ewes that produce the best lambs at weaning time are usually the best breeders in the flock and should be given the best food and care. Kight here, many flock owners make a mis- take by disposing of the eWes that show lack of condition when weaning time comes. The safest way to'judge the value of a breeding ewe is to examine the quality of the lambs at weaning time. In. nine cases out of ten we will find that the best, lambs belong to the in- dividuals that are run down in flesh and show a lack of condition. Many make a. mistake by feeding the ewes a ration of fat-producing foods to hurry along their condition, but this is not to be recommenced except in extreme cases, During (he autumn the flock owner should not depend too much upon nat- ural pasture. At this time of the year; it is impossible to produce good pasture of any kind unless preparations have been made early in. the season by sow- ing forage crops, With good pasture embellishment of the house and its sur- roundings.- Even "-'poverty, -is a pporXei- cuse for -ugliness in Our -li'pme. walls cost .stark white ones. good pictures that ebpw true art' and appeal to bur are so cheap that they, 'can be made' to cover every unlovely spot iri'the'house.' Expensive floor coverings are not neces- sary toJgive charm, and house. Hugs and. carpets' .whose, soft colors, are much many of the: cheap and gaudy 'things sold'in the store manufactured'- at Furniture, more'substantial; more comfortable "and-with line's more artistic- ahd beautiful, than the flimsy arid 'hideous -stuff- offered by ers made-by, the men and'boys during unseasonable-weather arid'at very small A do.llar will buy a book of drawings and instructions showing how to make simple' chaire, tables, settees: articles of .signed. oh proper lines; 'it lg, a. pity that thfe art of Is no longer practiced at-home.'! Before the' craze of Jigsaws and steam planes our ;fiirniture was made; by father and .the boys, and; the eagerness with which old-fashioned articles .are now sought after-by art-loving people, who for the its value. The: work .is jfcfeirig slowly revived in some sections, 'Js ,true, and'it should be encouraged by every Idver of beauty and value arid ;every ;hater of sham.' ,and forage-and th'e a very food the ewes can1 be kept in a vigorous, flesh-forming condition until the mating period Milton Kelley. SILVER PLYMOUTH ROCK COCKEREL First Prize Winner, Madlsoii Square, New 1'otk. ORCHARDJiOTES A New York man who has an or- chard of trees planted, twenty feet apart each way, plants' purrant bushes five feet apart each Way, except in every other space running the long- est way of the field.' .A 2-year-old tree can bo started more easily than a. 3-year-old. With some varieties a ,1-year-old tree is even better than a 2ryear-old. -If an.orchard is on low ground It should be drained, because the air must be admitted to the soil or the trees will die. Many farmery never attribute: the failure of their orchards to produce good fruit to lack of plant-food in the soil, but just: let. their trees drift along until they die. FARM NEWS THE WORLD OVER The wheat harvest in the west is now over, but the crop- was secured Without difficulty. Wheri the harvest began it. was estimated' thatr Kansas alone required men more .than were in the state that'were unemployed at that v Kansas maintains a farm near town where petty crirninals are sent to work out theirv fines. Excellent crops are raised and the farm, at a proflt. There is never- a lack of help on this place. It is .estimated .that the Burley to- bacco of Kentucky, southern Indiana arid southern Ohio has all been pooled and the farmers will receives prices for it at this value. l The new road, law adopted by the last legislature of Missouri provides that the money raised by the .'special road tax levy. on property within-in- corporated cities, town, and villages shall be paid to the treasurer, of sUch city, village-or town 'and used for the improvement of the. road .within the city limits. The constitutional' amend- ment, adopted at the recent general election authorized the township boards to make a special road tax levy, .the maximum being 25 cents on the valuation. i The national reclamation act wa.s 19.02. At that time there the government's name in the sixteen states affected .acres of arid land, of which it was estimated possible to reclaim sufficient to support people. By 1911 the reclama- tion service will have; reclaimed 000 acres, at an estimated cost of There are acres of arid land susceptible to reclamation by irrigation. Dried eggs are not put up at Topeka and Witchlta; Kan. The Topeka plant has consumed dozen eggs in week's, Three dozen fresh eggs' are needed to make a pound of the dried eggs are used b'y bakers and boarding houses and on ships, where the fresh variety, is im- possible to At present most of the dried-efegis, used In country come froin and Japan. The present-status oil the tariilt bin TRANSFERRING BEE COLONIES Easily Done If the Simple Working Given Below Are Followed Directions BY W. H, WRIfiST. Oklnhcmt Eiperiment Station, Many persons wKo desire to transfer their bees do not understand the best method to use to make the operation a hence detailed directions are given below. Secure, a bee veil, a smoker, a bladed knife, the wire from, an 'old broom or two, a pair of wire pliers arid' cutter, two or'three rolls of old-cotton cloth, some piece, of.-stout string, an ax or hatchet, 'arid'a gloves, if you -Wish to protect yout hands from possible- stingB, v Place the..hew hive near the colony to be transferred and'have about'half of the. frames full of remaining four or five frames are to be reserved -for 'holding taken, a little later, from the The wires' may be th6 frames btit .such an- ar- will make Jt' to remove the frames from the hive" at; a later date, after the combs, which have been place by the been securely fastened the -frames. After good smoke bee srnokejr, putting, on the bee veil irid gloves, tying down, the trbuSer legs, one is all' ready to: make transfer. An -assistant is desirable, but'riot a necessity: the new hive; the. thfrt are toScontafn -the' cut from the; old and-, place j Ward or ,N.ow: go.'tb: the colony-arid. some .smoke at the .entrance, then Jar the hive .by light blows, then. puff In more smoke arid: jar the hive again. This shouldi be'done four or.five times to cause the 'bees, to with honey, i Bees, .with .well-filled saPks are-not inclined to sting. A. iprenodn hojir of.'some pleasant day should! be chosen, fof this operation. ;j There-are some' advantages In'-wraji- iMrtg. strings: frames instead 'of using wires, for the will'remove the strings, while tlie' wires re- main until removed by the apiarist; A small whisk turkey feather will be. aid Jn-- encour- aging the' .bees to travel in fight, direction.; After tjie i preliminary snicking ajid drumrnins! the hiveXshould turned bottom >up and.' an boit iput -on tpp.v'and- drummihg -arid Brooking continued until .most the passed "up'.into-; the, box; sBtartdihgi whefB the- old ,'ttiyi: stppd, -.will .soon. turning in 'iand oiit, so the new hive; should ;be. supplfed With combs from.the old ..dries quickly as possible; then box; of beeg should be shaken into or onto' a board or paper ;Care-. shojild be taken that not miahy bees are crushed attd- thit: nesiriy air jjetvinto hlVe, or-the quefeh-may; be ,-lpst, .brifig.- irig.; about Sdi'ip'iS of 'honey Aliftflld-.'-Si -fcftrJied drips': TO CROSS A BROOK This arrangement anchors a post so tightened.- A wire 'Is 'stretched from top of. the. .lower. post in a brOok or it will ..riot'- pull when thej wire a. the bases, of the' two.-posts over, the TRAIN THE COLT EARLY The yoiing: colt. should be halter? broken i' early' and nothing should be .allowed' as an excuse for putting1 it 'off. Much' Buffering and needless cruelty would be prevented by a proper trairi- ing..from the start. The majority of people need, training "themselves.before nt to have the'management of a colt -or.any other animal. ,.-L If the farmer himself thinks .he lias no time to attend to the colt, then the boys, if they have been properly tau'ght to treat all living-things with-kindness, can easily :teach the little thing ta. lead. And there reason why..a girl .can- not dot it as. I well', remember'-a little ..'brown .colt which 1 had ,weel broken to lead, before It was 3 weeks old.; It was perfectly tame'arid a's.all domesticated animals, be, so there was.'np trouble in putting oti the small headstall. V '-Then a'long, stout rope''was snapped to the ,ring and' throiyn 'once' aro'urid: a tree in a clear .open space, givi'ri'g plenty of room for operations.; As she could riot pull back, she; sboh learned ;to'step forward in to the'gentle, steady the. rope. It took but a short time'for-her to learn to follow the piill of the halter "strap. ;Then, th.e halter was put oc'- casi6haily fix' the lesson flrriily in her mind. She. never forgot It, but ever afterward and led wherever When in 'the pasture without a 'hal- ter I have '.even taken -off my apron, rolled it up like a -rope, put it around her neck, arid: with her Tyhere I I. Locke. i> y, Great'Britain has all i.yiss- Biritlsjii as well as of other nation- alities, from using th'eir wireless kp- pferatUS in the harbor wrnifssibn of FARMERS SHOULD OWN HAY PRESS Eyery fafmer whb. raise's .aiiy con- siderable, amount vof'ha.y should' ptir- chase. a hay- press. Excepting thevyery limited right at h'pme there is, atvalFfor, unbaled hay. -.A-hay press enables: farriierajto put the'ir hay .intor the' one f f of m in which'it can'aWays .be Baled hay brings a .better price than unb'aled hay.. The -.difference is cost who are'their own bal- ing can 'figurei on liberal' compensation. fpr-v: their work.-a'nd :still have-.-a nice rnargin of prpflt on their baled; hay over What: they would it unbaled. If you raise hay for be-pre- pared to .bale, it', tepuht-ypur -hay "made" have condition in 'which -cart'-certaLlnly the' highest market price.for-it. Manufacturers one --Snd- horse 'presges that farmers to do their own .work, as good 'work as the prPfessional hay baleriican turn' but with. their belt-ppwer presses and fast, enough to be satisfac.- tory, They, can .be, opjsrated.Awith ,a- yefy small they' en- able each farmer, to bale hisi hajf at times .cpriyenient ;o> wheh.he has no other work forhitnaelf and his a ,persbn; getting, up: on ft to..start :the kitchen flrt a Mpntaha farmer .has pateniSed art at- tachnTent .to :an aiiairrn clock which ignites a bundle of matchee and, pushes into a piece of inflahiniable iinfti vr Julius Mo., ;