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Fort Wayne News, The (Newspaper) - May 18, 1898, Fort Wayne, Indiana UorK of tfe_QijicR-Firino Haxin, The Story of their Discovery, and the Manner In Which They Were Perfected, HIRAM MAXIM AND HIS REMARKABLE CAREER AS AN INVENTOR OF GUNS, One of the most destructive of mod- ern engines of warfare is the Auto- matic gun, Invented by Hiram S. Max- im, and known tho world over as the Maxim Gun. It is called automatic because till tho functions of loading and firing are performed by energy de- rived from the burning powder. The operator aims, pulls the trigger and tho gun does tho rest. The terrible 'effectiveness of (his weapon will be understood when it Is known that it Is capabln of tiring something over six hundred balls a minute, and can be aimed so as to mow down the ranks of an. advancing foe, even as the sickle of a reaper cuts down grain. This gun should uot be confounded with machine guns, such as the Catling, the Gardner, etc., which are usually operated by means of a crank turned by the hand. The automatic gun had its origin In 1S54, the father of Hiram H. Maxim, then living in Orneville, Me., conceived the idea of making a gun to be fired by machinery. This was 'before tho time of the metallic car- tridge, and Mr. Maxim's idea was to load short sections of steel tubes, each provided with a common percussion cap andyto fasten them together in the form" of a chain. These were to be fed to a single barrel and fired by tho drawing back of a lever, something after the manner of the present Nor- denfeldt gun. Mr. Maxim was confi- dent that such, a gun could be made to fire one hundred rounds a minute. This, BO far as known, was the incep- lion of the machine gun. Hiram S. Maxim, his son, although at this time not sixteen years old, made drawings and models of his fa- ther's gun, and took them to a gun- maker at Banger, who was well _ pleased with the gun. hut told the lad that It would take a great deal of money to make one. The money his father did not have. Hiram, however, Vlth the Instinct of a great Inventor, knew he had hold of a valuable idea, and continued the Investigation. He made Improvements; and tried to in- terest those who had money in the in- vention, but without success. Now came tho civil war and with it metallic cartridges. Renewed efforts were made to have the gun given a fair trial; but the Government hail no confidence in it, and no private indi- vidual or company could be induced to undertake the testing of one. When the was over Hiram Max- im went South and while there was kicked, not by a mule, but by a Springfield musket, which he was fir- ing at a target. The force oC tho kick surprised did more. It sug- j gested tr> him the idea of utilizing the energy of tho kick of a military rifle to more purpose thnn the making of black and blue marks on innocent would continue to keep the sun no! so long as tho cartridges lasted. But his father thought tlio mechan- ism would he too complicated and ex- pensive to make the gun a practical military weapon, and advised him to hoid fast to the original machine Rim. In the meantime, however, ot.hpr in- had been at work, and the .us i I'ccoi! with the mechanism. He made an apparatus, holding seven car- pparalus. holding triages in its magazine, all of which he was aiilo to fire in less tlmn or.e The lightness and adaptability of the Maxim gun, make Its use poBilble In all departments of the service. lu a mountainous country it cau be car- ried on tho backs of mules; or, If need be, by the men themselves. It may be mounted on a tricycle; or, placed on wheels and drawn by horses. The military masts of a battleship are usually armed with these weapons; and their decks protected asalnst boarders by Maxim Rims, stationed where they could get in their deadly work to the best advantage. Nor Is thi-s HUH confined to barrels of small calibre. It is possible to make an au- t tomafie gun weighing one hundred and This' fifty tons, with seventeen or eighteen that I inch bore, and capable of firing from j two to three shots a minute. Mr. Catling and similar guns were placed [discovery; and ho now wisely second, or at the rate of about hundred rounds per minute, was the lirst successful gun wniiM load and firo itself. Mr, Maxim knew the value of his Maxim Is confident that, In the near set i future, the automatic system will he I MAXIM GUN S IN ACTION. on the Tills: discouraged I During ISSl to 1883. while In Fnini Iliram S. Maxim again tuol; up t subject of the automatic gn I and tllolIKht ollt OIlfi that nfi waa j making of automatic nuns; and soon will fall before iis hot blasts of death, Wonlri be a practical He now produced a weapon, weighing like Grain lirforp n sickle; and the men England, hired suitable qnar- pound 'ters. pi-ovlUmt himself with tools rounds ipgan a fiorles of experiments. In his j minutes. The similar to his father's With motive power for and ejecting the cartridges. turned homo, elated with the possibil- ities of the idea; and showed his the energy' flr-t experiments the recoil action was Jin the rear of it. 11 VLC a milRury rine Perform COQnncd to the breech mechanism and Slightly protect i-d all the functions of loading and firing. He believed that, 1C the cartridges were fastened together, on a belt, it would he only necessary with such a euii to pull the trigger and the recoil patents in every conn-j applied to nearly all styles uf fire orlil, :ind for every con-! arms, moans nf firing machine Runs Such Is the twrrlble weapon known r dfirivuil from the burning as the .Maxim gun. probably the most This (loin; ho began the destructive arm in existence. Armies d rnpnblc uf firing two iliou- in n Hltla over three operator sit5; on a scat Kim, his head by a small metal the cartridge case, thfl barrel shield, pulls the trigger, iml, as the Ins stationary. But this method was gun pours forth its deadly hall of hul- not entirely satisfactory; and subse- j lets, he swings the barrel back anrl j qnent, experiments convinced him that j forth so as to swcpp down the ranks H was necessary to allow the barrel to of an mlvani'lny foe. who will bu cnlleii upon to face the flaming missiles iiiiircli of these gnus vill "Into Hie jaws of death, Into tho mouth of tn a sense even more terribly renlistir, than did the liero-rldnrs at Balaclava. McNEIL. Wbj Wars Have Wed Every Century's Cose. 3 adage of history repeating it- shape of a great war between vail.nl Armenia uiul Ada. -Minor, _f r B likely to be verified by the pres. nations or the struggle of a people at close- Charlemagne n.at of the 1 The __..__ ....._. self IB likely to be verified by the pres- nations or the struggle of a people ent war with Spain. The lesson of i against domestic tyranny. Without universal history is that the end of going further back it may be noted each century haa seen some phenomu- i that it was toward the end of the nal civil disturbance either In the [seventh century that the Saracens in THE LIFE GUARDS AT WATERLOO-END OF THE WAR OF THE FRENCH KEVOLUTION, began his wars against, the Huns and ,r v. "7------: defeated the Lombards, thus establish- "f he "00r1S1 by ,Spnin and ins tlie tempo.ii! potter of the Popes. "f l-hc !1 "areatello. The close of the tenth century saw the ?.OWR.rtIs1 eui1 uC the HRme century the Anglo Saxons were tlir? slaves of the Normans in their own land after Hastings, and later tliprr were the frightful wars of tin; Crusades pro- moted by the Church for tho mainte- nance of the power conferred upon it by Charlemagne. The end of the I thirteenth century saw tug gallant .Scots defoaU'd at Uunbar and at Fal- kirk under Wallace. While the final 1 years of the fourteenth century are i lighted up by the story of WUltam ;Tell and the defeat of (he Austrians by i the Swiss and of the Spaniards by tho Portuguese. The evening of the fif- teenth was remarkable for the battles of Bosworth in 1485, and of Bannock- burn, while the clotting decade of tha sixteenth century saw the wreck of the Spanish Armada and the Elisa- bethan wars of tho English In Ire- land under Bagnal and Mountjoy; while those of the succeeding century 11590. had those at the Hoyne und Glencoo between William HI and James II for tho British. Even an- cient battles like tiiose ;it Marathon and Troy selected similar epnchs. But all these wars which appear to he controlled by law based on the prin- ciple Hint every century dies in soma phenomenal social convulsion, wero j eclipsed by the magnitude of tho events that terminated the eighteenth And a strange presentiment seized the ruling in Eu- rope that the present century Is fol- lowing in tho wake of its Immediate predecessor. They beliovo that the at- titude ut the United States forboden a danger to those family groups that have survived tho Renaissance and the Reformation, not because of any merit that would Justify survival or preserve them from extinction, but because their chiefs have been so far fortunate in throttling the cause of liberty or balancing one rickety throne against another. Theso thrones aro now like a lot of old houses in a street in such a position that if one falls thu whole row is liltoly to come down with a ;erriflc crash of dust and smoke and cinders. Tho end of the eighteenth century witnessed such a change in men's niinds as the world had not seen since the birth ot Christ. The regime of one of the proudest European raon- .irchs had been swept away by a flerco uprising of tho French masses, and throne and 'altar, prelates and poten- tates, alike fell before the stupendous popular upheaval which sent the cold shiver of impending fear through, every state of Europe. The French. Revolution of 17S9 was but the rum- bling echo upon a distant shore of the principles of tho American Declaration of Independence. "Liberty, Equality and was really the Euro- poan interpretation of the doctrine of I77G, that all men are born free dnd ciiii.il and entitled to life, liberty and pursuit of happiness. Apart from tho similarity of both sets of princi- ples to the enumerated by Thomas Paine, tho chronological or- der of the two revolutions the cir- umstauec of French soldiers under I-nfayptte, partaking in the American stniFslo. show that both revolutions followed each other as iminediatoly as cause and effect. The French revolu- tion was a decided stride towards ;he emancipation of man from the treach- ery of theologians and from the trea- son of thrones. And had Its opera- tions been controlled by wise and prudent men all Europe would have to-day a series of republican self-gov- erning states In tho closest sympa- thy and appreciation with one form of government Instead of being a hor- net's nest of ficeptereil schemers stalk- ing upon liberties and sneering when- ever they dare at the spirit of our In- stitutions. Napoleon who had more of the ele- ments of true EreatneoS lu hU compo- sition than any other human being that ever lived, held European mon- arclis ii; wholesome contempt. He disposed of their trumpery dynasties with that case and grace and freedom with which our American grocery man changes clerks In his tea store. If a King answered Napoleon's purposes he left him his old throne; if not tha God-like Corsican peremptorily dis- missed the reigning monarch, put an- other In his seat or converted his palace into a temporary barracks for his victorious troops. When the last century closed Desmouiine and Robes- pierre and Marat were reincarnated and re-embodied in still more awful form In the person of Napoleon, and whom tho Kings of Europe all com- bined to denounce and overthrow. Confronted by this great man they closed up their historic feuds against one another and with ono accord wheeled Into line to faco the common danger that threatened them for near- ly twenty years from the Bridge of Loth! to the field of Waterier It Is because the close of tho nine- teenth century sees the American Idea again active and promising again to work out ita predestined mission In a mysterious way that there is so un- usual a stir in Europe and rumors of concerts and joint notes and interven- tions. There is everywhere an un- easy feelinK in tho European air and the occupant of each throne keeps his ear cloao to the ground or the royal binocular trained upon tho drama now being enacted In the New World, which stands to him very much in the same disquieting relation as did the affairs of France and of Nnpoleon at the termination of the eighteenth cen- tury. Hence the mingled feelings of fear and anxiety with which thta petty Spanish-American war is regarded, and which, says ono of the best in- formed of the London correspondents, "Is a matter of greater concern to the European nations than to America herself." Why should It he a matter of "great- er concern to European nations" than to the country upon whose borders It takes place atid which lu 0110 of t.Uo actiifil participants in the contest? It Is because Europe is reposing above a Kort of submarine mine that may at any moment explode. Because at the end of this as at that of the eighteenth century, their subjects are reaIleus and unhappy, and those European powers jealous of and well acquainted with each others relative strength seen In America a new and unknown quantity suddenly precipitated into the situa- tion and whose latent powers they are all unable to guage accurately. It is as if the spectre of the French Revolu- tion or Napoleon had again arisen to fire the hostile and armed camps and was wrapped this time In the mantle of Monroe. The Kings of Europe are not more Intelligent or less supersti- tious than are other people. And the time and circumstance of the pervad- ing danger la not calculated to allay the royal fears. First the storm cen- tre IB once more of New World origin. And America like a young Colossus stands high and seems in their fright- ful Imaginations to be preparing to stalk around the Universe. Second the trouble comes about Spain and Europe remembering how she was rifted at the close of the seventeenth century by the twelve years war of the Spanish Succession, wonders whether now a similar fate again awaits her. "There Is a strange observed the corre- spondents, "both in the domestic and international concerns of each country, and governments and people alike have put aside their own affairs In or- der to watch the tragedy toward which European disputes often tend but which Europe has managed to avoid for nearly a generation." Quite so. The American Idea that leavened Eu- rope before, not as Europe under- stands it, manifested itself for nearly a generation. What shape it will Like j now, or to what extent it will sway t Europe is the chief cause of the present strange lull in Europe whose domestic and international affairs have actually stopped still ponding the present trouble. It has hardly affect- ed us at all. On learning the Intense commotion abroad, however, the strido of every patriotic American should bo at least cheerful.Let the Yankee breast then heave with tho swell of true pa- triotic emotion, because it seems this connlry at this moment Is actually discharging functions towards the States of Europe analagous to that of tho Sun. which besides being the Rource- of light and life and heat acts as the great ring master of tho uni- verse by keeping tho planets and tho whole eolar system In their regular nrder. That Is the mission of America while It Is tho destiny of European thrones to ho paralysed with the fear of comlBg disaster at least every cen- tury or so. P. POWEU3. An old rusty pen loft in tho ink-bot- tle will be of service In attracting the corroding matter from other pens iu use. A Styllah Culling Gown. Embroidery contiuues tu bo greatly In favor on many yowiis, and fow cos- tumes are complete without, a touch. of it, An effective visiting gown Is hero shown, composed of a medium shade of gray smooth faced cloth, elaborately embroidered. The skirt has the pop- ular dip In tho back, which Is left per- fectly plain. Panels of embroidery decorate either side of the front and are bordered with bauds of velvet. which grow wider toward tio bottom of the skirt. This mods of trimming IB also carried out on tho Iwdtce. form- ing a jacket effect. The clow fitting sleeves are elaborately embroidered and finished with a cuff of black vel- vet. Black velvet alao constitutes tho Rlrdle which fastens on the left side with a dainty buckle. Dainty FhotoKrnpk Frame. Photograph frames are an popular ever, and although the silver and gold affaire have been relegated to background, the handsomely embroid- ered ones on white linen are an excel- lent substitute aud also quite a nov- elty. These frames are made square or round and In ol 1 manner of shapes, sometimfts with for three or four photographs, decorations are very artistic, a dainty design for a young girl's picture being a wreath of flowers tied with a lovers' knot To Kuorr Horjucrkdllb. hu difference between horaeradish and the poisonous aconite root Is that the horseradish baa a square-looking or blunt-end, whlla the aconite in pointed. The latter, too, has ft. cum- ber of little roots projecting all down its sides; the radish has juat cry few. All parta of the aconite plant are dangerous. Its common name is monkshood. Snatched Him BalAheaded. An Infirm old gentleman, was found by a rogue moaning cadly for some- thing lost. "Wfcat Is the matter, slrT" said the fellow. "Oh, sir, a villain has Just stolen my new white hat from my head, and run away with "Why don't foa xum. ftCUr, asked tho rogue. "I can't run at all; I caa hardly "You said the rogue; "an-I he stole your "Yes, he did, sir." "And you can't "Not I." "Nor catch "No." "Then here goes for your anil accordingly, pulling off the thatch from his head, the fellow went off Hku a shot from a riilc, and tho old gentle- man was left as bald aa a coot. To Rcu Splinter. A bit ot homo surgery practised when a splinter is driven into a child's hand particularly deep la ltd extraction by steam. A bottle with a autflclently wtdo mouth IB filled two-tilrdn with very hot water, and the mouth in placed under the Injured spot. Tho suction draws the flesh, down when a. little pressure Is used, and the steam, in a moment or tvn, extracts inflam- mation and spltr'er together. This ia very efficacious the offending EUbsLinca has been n for sevura: hours, long enough to have started up Bomo of. its evil consequences. The demand for fancy silk skirts In- creases, and on all the counters they are displayed in varied stylos and col- oro. One that is worthy of notice Is of white taffeta, trimmed with many rows of Insertion, and edged with small white chiffon ruffles, tho bottom beins niled in with flounces of narrow point applique lace.
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