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Washington Globe Newspaper Archive: December 07, 1830 - Page 1

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   Washington Daily Globe (Newspaper) - December 7, 1830, Washington, District Of Columbia                                 wir 4HÄ ^i» lÄ ^  -usuiliJ.. .¿tp.i »uiw.iuiLi'tea '  Ttvesday, December 7,1830.  PROSPECTUS. lANCifl PhkstoW Blair, will publish, in the  THE GLOBE.  It 1« the purpose bf the Editor to dedicate this paper to the discussion and  maintenance of the principle* "which brought General Jackson into office, id which he brought with him info office," I power Inwardly, endeavors to change the relation» have been ^asserted in his never«! messages between man and man, or between slate and state,  to Congress, and sustained by the course of his admin-  r __________ e m  i... ¡.o  _ in-4.1 force* men out of one employment into another !>v its titration. AS a mean« of giving permanent effect to  1 J J   those prlt Iples, which are considered essential to the | legislation, taxes the poor to create monopolies  TI IK WORLD IH GOV KB N KO TOO MUtlfr.  NO. K  CITY OF WASHINGTON, TUESDAY DECEMBER 7, 1830.  man to follow the pursuit of bis choice, and enjoy Ihe I proceeds of his labor! Discontent, wars and revolutions would cease, because there would be no ground | of complaint.  How happy would it be for America, if this govern  of those hazardous enterprf**s, which have already in-. tlicled sWch irreparable evils.  We consider it, then, as quite evident, that the | nt*mr* of money in England are to the full as much interested as the mrnrr* of land and the mrtiernof labor, in resisting the revi val of exclusive privileges which might prevent or impede the formation of safe i I'MulilMhmrntn for granting loans upon casb-erediu, and receiving deposits hearing interest. Such institutions would instantly infuse new vigor into the industry of the nation, animate the drooping energies of those who are engaged in the cultivation of the soil, and open a wide field for the profitable employment of the superabundant capital of tho country, J.'ut by giving a new direction, !W well as a new inipuim; lo industry, establishment.* of this nature would also prove the means of augmenting the national rev'-nuos. Increased prodm tiveness would necessarily be followed by an increased consumption of taxable commodities; this would open a new. source of revenue to the state, and by expanding the surface upon which taxaiion  preMrvation,pfeace, and prosperity of the Union, the the rich, and use» its unnecessary and oppressive ex-•tocttPP Of thf president for a second term will be actions to buy ojver sections of country to the support  fOca ted. His nomination, for re-election fiv tnel  f  ... . .. " .. ______„  ...... Of Pennsylvania, Ohio, New-York, and New- of particular men, at the same Ume accumulating to  Itampfthii .1, together with various other manifesto-1 itself undue influence and power, it is attempting to tions Uir ;ighout the Union, leave no doubt as to the I govern too much and requires reform. IndiYidt' whom the Republicans of the country re jj ow hiippy it wou i (1  \ H , f or  mankind, if government quire tcTMaume the attitude of a candidate, as a means ... «..»^j.-«- „„,1  of nrodiUng unanimity in tb* support of iheir  P ri„- I  wou,,, ronfine ,tself to  P™ 1 " 1 "™* ° vpr y  Iple«. 1 >e political aim of this paper will be directed to aid In the accomplishment of these objects. It will, ha\ i no participation in creating divisions in the Republican party, by advocating the pretentions of any in tts ranks, who may now endeavor to press ^tHehr rlv .is to the succcssion. When, at » future time,  on th present occasion, the v6ice of the Repub- | ment would abandon all its splendid «chemes, and licans oi ic Union shall have indicated the Candidate  Wilfbe r '"pared fo^support^Uia^^ I  f h<ir just powen, without interference with,0» pur- I  crfUS? of revenue t,u,s obtained, would ena.de n.ot.ca  may be tZlilor.tions of the Editor. I «nits of the people ! No breeze would waft a mur- | sury to remit taxes in proportion to its amount. It  The ftqtd stri , to that quarte  be oron 'made to obtain the earliest intelligence, i...............«----------' « ■ i - .------- -------- —j --- -- - . .  It is tended, also, to give the Ulobk a literary of the Union, would meet as brothers; the people of duction and discreet extension of a s.mnd and well-  and mis, laneous character. Selections from period- each state would attend to their own appropriate con- ^Xrte and'desnHirhirr and oppressed  leal« of _ ^¿ix^z- '  the  ° r  —  EL»?' n in S X^n to man^iu,res apiculture "i.h angry recriminations. Our Union would couragement of hope; the industrious and frugal they  Xr and Ae artH. it w^U be madeSubservient bst a., lon K  as our world; for no one could find a would present with at least an opportunity o euianc,-  .lK.fiC^he country pretext ^dissolving it. It might embrace the con- C^^yZ^ ^ Z  A f»>«  1,1  summary of the proceedings of Congress  Unent wjthout endanKP ,. in(; i(9  existence. The peo-  0w '^ers of capital laid out in land or In other invesf-   W  The O ohewill at nresentbe oublished somi-weeklv P le never think of  overturning a government ment*, they would bo found the sourc^ofan improved The u^obewill at presentDe puniisnen somi weeniy |______________u,I revenue; and finally, by multiplying the products of  prec 1 uded irom carrying molasses,' sugar, coftae, ¿o-c.oa, or cotton, either from fhoie inlands, or from the Unite ! States, to any other part of the world. ■ Greaf Hritnin readily consented to expunge this article from the treaty; and «ub^eiiuent attempts to arrange the terms of the trado, either by treaty stipulation, or concerted legislation, having failed, it has been successively suspended and allowed, according to the varying legislation of the-parties.  The "  VOL. 1.  i . „ , , . !  r  falls, would lessen the pressure upon that part of it  [think only of protecting the states m the exercise of |  wWoh af pregen< bt , irs (ho wh()|o  burden. An in-  : weekly. It is hoped that a liberal patronage w ill tWKm em lo the Editor to make it a daily paper  TEEMS:  The ßt.oRR will lie printed on a large Imperial Bt: the price of theSemi-weekly paper will be five  j. industry, they would yield additional revenue to the state;  which should be felt only in its blessings  It is governing too much which dtstroys govern ments. Who would rush, without cause or provoca- . ^ ^ ^^  Qf  ^  maRnU , |flf .  whprft  ¡^ nftran< . P ,  or  tion, from prosperous and undisturbed repose, to civil L^jf^hne«» may inflict an irreparrable injury upon tin-war and anarchy? Men do not brave danger and community, we call upon the public, to be on their  j guard; let them act as if they feared the worst that can happen, and be prepared to resist any attempt which may be made to continue its present monopoly to the Bank of England.  per annum; fiy the Weekly two dollars and fifty death to rid themselves of blessings, but of curses, paid in advance. "For si* months the Semi- J When their protector becomes their oppressor and  paid in advaiice. "For si* months the Semi- When their protector becomes their oppressor and  ly paper will be three dollars, and for three chain» can ao longer be borne, the people, Sampson-like, blindly prostrate the pillars of social or-  Editor respectfully refers to the Message of the der, and bury their tyrantsandlhemselvesinacommon  dent, contained in this paper, and to his former ruin.  es, as an outline of the principles which he in- So it is with our General Government and our  is to advocate. He is satisfied that the safety of States. So long as our Union is felt only in itsbless-  our institutions, and the prosperity of our country, ings, the States can never wish its destruction,  p depend on the maintenance of these principios. In Should any of the State authorities, from passion or]  his nexf, he will give a brief development of his own ambition, dare make such an attempt, they would in-  particular objects and views.  It is not necessary to .invite our readers to a perusal of the President's Message and the interesting Reports of the Secretary of the Navy and Postmaster G^ieflH That, their own merits will secure. But we cannot forbear calling public attention to a leading feature in the character of the Message and of General Jackson's administration. Instead of accumulating around him the means of influence, by an extension of the power and patronage of his administration, he rejects even that which Congress KWOfTered, and hazard^his own ;pularity and office in. a disinterested effort--4o pre-re the purify «if the government. What a gratifying contrast with most of those who Hold power or aim at distinction!  stantly be disarmed by a happy people. But whenever this government, by its armies or its laws, endeavors to change the mutual relation tietween the States, or interfere in their internal concerns, discontents and murmurs will ensue, and the safety of the Union be endangered. We firmly believe that this Government will come to an end, if end it must, in wicked attempts to govern too much.  By the firmness of the President, the career of the Government in that path 4ias been arrested. With a disinterested devotion to the true interests of the country, which cannot be too highly appreciated or too much admired, he casts from him the means of  MESSAG-E  From the President of the Uuiteil States to the two Houses of Congress, at the commencement of the second Session of the 21st Congress.  Fellow-Citizens of the Senate  ati<l House of Rejiresenfatire.«:  The pleasure I have in congratulating you upon your return to your constitutional duties is much heightened by the satisfaction which the condition of our beloved country, at this period, justly inspires.— The beneficent Author of all good has granted to us during the present year, health, peace, and plenty, and numerous catises for joy in the wonderful succe«« which attends the progress of our free institutions  With a population unparallclled in its increase, and possessing a character w hich combines the hardihood concentrating a corrupt Influence in his ovyn hands  ot " enterprise with tho considerateness of wisdom, we or those of his successors. He appeals to the people j see in every section of our happy country a steady im to sav whether they will have a pure government, provement in the meanaof social intercourse, and cor . .  c  .r. a ?• - I respondent effects upon the genius and laws ofour ex  The world it governed too tomcA."—Tills comprc- w hich shall confine itself to its proper duties, protect-  repuhlic   hensive sentence we have selected as our motto. It is a ing all in their favorite pursuits, exacting from the The apparent exceptions to the harmony of the text upon which, volumes might be written. people only the necessary oceans of its own support, p roS pect are to be referred rather to inevitable diver  What is the only legitimate object of government ? J and returning all Surplusage to the States ; or a scene I sities in the various interests which enter into the com  Topratftt — m Th. ta- U »-P«™.. »>>•«"■ ^'T'  'man race is full of passion and diihonesty. Without ¡ng, and possible insurrection, civil war and disu- ^pyg  on | y)  ¡ n t h e  end, to foster tho spirit of concilia vernment, none would he safe in their persons, or nion- tion and patriotism, so essential to the preservation of  that union, which, I most devoutly hope, is ilestined to prove imperishable.  In the midst of these blessings, we have recently  ouid enjoy the fruits of their labor unmolested. The weak would be the victims of the strong, and the | Lw«ti would be full of violence and crime. But, all that mankind ask or need from govern-  ENGLISH NATIONAL BANK. The following extract from the Quarterly Review, as to the effect produced on the prosperity of the na- I witnessed changes in the condition of other nations tion by the operation of the Bank of England in de- w hich may, in their consequences, call for the utmost inent, is protection. They do not establish govern- Utroying the Country Banks, may be read as a com- vigilance, wisdom, and unanimity in our councils, ment to direct, much lesa to force them into the road  rae „ t 0 „  the C0U r^ pursued by the national Bank to- ° f  ^  moderaUon and  I'* tr,ot "* a   to happiness. That they can much better find them-  war d 9 the State institutions.—All the State Banks have  1   . ...... , . . , , The important modifications of their ¡rovernment  selves. It is In the free indulgence of their  not as yct met t h e  doom which collisions of interest I effected with so mucU.«.^ and wisdom by the peo  opinions, the unrestrained exercise of their religious I  grea t monopoly must rendfer inevitable. The  rights, the choice of their pursui ts, and the disposi- J perpetuation of the National Bank by a renewal of its tion of their property according to thejr own will,  c h ar ter must be effected, before all competition is made that human happiness consists. It is necessary to to sink under the weight of its capital.—Then the fate have enough of government to punish the criminal, l 0 f the Country Banks in England awaits all tho State  to forcé the dishonest to comply with their contracts, B an it S  ¡ n  this country—and we may predict like the .  i h t t an?cen ^¡ r  ¡ n t h c a i vht st 1  -Md r-nel foreign invasion. There must be men e- Q uarte rly, that «Capital m« be withdrawn from I ^¡.^y ¡™xhn of'u^ ilîustriouVValii.y.'or'ù......  nough in public service to accomplish these objects, 1 humble smircfn of industry, producing misery m the I enjoins an abstinence from all interference with the  and the people must b« taxed enough to support \ homesteads of \mericans" and we therefore warn our internal affairs of other nations. From apople exer-  them. country men that they he prepared to resist any attempt  nto f ^gree, ^ "glit of *c If-  _ , •»!..« I  J  . . ■ I government, and enjoying, as derived from this proud  But what has been the general character and prac-  which may  he made to continue its present monopoly ® harsu . u . rUtiCj llncio  J  r favor of  Heaven, much of  tks» of government? It has endeavored to Control  to t h e  n ari k of the United States. ■ the happiness with which they are Messed; a people  opinion, to force all men into the same religious ob- | ¡ t  cannot be disputed, that much of the difficulty un-1 who can point in triumph to their five institutions  pie of France, afford a happy presage of thei r  future course, and has naturally elicited from the kindred feelings of this nation that spontaneous and u n iver S a burst of applause in which you have participated, congratulating you, my fellow-citizens, upon an event so auspicious to the dearest interests of mankind, I do no more than respond to the voice of my country  tha which  he commercial intercourse between the two , ,„„, tries is susceptible, and which have derived increased importance from our treaty * ith the Sublime Porte  I «rifely regret to mfc>rm you that our Minister lately commissioned to that c., U rt, on whose distinguished talents aitd great experience in public affairs place great reliance, has been ¿omjpdled by cxtrenif  '" ~ ••Rlcn,  c following are the prominent points which have, in later years, separated the two Governments. Besides a restriction, whereby all importations into her colonies in American vessels are confined to our own products carried hence, a realric.f ion lo which it does not appear that wc have ever objected, a leacHng « litoti the part of Great Britain has been to prevent us from becoming the carriers of Brlli<h West India otnuiodiiies to any other country limn our own. >n the part of the United Stales, it has been contend-I: 1st. That the subject should be regulated by. trea-ìpui.iiioh-, hi jrtt'fc-lèiké \t0 MpHittte IrgWutlotn I. That our productions, wheU imported into the colonies in question, should not b$ subject to higher du-tiesthnn theproducfiortsof the mothercountry, or of hep other colonial posswfcinii!»: And 3d. That our vessels should be allowed**© participate . in the circuitous trade between the United States and different parts of the British dominions.  The first point, after bavins been, for a lonr; 'ime, tenuously insisted upon by Great Bril lili, was given p by the act of Parliament of July, IW5; all ves.eU suffered to trnde with the colonies liting permitted ( 0  clear from thence with any articles which Brilj^j, essels might export, and proceed to any part of the world, Great Britain and! her dependencies alone  epted. On our part, each of (ho alnive point« had j n  succession,twen explicitly abandoned in negotiati ons  preceding that of which the result is now announced.  This arrangement secures to the. United States* every advantage asked by them v  and which the state of tho negotiation allowed us to insist upon. Ti e trade will be placed upon a footing decidedly more favorable to -this-Apmrntry than- any- mi which it ever stood; and our commerce and navigation will enjoy, in the colonial ports of Great Britain, every privilege allowed to other nations.  That the prosperity of the country, so far as it depends on this trade, will be greatly promoted by the new arrangement, there can be uo doubt. Inch pen-lently of the more obvious advantages of an open and direct intercourse, its establishment will he attended with other consequences of a higher value. Ihat which has been carried on since the mutual interi' u under all the expense and inconvenience unavoidably incident to it, would have been insupportably onerou9, had it not been, in a great degree, lightened by concerted evasions in the mode of making the transhipments at what aro called the neutral ports. These indirections are inconsistent w,ith the dignity of nations that have so many motives, not only to cherish feelings of mutual friendship, but to maintain such relations as will stimulate their respective citizens and subjects to efforts of direct, open, and honorable competition only, and preserve them from the influence of seductive and vitiating circumstances.  When your preliminary interposition was a=ked at the close of the last session, a copy of the instructions under which Mr. McLano has acted, together with the communications which had at that timo passed between him and the British Government, was laid before you. Although there has not been any thing in the acts of the two Governments which requires secrecy, it was thought most proper, in the «ben state of the negotiation, to make that communication a confidential one. So soon, however, as the evidence of execution, on the part of Great Britain, Is received, the whole matter shall be laid before you, when it will be seen that the apprehension which appears to have suggested one of the provisions of the act passed at your kfct session, that the restoration of the trade- in question, might be connected with other subjects, and was sought to be obtained at the sacrifice of the public interest in other particulars, was wholly unfounded, and that the change which has taken place in thè views of the British Government has been induced by considerations n«4ppnorab!« to both parties as, 1 tj u»i, the result will prove lteneficial.  This desirable result was, it will be seen, greatly promoted by the liberal and confiding provisions of the act of Congress of the last session, by which our ports were, upon the reception and annunciation by the President of the required assurance on the part of Great Britain, forthwith opened to her vessels, before the arrangement could be carried into effect on her part; pursuing, in this act of prospective legislation, a similar course to that adopted by Great Britain, in abolishing, by her act of Parliament, in 1825, a re striction then existing, and permitting our vessels to citvu- fiv«» the colonies, 011 their return  1  indisponiti©!/, fei ex^clSi^W f^  sideration of the extent to wM< h Ids consUtition had been impaired in the public service, was committed to his discretion, of leaving temporarily his post for the advantage of a more genial climate.  If, as it is to be hoped, the Improvement of his health slioiilil Ik*, such as to justify him in doing so, ho will repair tu St. Petersburg, and rwutne Ihe discharge of hi* official duties. I have received the moat satisfai» tory assurance that, in the meantime, the public in  weii ftubmT(le& for my appnrraT. ft within the time allowed me, before the r toM bf .th* session, to give these Ml la the consideration Which due to their character and important*; and 1  was-compelled to retain then lor that pwpwe. 1  now avail myself of this earl--------  them to the houses in which nated, w ith the reasons which tion, compel me to withhold my approval.* ,'  ihe practice of defraying put of th«f .Treasury of the United States, the expenses incurred! Mshmeiit and mippoit of light-house«," irid phi,-lie pi.-rs, within the boys iiorts of the United States, to thereof safe and easy, Is ce-;hc f '(institution, and has be tefruption or dispute.  As our foreign commerce increased, and w.t«» et-tended info the interior of tire country by the eslttfr-'¡aliment of ports of entry and delivery «{ma etif navigable rivers, the sphere of those expenditures re-.•*>»« .'d a cntrcepondffijl Wi&fgefiift?: xfglHT-twM«, beacons, buoys, public piers, and the removal of san<i  teresta in that quarter vs ill he preserved from prejudice, by the intercourse which he will continue, through the Secretary of legation, w ith the .Russian cabinet,  are apprised, although the fact has not yet been officially announced to the House of Itepre.sentatives, that a. treaty was, hi the month of March last,' concluded between the United States an 1 Dpnmark, by Avbi' h .<i<)\">0,<)00 are secured to our citizens as an' indemnity for ■ spoliations upon their commerce in the years is««, lH0i>. 1K10, and 1811. Thin treaty was sanctioned by the K< pate at the clo^e of its last session an I it now becomes the duty of Congress to pass the necessary laws for the orgaui/;.:iou of the. Board of Comini>«lon< rs to siistribute the indemnity amongst the ch'imnnts. It is an agreeable circumstance in thw adjustment, that its terms are in conformity wi»h the previously ascertained views of the claimants. Ihemwlvps; thus removing all pretence forafutuie agitation of the subject in any form.  The negotiations in regard to such points in our foreign relations as remain to be adjusted, have Imm h  'servances,  to compel them to abandon the pursuits of der which the agricultural classes have for tho last and challenge comparison with the fruits they bear. ♦I,«!- ,k„i felt*« others and to take their three or four years been suffering, arose from the im- as well as with the moderation, intelligence, and hi-  .their choice, and follow Others and to take ™ eir   fection a J  conseque „ t  derangement of our prac- ergy with which they are administered; from such a  {property and shed their hteod in enforcing these abuses  Uce Qf bankingi  This  we  believe true, that previous- people, the deepest sympathy was to be expected in a of power and violations of right ft seems to have I | y  t« i«26 a very considerable portion of the national struggle for the sacred principles oniherfy,'conducted been a prevailing opinion, that society could not be capital had found its way into the hands of country in a spirit every way worthy of the cause, and • > -.1? * or force or both The hankers, who allowed Interest upon deposits which crowned by a heroic moderation which has disarmed  maintained without fraud or lorce, or noin.  1 ne   th fterward3  , ent out  on various securities to the revolution of its terrors. Notwithstanding the strong people have been dazzled with splendid thrones, sur- p roc j uc t} ve  classes of their respective districts: the pa- assurances which the man, whom we so sincerely love reltnded by titl«! nobles and mitred bishops. They  n j c G f 1825-6, and the consequent failure of so many and justly admire, has given to the world of Ihe high have been mide to believe that their own safety de- banks, together with the suppression of the one pound character of tho present King of the French, and ' . rn,* _ ni .  u . ilh  note circulation, have caused the capitalist- to with- which, if sustained to the end, will secure to him the  pendedon maintaining, at whatever cost, ana w nn i ^ ^ ^ deports. Hence, the productive classes, proud appellation of Patriot King, it is not in his whatever danger, orders of nobility and church es-  an( j  more  especially the class engaged in agriculture, success, but in that of the great principle which has tablishincnts. To these were added standing armies,  can no  longer command that accommodation which borne him to the throne—the paramount authority of readv to represa any effort which the people, driven they had been accustomed to receive from the coun- the public will—that the American people rejoice.  y  V 3 might make to  tr y  banks - The operations of productive industry are I am happy to inform you that the anticipations   1  thus impeded by the withdrawal of that capiiul which winch were indulged at the date of my iastcomnmui-used to feed them. To this cause must also be ascri- cation on the subject of our foreign affairs, have been bed the glut in the metropolitan money market, which f u || y  realized in several importtnt particulars, has rendered it extremely difficult to employ money  An orrM1J?einent has  been effected with Great Brit-to avantage, and has-eonBequently reduced very great-  ajn ju rc , a(ion to the tra , le  ^t^en the United States ly the rate of interest The capital which, wider the I  n( ,  hpr West  , n(Ha an( ,  Norfh Amcrican co lonies, superintendence of the country bankers, used to V e  which has settled a question that has for years aflord-spread over the surface of England, and employed in  et ,  mattpr  , or  contention and almost uninterrupted small portions in promoting the various operations of  discu?1Hion> an ,i  has  been the subject of no less than six industry, has been withdrawn; it lias lound its I negotiations, in a manner which promises results high into the hands of some speculator in the money mar- i y  Va.voral>le to the parties.  k< f, engaged in advancing loans to foreign states, or  J  . ' ,•  lightened nations within a few years, carrying war i„ somSning or other undeHaking in Wcoun- J^^t^^^j ^ I'T^t^l ^nto other countries, not l^use the people of tho in- J-^P-- ^^  and prosperity ef.our native land must in the end States But we h^  prove hi^hry disastrous. In this memorial on banking, I *»n.  that u >  at J» n y  timp '  ( ' rt! lt Br,,;llI > '«»y  <le!iire  the Mr. Henry Burgess states, that he is acquainted with a country banker, who, till of late, generally employed all his surplus capital amongst the industrious classes in the neighborhood of his own bank. He has recently, for a considerable time, lent X 100,000 to a wealthy agent in London at alow rate of interest, who has again lent that and other jnums „f a large amount  to a great house in the city, engaged in working was admitted into the coloniaUslands of Great Britain mines in Sweden. Another city firm is adopting mea- by particular concession, limited to the term of one sures for working mines in Asia. In this manner ca- | year, but renewed from year to year. In the trans-  to dcSpci Uiui, by their oppressions, break their chains.  But this is not all. Mankind^were made to bleed and pay for the personal quarrels ami ambitious views of their rulers. It »Impossible that the people of one nation can have any Interest In carrying war and desolation among the people of another. On the contrary, they suffer and are Impoverished themselves in the very act of bringing poverty and misery upon their neighbors. We have seen the armies of en-ightened"nations within a few years, carrying war nto other countries, not betfiuse the people of tho invading nation had any thing to apprehend from tho invaded, Nit because their rulers considered themselves in danger. They feared that the successful attempt of the people in another country to reform the : abuses of government and reduce it to its proper func-I tiong, would rouse their subjects to like efforts.  The United States are? not free from too much government. The slate governments, thoúgli purity itself t Jmpared with most others, still govern too much. They i Uve too much legislation, and many of their establishments are too large and too exponsive. But this evil is more apparent in the general government, j Uiero be a government oil earth whose duties merely to protect, it is that of the United States under the present constitvjjypi. Nor does its protecting i power, except in a very limited degree, extend to a protection of individual« in tiWr personal rights, and ; rights of property ; that is left to the states. It.inere-! ly protects individuals from» violat«M»> of contracts by iie states in their legislation; but its chief objects ^nd i'iitie» are the protection o^tl» states from foreign invasion and intestine w»i* to tankh it with means, ú has been «loth&iírith power to raise armies and navies, regulate commerce and levy such taxes as nay fee necessary to support and pay those whom it *mpl#8 as its instruments. But when it turns its  If  are  -------- voyages  for any foreign country whatever, before British vessels had been relieved from the restriction im posed by our law, of returning directly from the United States to the colonies—a restriction which she required and expected that we should abol ish. Upon each occasion, a limited and temporary advantage iias been given to the opposite party, but au advantage of no importance in comparison with the restoration of mutual confidence and good feelings, and the ultimate establishment of tho trade upon fair principles.  It gives me unfeigned pleasure to assure you that this negotiation has been, thioughout, characterized by the most frank and friendly spirit on the part of Great Britain, and concluded in a mani r strongly indicative of a sincere desire to cultivate the best relations with the United States. To reciprocate this lispositjon to the fullest extent of my ability, is a duty which I shall deem it a privilege to discharge.  Although the result is, itself, the best commentary ¿h tho services rendered lo his country by our Minister at the court of St. James, it would be doing violence to my feelings were I to dismiss the subject without expressing the very high sense I entertain of the talent and exertion which have been displayed by him on thE occasion.  The injury to tho commerce of the United States resulting from the exclusion of our vessels from the Black Sea, and the previous footing of mere sulierancc upon which even the limited trade enjoyed by us with Turkey has hitherto been placed, have, for a long time, been a source of much solicitude to this Government, and several endeavors have been made to obtain a liftti-i stale of things. 6t li.^iblc of the iiupoi tum c  O Jl  the same  productions of this country, as ne essary to her colonies, they must, he received upon principles of just reciprocity; and further, that it is making an invidious and unfriendly distinction, to open her colonial ports to the. vessels of other nations, and close them against theftt) of the United States.  Antecedently to 1794, a portion of our productions  capafalist, the glittering evidences of whose wealth duce could be taken to the islands, and theirs brought serve tô dazzle and mislead the public mind upon the to us in return. From Newfoundland and her con-question. Jtinental possessions, all our productions, as well as  To the want of that secure and profitable channel of our vessels, were excluded,with occasional relaxations, investment, furnished by country banks established on by which, in seasons of distress, the former were sound principles, must, we think, be ascribed the rash I admitted in British bottoms  speculations in which so many of our countrymen have recently embarked anil sacrificed their capital. Debarred from the opportunity of employing the savings of their industry at home, they ventured upon the precarious experiment of laying theln out in foreign countries This it is which has driven the molded classes to engage.in those wild enterprises which have been attended with such ruinous results. If the home field of productive industry were, by a sound  By the treaty of 1794, she offered to concede to us, for a limited time, the right of carrying to her West India'possessions, in our vessels not exceeding seventy tons burden, and upon the same ferms as British vessels, any productions of the United Statos which British vessels might import therefrom. But this privilege was coupled with conditions which are supposed to have led to its rejection by the Senate; that is, that American vessels should land their return cargoes  system of banking, thrown open to the capitalists of in the United States only; and, moreover, that they this country, they would seldom go abroad in search should, during the continuancc of the privilege, be  of the object, I felt it my duty to leave no proper means unemployed to acquire for our flag the same privileges that are onjoyed by the principal powers of Europe. Commissioners were, consequently, appointed, to open a negotiation with the Subljme Forte. Not long after the member of the commission who went directly from the United States had sailed, the account of the treaty of Adrianople, by which one of the object« in view was supposed to be secured, reached this country. Tho Black Sea was understood to be open to us. Under the supposition that this was the case, the additional facilities to In: derived from the establishment of commercial regulations with' the I'orte were deemed of sufficient importance to require a prosecution of the negotiation as originally contemplated. It was therefore persevered in, and resulted in a treaty, which will be forthwith laid before the Senate.  By its provisions, a free passage is secured, without limitation of time, to the vessels of the United States, to and from the Black Sea, including the navigation thereof; and our trade with Turkey is placed on the footing of the most favored nation. The latter is an arrangement wholly independent of the treaty of Adrianople; and the former derives much value, not only from the increased security which, under any circumstances, it would give to the right in question, but from the fact, ascertained in the course of the negotiation, that, by the construction put upon that treaty by Turkey, the article relating ta the passage of tho Bo3phorus is confined to nations haviiig treaUos with the Porte. The most friendly feelings appear to be entertaint*H>y the Sultan, i>nd an enlightened disposition is evinced by him to foster the intercourse between the two countries by the most liberal arrangements. This disposition it will be our dilty and interest to cherish.  Our relations with Russia are of the most stable character. Respect for that empire, and coi.fidence in its friendship towards the United States, have been so long entertained on our part, and so carefully cherished by the present Emperor and his illustrious-predecessor, as to . have become incorporated with the public sentiment of the United States. No meaus will be left unemployed on my part to promote these salutary feelings, r.nd those improvements of which  actively prosecutcd during the recess. Material advances have been ma le, which are of a character to promise favorable results. Our country, by the blessing of God, is not in a situation to invite aggression; and it will Iw* onr fatrli if she erer bcfotr.es *o. Hin-ccrely desirous to cultivate the most liberal and friendly relations with all; ever ready to fulfil our engagements with scrupulous fidelity; limiting our demands upon others to mere justice; holding ourselves ever ready to do unto them as we should wish to be done by ; and avoiding even the appearance of undue partiality to any nation, it appears fo me impossible that a simple and sincere application of our principles to our foreign relafionscan fail to place them ultimately upon ihe footing on which it is our wish they should "rest.  Of the points referred to, the most prominent are, our claims upon France for spoliations upon our commerce; similar claims upon Spain, together wiili embarrassments in the cohimercial intercourse between the two countries, which ought to be removed; the one 1 union of the treaty of commcrce and navigation with Mexico, which has been so long in suspense, as well as the final settlement of limits between ourselves nd that Republic; and, finally, the arbitrament of the question between the United States and Great Britain in regard to tho north-eastern boundary.  The negotiation w ith France has Keen conducted by our Minister with zeal and ability, and in all re-pects to my entire, satisfaction. Although the prospect of a favorable termination was occasionally dimmed by counter pretensions, to which the United States could not assent, he yet hail strong hopes of being able to arrive at a satisfactory settlement with the late Government. The negotiation ha« been renewed with the present authorities; and, sensible of the general and lively confidence of our citizens in the justiceand magnanimity of regenerated France, I regret the more not to have it in my power, yet, to announce the result so confidently anticipated. No ground, however, inconsistent with this expectation, has been taken; and I do not allow myself to doubt that justice will soon l»e done to us. The amount of the claims, the tttagth of time they have remained unsatisfied, and their incontrovertible justice, make an earnest prosecution of them by this Government an urgent duty.• 5 -Tho illegality of the seizures and confiscations out of which Ihey have arisen in not disputed; and whatever distinctions may have heretofore been set up in regard to the liability of the existing Government, it is quite clear that such considerations cannot now be interposed.  The commercial intercourse between the two countries is susceptible of highly advantageoqls improvements; but the sense of this injury has had, and must continue to have, a very unfavorable influence upon them. From iU satisfactory adjustment, not only a iirm and cordial friendship, but a progressive deVel opeiueut of all their relations, may be expected. It is therefore, my earnest hope that thiaold and vexatious subiect of difference may be speedily removed.  f   I feel that my confidence in our appeal to the motives which should govern b just and magnanimous nation, is  N alikje warranted by the character of the French people, and by the high voucher we possess for the enlarged views and pure integrity of the monarch wt-> now presides over their councils  an i nothing shall be wanting on my part to meet any manifestation of the spirit we anticipate in one of corresponding frankness and liberality.  'I he subjects of difference with Spain have been brought to the view of that Government, by our Min ister there, with much force and propriety; and the strongest assurances have been received of their ear ly and favorable consideration.  The steps which remained to place tho matter in controversy lietween Great Britain and the United States fairly before tlie arbitrator, have all been taken in tho same liberal and friendly spirit which characterised those before announced. Recent events have doubtless served to delay the decision, but oar Minis ter at the court of the dititingubhcd arbitrator, Im been assured that it will be made within tho time con templated by the treaty.  1 am particularly gratified in being able to state that a decidedly favorable, and, as I hope, lasting change has been effected in our relations with the neighboring republic of Mexico. The un fortunate and unfounded suspicions in regard to our disposition, which it became my painful duty to advert to on a,former occasion, have been, 1 believe, entirely removed; and the Government of Mexico has been made to understand the real charac ter of the wishes and views of this in regard to that country. The consequence is, the establishment of friendship and ijiuiu.ii confidence. Such are the-assurances which I have received, and I see no cause to doubt their sincerity.  I had re;ison to expect the conclusion of a commercial treaty with Mexico, in season for communication on the present occasion. Circumstances which are not explained, but which, I am persuaded, are not the reeult of an indisposition on her part to enter into it, have produced the delay.  There v. as reason to fear, in the course of the la*t summer, that the harmony of our relations might be disturbed by the acts of certain claimants, under Mexican grants of territory which has hitherto been under our jurisdiction. The co-operation of (he representative of Mexico near this government was asked on the occasion, and was readily afforded. Instructions and advice have been «fiven to the Governor of Arkansas, and the officers in command in the adj< in  bars, sawyers, and othar partial or temporary impediments in the navigablo river* and harlwrs which wero embraced in the revenue district* from time to time established by law, wei e ariUiorized upon the sanjc principle, and the expense defiayed in fhe same mariner. Ihat the ie expense« hare, at tiuicivhr.cn ©xtravagnrl and dispropoitiuimii, is very probable. The circumstances under which they aro incurred are well cab iilnted to lead to kucIi a result, unless their application is subjected to the closest scrutiny.-— 'Ine local advantages arising frcm the disburse^ meul of public money too frequently, It te-to be feared, invite appropiiations for object« of this character that nre neither necessary nor useful. The number of light-house keepers is already \eiy large, and the bill before me propones to-•uld to it fifty-on* more, of various descriptions^ From representations upon the subject which are understood to be. entitled to respect, I am induced lo believe that there has not only been great impr^vi-* dene»; in the past expenditures, of the Government upon these objects, but that the security of navigt*-lion has, in Some Instances, been diminished by the multiplication of Hght-hoiucs, and consequent change of lights upon^he coast. It is in this, as in other re-  our duty lo avoid all unnecessary expense, well as every increase of pa'tronnge not called for by toe public service. But, in the discharge of that duty tu this particular, it must not be forgotten that, iiv relation to our f'oteigu commerce, the burden and benefit of protecting and accommodating it necessarily go together, and must do so as long m the public revenue is drawn from the people through tho custom-house. lt i.s indisputable, that whatever give4 f.u.iliiity and «ecuiity to navigation, cheapens Imports; ami ail who consume them are alike interested n whatever produces this ohi.vi. If they consume, they ought, as they now do, to pay; otherwise they lo not pay. The consumer in the most inland State lerives the same advantage from every necessary and prudent expenditure for On: facility and security^if our foreign commerce and navigation, that ho^r^fi» who résilies in a maritime state. Local expenditures îav e not, of themselves, a correspondent operation.  From n bill making ilirrct appropriations for such objects, I should not have withheld my assent. The one now returned does so in several particulars, but it also contains appropriations for surveys of a local haracter, which 1 cannot approve. It give« me satisfaction to find that no «¡rious inconvenicnce has arisen from withholding my approval from this bill ; nor will iî, I tru't, l»e < .mis*: of regret that an opportunity will be thereby afforded for Congress to review iu provisions under circumstances better calculated for fi;ll investigation than tlioso under which it was passed.  In speaking (,f direct appropriations, I moan not t/> include a practice whc.h has obtained to some extent,-and to which I have, in one instance, in a different capacity, given my assent-—that of subscribing to the stock of private associations. Positive experience and a more thorough consideration of the subject.  ing Mexican State, by which, it is hoped, the quiet of it frontier will "ne preserved, until a final settlement of the dividing line shall huve removed all grOnnd of  controversy^.  The exchange of ratifications of the treaty concluded last year w ith Austria, has not yet taken place. The delay bus been occasioned by the non-arrival of the ratification of that Government within the time prescribed by the treaty. Renewed authority had been asked for by the representative of Austria; and, in the meantime, the rapidly increasing trade and navigation between th^two countries have been placed uj»on the most liberal footing of our navigation acts.  Several alleged depredations have been recently committed on ourcommerceby the national vessels of Poitugal. They have been made the subjcct of immediate remonstrance and reclamation. I am not yet possessed of sufficient information to express a definitive opinion of their character, but cxpect soon to receive it. No p/oper means shall be omitted to obtain for our citizens all the redress to which they may appear to lie entitled.  Almost at ¿he moment of the adjournment of your last session, two bill«, the one entitled "An act for making appropriation for building light-houses, light-boats, beacons, and monuments, placing- buoys, and for improving harbors and directing surveys," and the other, "An act to authorise a subscription frir stock in - the l.ouisvillj and Portland Canal Company/'  have convinced'me of the impropriety as well as inexpediency of such investments. All improvements effected by the funds of the nation for general use should bo open to the enjoyment of all o«r fellow-citizens, exempt from the payment of toHb, or any imposition of that character. The practice qf thus mingling the concerns of fhe Government with those of the States or of individuals is inconsistent with the object of its institution, and highly impolitic. The successful operation of the federal system, can only be preserved by confining it to the few and simple, but yet important objects for which it was de« signed.  A different practice, if allowed «• would  ltimatMv u»o «HwmKt of this Government,  by consolidating into one the General and State Governments, which were intended to be kept forever distinct. I,cannot perceive hnw Mils authorizing such subscriptions can be otherwise regarded than as bill» for revenue, and consequently shbject to the rule in' that respect prescribed by the Constitution. If tha interest of the Government in private companies w subordinate Jo that of individuals, the management and control of a portion of the public funds is delegated to-an authority unknown to the Constitution, and beyond the supervision of oi:r constituents: if superior, it^ officers and agents will be constantly exposed tor imputations of tavo, : ism and oppression. Direct prejudice to the public interest,,or an alienation of the affections and respect of portions of thé people,, may, therefore, in addition to the general discredit resulting to the Government from embarking with it» constituents in pecuniary speculations, be looked for as the probable fruit of such associations. It is no answer to this objection to say 'hat the extent of consequences like these cannot be great from a limited and small number of investments; because experience in other matters teaches us, and we are not at liberty to disregard its admonitions, that« unless as entire? stop be put to them, it w ill soon l>e impossible to prevent their accumulation, until they-are spread over the whole country, and made to embrace many of the private and appropriée concerns of individuals.  The power whi> h the General Government would 1  acquire within the several States by becoming the princi^il stockholder in corporations, controlling every canal and each sixty or hundred miles of every important road, and giving a proportionate vote in all their elections, is almost inconceivable, and, in my view, dangerous to the liberties of the people.  This mode of aiding such woi-ks is, also, in its nature, deceptive, and in many ca«es conducive to improvidence in the administration of the national funds. Appropriations will be obtained with much greater facility, and grante^with less security fo the public .interest, when the measure is thus disguised, than w hen definite, afld direct expenditure*of money are askred for. The intérêts of the nation would doubtless be better served by avoiding all such indirect modes of aiding particular objects. . In a Government like ours, more especially, should all public-sct* l>e, in far as practicable; simple, undisguised, and in» telligible, that they may become fit subjects for the approbation or animadversion of the people. The bill authorizing a subscription to the Louisville and Portland canal affords a striking illustration of the difficulty of withholding additional appropriations for the same object, when the iirst erroneous step has been taken by" instituting a partnership between the Government ami private companies. It proposes a third subscription, on the part of the United States, when each preceding one was at the time regardedyas the extent of the aid which Government was to render to that work; and the accompanying bill for light-houses, b.c. contains an appropriation for a survey of the bed of the river, w ith a view to its improvement, by removing the obstruction which the canal is designed to avoid. This improvement, if successful, would afford a„ free passage to the river, and render the canal entirely use-l<*ss. To such improvidence is the courra of legislation subject, in relation to internal improvements on Local matters, even with the best intentions on the part of Congress.  Although the motive» which have influenced me in this matter may he already sufficiently stated, I am, nevertheless, induced by its importance to add a few observations of a general character.  In my objections to the bills, authorizing subscriptions to the Maysville and Rockville Road Companies, I expressed my views fully ii^ regard to the power of Congfifljto construct roads and canalsVitli-in a State, or tdVPpopriate money for improvement* of a local character. I at the same time Intimated my belief (hat the right to make appropriations for such a» were of a national character had been so generally acted upon, and so long acquièsced in by the Federal and State Governments, and the Constituents of each  r  as to justify its exercise on the ground of continued and uninterrupted usage; but that it was, nevertheless, highly expedient that appropriations, even of that character, should, with the exception made at the time, be deferred until the national debt is paid, and that, in the mean while, some generatarule for the action of (he Government in that respect ought to be established.  - These suggestions were not necessary to the decision of the question then before me, and were. I readily admit, intended to awalfèn the attention, and dray forth the opinions and observations of our cosstiM* tastp  (See   

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