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Washington Globe Newspaper Archive: January 15, 1830 - Page 1

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   Washington Daily Globe (Newspaper) - January 15, 1830, Washington, District Of Columbia                                 OFFICIAL ^APfeRS.  etpondence betwrn Great Britain and the Unit-State», relative to Commercial Intercourse be-Ameriea and the British West India Colonies.  (Concluded.)  No. 4.  Loui* Af' tone, Esq. to the Earl of Aberdeen. Chandos street, Portland Place, Jvly 12, 1830.  e undersigned, Envoy Kxtr«iordin»ry and Minis-lenipotentiary fomthe United States, has had'  CpL©  THE WORLD IS liOVKRNKO TOO MtMII."  BY F. P. BLAIR.  CITY OF WASHINGTON, SATURDAY, JANUARY 15, 1831.  YOL. 1—NO. là  honor already, in a personal conference, to ex- 01 t cenw {' to the Earl of Al>erdeen, His Majesty's prinripal j Jlmt article Jn etary of State for Foreign A flair», certain niea-  • adopted by the Congress of the United State«, ng their late session, which have an immediate important hearing on the relations of the two  ntries, and upon the proposition heretofore s ih-ed by the undersigned, respecting the West India «. Having received from the Earl of Aberdeen ntimation of the propriety of communicating those sures in a'more formal manner/the undersigned the honor, herewith, to transmit such information he subject ad he is now in possession of. e first of the measures alluded to, is an Act, of Congress of the United States, authori/inp- «he -¡dent, in the recess of Congress, to annul al! the ricfive and discriminating measures of the United 69, and to open the ports to British vessels tr ying the British West Indie*, in the manner pirticu-y pointed out in the Act, a copy of which, for the er explanation of the case, the undersigned begs e to subjoin.  he undersigned has the honor also to inform T ord rdeen, that, during the late session of the Con-of the United States several other law« were by which, in lieu of the duties imposed upon ain articles of the produce of the West India Isl--, and of the possessions of Gre<\t Britain, by prereductions, the following duties only arc to be lected, that is to say.   T pou all Foreign molasses, from and after the 13th epfrtnher, 1830, a duty of 5 cents instead of 10 t* per gallon: allowing, at the same time, a draw-of the duty, upon all spirits distilled from that ar-in the United State», and it» exportation fro in-same.  »alt, a duty of 15 instead of 20 cents per he!, from the 31st of December next, until the t of December 1831, and, after that time, 10 cents bushel.  n cocoa, a duty of 1 cent per pound on all inipor-after the 31st of December 1H30, or rems'.ininvr at t time in the custom house stores. und°r the bond the importer, nd on coffee, a duty of 2 instead of 5 cents per nd, from and after the 31st of December and  1 cent per pound from the 31st of December 1^31; the same duties to be taken on coffee, remaining e respective time, under bond in the custom-house e9.  le undersigned will not permit himself to doubt , in the first of these acts, emanating from the k and friendly spirit which the President has uni-ly professed, and passed with an avowed refer-e to the pending negotiation, the Earl of Aberdeen  * «ce new ami irresistible motives for concurring he promotion ofthe^end to which this measure di-ly leads.  uch a measure could not have been recommen-by the President without incurring a deep re-sibihty towaidsJvjsown country, and feeling a fident reliance uponthe justice and magnanimity of  of 20 cents per bushel, the annual importation of ' ' ' n abroad seldom amounted to less than 5,000,000 of bushels. Of this amount, more than 8.000,000 caine from Great Britain ami her Possessions, her West India Island« furnishing ,af least 1, ooo. 000.  To what extent this amount may be enlarged, by the increased consumption, arising from the low rate of duty, and the advantages of an eapy trade, the Earl of Abeideeu may readily conjecture. It should he remarked, also, that, while the consumption of this article is thus augmented, the diminution of the duty must proportionally diminish the price of salted provisions so far as these, therefore, form part of the sup  plies of the Wèst Indies, the subsistence of fh« Islands« s^ne of the conditions on which the restrictions now  is a voluntary and leading step, in*tne conciliating cy of the two Nationa, taken in disdain of the re- ; nts of form; and which, if met in a correspoding 't, cannot fail to produce that friendly inter-rse and real harmony, so ardently desired by those consult the true interests and glory of both coun-  concedes in its terms all the power in the regula-of the Colonial Trade, and. authorizes the Presi-to confer on British vessels »11 the privileges, as 1 in t 1 »« ircuitous,^« thedirect voyage, which Great in has at any time demanded or desired. It has this in the only manner in which it was possible 'ongress, at the present moment, and under e.xist-ircumstanc»s, to act, without a total abandonment en those advantages conceded by the present re-~ons of Great Britain, and without raising up new *ta to oppose or obstruct the favorable disposition ssed bv this Government.  r will the un lersigoed conceal his hope and that this act will stamp the negotiation with and more fa rural.> character; and that nited States, having thus taken the first step, rticularly defined tne terms of their' Legis-the mode of adjustment may be disen'-um-of even those objection» with which it was sed to be embarrassed, when submitted to. Lord ey, and by the answer which, on that occasion, Hen to Mr. Gallatin.  e objections suggested at that period, on the part eat Britain, had no special or exclusive reference e measure in question, but to the giving of any ective pledge, by which she might commit her-to the adoption of anyspecific line of conduct, con-nt on events which could not be foreseen; and to ntering into any informal agreement as to njutu-ts of legislation, while it was impossible to anti-e the details with which those acts might be ac-panied, or the position or circumstances in which "wo countries, and the commercial commonwealth rally, might be placed, at the time when the law* ted should corne into effect. If these objections d at any time ha*ve been essential to the subject, ch the undersigned by no means admits, they cer-ly are not »o at present, e Act of Congress has been passed, without any ge prospective or otherwise; it, therefore, relieves adjustment of this subject from that part of the ulty. The details of the Colonial Legislation, e part of the United States, are precisely defined fully explained by the law. Frankly announc-all this, it leaves to Great Britain herself the se-*on of the mode and time in which, according to oncepti.on of her own interests, she may restore irect Trade between the. United States and the Indjes. She is enabled, deliberately; to do this, a full knowledge of the before mentioned de-and of the precise position and circumstan-as well of the Two Nations as of the Coinmer-Commouwealth, in general, at the time when aeasures are to come into effect. This she do without any risk as to the future; and with ertainty, that while doing an act of justice to endly Power, and relieving it from an invi-» exclusion from advantitgvs allowed to all oth-"ations, she is contributing materially to the .rity of her Possessions In the West Indies e undersigned will not dismiss this subject with expressing the hope and persuasion, that, in the r measures of Congress alluded to t'i" U.irlof \ber-will find not merely all the consider s ions here-e urged, for giving new facilities to the trade een the United States and the British West In-materially strengthened, if not absolutely con-d, but that a farther and more favorable alter-is thereby made in the object aud character of the tiation.  ese measures manifest at least a laudable desire to the shackles of trade and commerce, which, if and is disposed, she cannot better encourage by a relaxation of her own restraints upon the *ular branch of trade under discussion.  Earl of Aberdeen has been already informed \e consumption of foregin molasses in the Unites is no less than 13,00*0,000 of gallons, even the discouragements of the high rate of duty, deni&l of the drawbacks, which nearly proved 0 the chief source of consumption—the distille-f New England. It is obvious, hojvever, that "uction oifthe duty to its present low rate, and lowance of the drawback, must swell the de-for this article even beyond the ordinary a-t, which, in the regular course of a. direct trade, Id seek its principal supply in the British West es.  f coffee, not less than 37,000,000 poun<#l»«r«,>an-ly imported into the U. States, and of those, in a lar trade, not less than 8,000,000 from the British t Indies.  40,000 pounds of Cocoa annually imported in-fc U  ~ht from this British West.Indies, e Earl of Aberdeen will readily perceivg that eduction of duty on these articles, awl Tiffijjfljtftj, offee, to a rate which will soon be limemore nominal, cannot fair to at least, double the im-atioc.  ese remarks apply, with even additional force, he article of Salt, the consumption of which is e dependent on the rate of duty, than that of any r necessary of life.  e enormous quantity of this article requisite to ly the wants of 12,000,000 of people, is too obvi-to need any conjectural assertion; but it is worthy bservation, that, notwithstanding the extent of home supply, encouraged by the high duty  with him upon those passages in which the wording J 5,1^25, by an exptcss law, opening their ports for the of the bill appears obscure, and in which it seems, at j admission of British vessels, and by allowing their en-  least doubtful whether the practical construction of it would fully correspond with the intentions of the American government, ast-xpressed by Mr. M'Lano; but it is nevertheless necessary, in order to remove all possibility of future misapprehension upon so an important a subject, that he should recapitulate the points upon which these doubts have arisen, and distinctly stale 'he sense in which the undersigned considers Mr. M'Lane as concurring with him in the interpretation of them.  The first point in which a question might arise, is in that passage of the bill, wheiein it is declared as  will b>. cheapened, while the demand for their pro-du< e is increased.  It should not escape the attention of the. Earl of Aberdeen, that the provisions of these Acts of the Congress, so far as they relate to Cocoa, Coffee and Salt, confer encouragements on the trade of the West Indies with the United States, which did not exist, and could not have been contemplated, at the period of passing the Act of Parliament of 1S25. They, therefore, superadd new anil important motives for restoring the trade then offered, and for restoring it upon terms not less favorable.  While the participation of the British Islands is invited in the advantages to be derived froin this enlarged and increasing demand of the II nited States for the produce of the West Indies, the undersigned takes leave to suggest the expediency of securing that participation, before the trade may be exclusively diverted into other channels by the superior advantages of a dire« t intercourse with other Islands.  In closing this communication to the'Earl of Aberdeen, the undersigned will take the occasion to repeat bis deep interest on the subject, and a renewed hope of an early and favorable issue. The Earl of Aberdeen will not fail to appreciate the spirit and motive by which the President was actuated in recommending, and the Congress in passing the Act, to which allusion was f\r"t made. The effects of delay, upon the commercial enterprise of ihe United States, and the disappointment of interests, •te^irous of a different measure of Legislation, though they offered enibar-lassments, were not the greatest ditficulties attendant upon that Act  To give to Great Britain the fullest time to consult her own interest and convenience; to make a furth and a signal effort to place the commercial Relations of the two countries upon a footing of sure and lasting harmony; aud to guard, in a manner consistently with -Jiity, against delay during the recess of Congress, < ould only be done by a measure calculated also to .awaken at once the spirit of commercial specula-lion, and to create new expectations of favorable dispositions on the part of this Government.  If, as the undersigned will continue to hope, the British Government should find it their interest to realize these expectations, their measures will derive ad ditional grace from the frankness and promptitude with which they may be adopted; and if, unfortunately, these hopes are destined to experience a disappointment, it is not less the duty of His Majesty's Government to quiet the public expectations thus ex cited, and to mitigate, as far as may l>e in its power, the injurious effects thereof, by giving an early reply to the application which,, in behalf ofhis Government, the undersigned has had the honor to submit.  The undersigned avails himself, &c.  JUOU1S M'LANE. The Right Hon. the Earl of Abtrdeen, K. T., fyc fyc.  Enclosure in No. 4 [Here is inserted the Act of Congress approved May 29th, 1930, authorizing the President to open our ports to British vessels from the British West Indies on equal terms aa our own, whenever he should receive satisfactory evidence ihit the British government woold open its est India (torts to American vessels on equal teims with British vessels.]  No. fl.  The Earl of Aberdeen to L<mi* M'Lane, Esq.  Foreign Office, August 17, 1SJ0.  The undersigned, &c. has the honor to acknowledge the receipt of the note of Mr. M'Lane, &c. dated the 12th ult. communicating certain measures which have been adopted by Congress, with» view to remove the obstacles which have hitherto impeded the re-establishmerit of the Commercial Intercourse between the United States and the British West India Colonies,  Previously to the receipt of this communication. His Majesty's Government had already had under their consideration Mr. M'Lane's note of the 16th March test, explanatory of the proposition contained in his lejter of the 12th Dec, 1829, with reference to the same subject; and the undersigned assures Mr. M'Lane, that his Majesty's Government, in the earnest and dispassionate attention which they bestowed upon this propositiqn, were actuated by the most friendly feelings towards the Government of the United States, and by a sincere disposition to meet the proposals which he was authorized to make, in the spirit with which they were offered.  But the undersigned considers it unnecessary now to enter into any detailed discussion of the points embraced in those previous communications of Mr. M'Lane, because they are in a great measure, superseded by the more specific, and, therefore, more satisfactory propositions contained in his note of the 12th ult., to the content« of which note, therefore, the undersigned will principally confine his present observations.  On the character and effect of the recent measure of the American Congress, Mr. M'Lane observes, that "it concedes in its terms all the power in the regulation of the Colonial trade, aud authorizes the President to confer on British subjects all those privileges, as well in the circuitous, as the direct voyage, which (¿reat Britain has at any time demanded or desired."  In this declaration the undersigned is happy to observe the same spirit and disposition which dictated Mr. M'Lane's former communications, wherein he announced the readiness an-', -ire of the American Government " to comply »viih the conditions of the Act of Parliament-of 192.1;'' and also "that the claims advanced in justificati jh of the omission of the United States, to embrace Ihe offers of this country, have been abandoned bv those who urged them, and hivr; eived no stivtiou from the people of the ITui-ti>d States;" and the undersigned readily admits, that if the. bill, passed by the American Legislature, be well calculated, practically to fulfil the expressed intentions of its framers, it' must have the effect of removing those ground« of difference between the two Governments, with relation to the trade between tbe United States and the British Colonies, which have been the subject of so much discussion, and which have constituted the main cause of the suspension of the inle.rcourae by those Restrictive Acts of the United States which the American Government is now prepared to repeal.  The proprosition now made by Mr. M'Lane, for the revocation of the order in council of 1826, stands upon a ground materially different from that on which the .«aine question was brought forward, in the notes of Mr. Gallatin in 1S27, and even in the more explanatory Overtures of Mr. M'Lane, contained .in his communications of December, 182f), and March, 1830.  Those several proposals were all of them invitations to the British government to pledge itself, hypothetically, to the revocation of the order in council, in the event of a repeal of those acts of the American congrcss, which gave occasion to it. His majesty's government declined to give' that prospective pledge or assurance, on the ground stated in Lord Dudley's note of the 1st October, 1827. But the objections then urged are not applicable to the present overture; pro vision has now been made by an act of the Anieri.-an Legislature, for the re-establishment of iaterrtiwr^e, upon certain terms and conditions ;  1  flaw"tfrifores''foV majesty's government, it is for\^hem to dccide/w&ether they are prepared to a.lop«, rcorresvon ling/inea|ure on the part of ii;eat Britain lor that object. / ^  i'he un lersigueu is ready to admit'that,in spirit and in substance, the bill transmitted by\Mr. M'Lane, is conformable to the view which he takes of It, in the- expressions before quoted from his note of the 12th July, and that it is therefore calculated to afford to Great Britain complete satisfaction on the several points which have been heretofore in dispute between the two countries. He has also received with much satisfaction the explanation which Mr. M'Lane; has afforded him, verbally, in the last conference which the undersigned ha'd the honor of holding;  imposed by the United States may be reinovcd---"that the vessels of the United States, and their cargoes, on entering the ports of the British possessions as aforesaid," (viz:—in the West Indies, on the continent of America, the Bahama Islands, the Caicos, and the Bermuda, or Somer Islands.) shall not be subject to other or higher duties of tonnage or imposts or charges of any other description, than would be inipo^« t on British vessels, or their cargoes, arriving in ihe said Colonial possessions front tin f/rtilcd Slutrn of Amerita" It is not quite clear, whether the concluding words—"from the United States of America," are meant to apply to the vessels of the U nited Siete« and their cargoes, in the first part of the paragr8|>n, as well as to those of Great Britain, or her Colonics, in the latter part.  It can scarcely, indeed, have been intended, that this stipulation should extend to American vessels coming with their cargoes from any oth'-r places than the Untied States, be« a use ii is well known that under the navigation laws of Great Britain, no foreign vessel could bring a cargo to any British Colonial Port from any other country than its own. The next condition expressed in the Act is—" that the vessels of the United States nny import into the said Colonial possessions from the United Slates, any article or articles whi h could be imported in a British vessel into the said possessions from the United St iles."  In this passage it is not made sufficiently dear, that the articles to be impoitcd, oi; e.jual term ;, by Bi iti-ii or \meri au vessels from the United States, m»2<t be the i'i idiia of the United S'uhs. The-un.lersigned, however, cannot but suppose that such a limitation must h ive been contcmplatt d, b< cause the clause of the Navigation Act, already adverted to, wdjereby an American vessel would be-precluded from bringing any article not the produce of America, to a BritNh Colonial Port, is not only a subject of universal notoriety, but the same provision is distinctly made in the Act of Parliment of 1825, which has been so often referred to in the discussions on this subject. It was also necessary that the undersigned should a^k for some explanation of that section of the bill which has reference to the entry of vessels into the ports of the United States from the Continental Colonies of Great Britain in North America. «These are not placed, in the terms of the Act, on the same footing as the ships coming from the Colonies of the West Indies.  With respect to the latter, the express provision made for the direct intercourse with tho^e Colonies, together with the simultaneous repeal of the several American Acts, which interdict, at present, the carriage of goods from the United States to West Indian Ports, in ships having arrived from other ports of the British Dominions, appear fully to w arrant the ex pression before quoted, of Mr. M'l ane, " that the Act would confer on British vessels all those privileges, as well in the circuitous, as in the direct voyage, which Great Britain has at any time demande But, with regard to the Continental Colonies, there is merely a provision for " admitting to entry in the Ports of the United States, British vessels, or their cargoes, from the Islands, Provinces, or Colonies of Great Britain, on or near the North American Continent, and North or East of the United States." It must, indeed, be presumed, that vessels from thes< Colonies are intended to l>e admitted upon the «ame terms, in all respects, and be entitled to the sam< privileges, as British ship« from any other British Colony.  The Act of Congress requires, as a further condition, that when the intercourse with the West India Colonies shall be opened by Great Britain, "the coin-mercinl intercourse of the United States with all other parts of the British Dominions or possessions, sha 11 be left on a footing not less favorable to the U. States than it now is.  Although it may be most truly stated, that there exists, at this time, no intention to make any alteration in the Commercial Policy of Great Britain, and equally, that there is no disposition on the part of His Majesty's Government to restrict in any measure the Commercial Relations between this country and the United States ; yét the positive condition, to maintain unchanged, or upon any particular footing of favour, every part of our system of trade, affecting our intercourse with America, could not with propriety be made the subject of any specific engagement connected with the Colonial intercourse. W hether that intercourse be renewed or not, it ought to remain at all times as free as it now is, both to the Government of Great Britain and to that of the United States t ! > adopt from time to time such Commercial Regulations a« either State, may deem to be expedient for its own interests,consistently with the obligationsofexisting treaties.  It is due to the capdor with which the communications of Mr. M'Lane have been made on this subject, that the undersigned should be thus explicit in noticing the passage in the bill to which he has now adverted.  Mr. M'Lane, in his Note of the 12th ultimo, has described and explained the material diminution which has been made in the duties payable in the United States on the importation of certain Articles of Colo-' nial produce. This measure has been viewed by his Majesty's Government with sincere satisfaction, as indicating a disposition to cultivate a commercial intercourse with his Majesty's Colonies, upon a footing of greater freedom and reciprocal advantage than has hitherto existed. But the undersigned most frankly states that, iu the general consideration of the question now to be determined, no weight ought to be assigned to the reduction of those duties, as forming any part of the grounds on which the i c-e.stahlishment of the intercourse may be acceded to. Those changes arc part of the general scheme of taxation which the Government of America may at all times impose or modify with the same freed-»m as that which (¡reat Britain may exercise in the regulation of any part of its system of duties; anil it is the more essentia! that His Majesty's Government should not contract, by implication, any engagement towards that of the United States with respect to such alterations; because His Majesty's Government have already had under their consideration the expediency of introducing some modifications into the schedule of duties attached to the Act of Parliament of 1825, with a view more effectually to support the interests of the British North American Colonies. To those interests, fostered as they have incidentally been, by the suspension of the intercourse between the United States and the West Indies, His Majesty's Government will continue to look with an earnest desire to afford them such protection, by discriminating duties, as may appear to be consistent with the interests of other parts of His Majesty's Dominions, and with a sound policy in the Commercial relations of this country with all other States.  The undersigned has thought it desirable that this point should be distinctly understood on both sides, in order that no doubt should exist of the right of Great Britain to vary those duties, from time to time, according to her own views of expediency, unfettered by any obi ligation, expressed or implied, towards the Uuited States or any other country.  The undersigned adverts, again, with satisfaction, to the verbal explanations which he has received from Mr. M'Lane, of those passages in the Act of Congress, which have not appeared to the undersigned to be I iter all y adapted to the provisions of^ the Act of Parliament of 1825. He concurs with Mr. M'Lane in thinking that these will be found to have been merely apparent deviations from the conditions of that Statute; because, the whole of the récent proceedings of the American Government and/Legislature, in this matter, have been manifestly and expressly founded upon a determination to conform to it. And any other view of the subject would be entirely at variance with the tenor of the several communications from Mr. M'Lane, before adverted to, which have all been conformable to the explicit proposition contained in his Note of the 12th December, 1S2», "that the Government of th? United States should now comply with the conditions of the Act of Parliament, of July  »>y  try with the same kind of British Colonial produce as may be imporfed in American vessels, the vessels of both countries paying the same charges; suspending the Alien duties on British vessd* and cargoes, and abolishing the restrictions in the Act of Congri ss of 1823, to the direct intercourse between the United Statesand the British Colonies, and that such a law should be immediately followed by a revocation of the British Order in Council of the 27th July, 182f; the abolition/Or suspension of all discriminating duties on American vessels in the British Colonial ports,and the enjoyment, by the Unite;! Stales, of the advantages of «he Act of Parliament, of the .Ith Jul v. H2.V It only i cmains, tlu u f,m . for the -¡n l'^i M.V,! (.» assure Mr. M'Lane, that, if the I'l.Aident .»f »he United States shall determine to give, eflcct to the Act of Congress, in conformity with the ' oustru'-tion put upon its Provisions both by Vir. M'Lane and bv the undersigned, all dilliculty, on the part of (Jreat Britain, in the way of the renew«', of the intercom-.c between  the United States and the We«l Indies,  T'Ühg  his communication», Much was admirably calculated to secure the confidence of the British government, and coupled ivith the weight of reasoning and fa which he presented, must have produced a deep i pression where it was most desired. But it is obvious to our minds, notwithstanding this, that the nego« ia-tion would have been utterly fruitless, but for the Act of Congress, passed near the close of I ist session, authorizing the President to open our ports to British , vessels from the Colonies, whenever he should icceive | satisfactory evidence that the Act would he reciprocated by the British gov« rimient. This friendly overture on the part of the American Congress "(suggested no doubt I'v Mr. M'Lane himself) removed the obstacles to the oiiccehS of the negotiation which has a-risen from & f'cch.i^ of wounded pride, and the rest vvxs cany.  1 >'on »be National Ga/.etfr.  An editorial article of the National Journal of'Tues-day the 1th of January, contains the following sentences:  ihe claim« of Mr. Clay w ere in any way identified with the. success of the ticket—and held it a slander upon their candidates to say they were Clay-mcn. We have said so, however—we told the people so before they voted for them, and now it will be seen who spoke the truth. Let Henry Clay come oil—wo c:m put all his voters in New Jersey into aheiijcoop. The. opposition Convention, that termed the li. kit which has succeeded, expressly refused to recommend Clay for President:—Tttnton /.Vnporivm.  M ahvi. ami ii ah ivo GovrnNon ! !--In our laM paper we si ut ed that Dami'.i. M mvi'in was clecte,!, by the Legi-dmure, Governor of Maryland, ll is t/tie that he re ei\ed à inaj-iriiv of votes in the le^i ■'caini < , g aud facts i 'be tYu-'i«'!»!'«»!! of Man lan,I makes him inel-u:-  i .. .!____b.e (or the (.dice. It i, trul\ a matter of siupii. c licit.  the coalition p u tv «houl 1 v.- f«>;-« ed Mr. Martin ii.-to the ^id ematoli,»1 e!n;r iu \i.dadon of the phi. -e\ pres-ii', dcclai ylions of'ihe ('«institution. 'I bet t-n-suiutioii says :  '«'I hat the Governor -linil NOT continue- in Ihat longer Hi,m time years SUCCESSI VI.I.Y. nei h> <li>j;i!)lt ot< (<<>rt)iinr, until the EV I'll.',\ I ION Ol  die foregoing proposition made by Mr. M'Lane, will thereby bo removed.  The undersign,id, &c. ABERDEEN.  Louis M'Lanr, Ksq. S, r. fl-r.  , No. 6.  Low's At Line, Exq. to (he Earl of Aher» If en.  9, Chundis Stru t, I'orHoud f lare, ) ..Ywnriri .'!, $  The undersigned, kc. has the honor t,> transmit herewith, to (he Karl of Aher lee.'i. a Proclamation issued by the President of the United States, on the5th of October last, and al-i.i a letter m' incr'i 'ions from the Secretary of the Trea -ui v-, in <■.),,•">. mi:y thereto, to the sev eral Collocf.jrs of th;> United S. Mes, rcuiov-inir the restri'-ti,».H ,,n the trade in Hi dish vessels, with the Potts nf the U. States, and the Colonial Possessions of Great Briiain, and th<- undersigned takes leave to add, that, fli iu«rh (hce papers appear to l>e sufficiently .dear an i explicit, he will take much pleasure in unking any further pusonal explanation of their import,'thai m ly he "onddered desirable.  It will be perceived, however, that, by virtue of the foregoing Proclamation, and the operation of ihe act of < ,in;i;e-s. of the 2;)th S'nv. TW, the restrictive Acts of the United States are ab<oh)ldy repealed; that die Ports of the United State* are opened to admission and entry of British Vessels, coming from any of the British Ports mentioned in both Sections of the said Act, with the same kind of British Colonial produce as may be imported in American Vessels, and upon th e same terms; that the Alien Duties, in the Ports of the United States, on British Vessels and thHr Car go'?s, and also the Restrictions in the Act of the Congress of the United States of 1823, to the direct Inters course between the United States and the British We/t India Colonies, are abolished. /  The undersigned has the honor fo state further,{hat these Acts have been performed by the President, in conformity with the Letter of the Earl of Aberdeen, af the 17th of August last, and that, by accepting the assurance of the British government, with the accompanying explanation, as a compliance with the requisitions of the Act of Congress of the 29th May, 1H30, and doing all that was necessary on the part of the United States to effect the proposed arrangement, he Ins adopted, without reserve, the construction put upon the Act of Congress both by the Earl of Aberdeen and the u idersigned.  Iu communicating these Documents to the Earl of Aberdeen, the undersigned is instructed to inform him, that the President has derived great satisfaction from the candor manifested by His Majesty's Ministers in the course of the Negotiation; and that, having thus given effect to the Arrangement on the part of the United States, he does not doubt that Great Britain, acting in the spirit and terms of the Proposition submitted by the undersigned, and accepted iu the Letter of I.ord Aberdeui. of the 17th August hist, will as promptly comply with those terms on her part, nod remove tht> existing obstructions to the renewal of the intercourse between the Ports of the United States and the British Colonial Possessions.  In conclusion, the undersigned takes leave to state, that, from the date of the proclamation of the President, the Vessels of Great Britain have been, and are actually, in the enjoyment of all the advantages of the proposed Arrangement, while the Vessels of the United States are, and must remain, excluded from the same, until the requisite measures shall be adopted by this Government. The undersigned has the honor to ask, therefore, that the Earl of Aberdeen will enable him to communicate the adoption of those Measures to !iis Government, by the opportunity which will offer for that purpose, oil the 6th instant.  The undersigned avails himself, &c.  LOUIS M'LANE. The Right. Hon. The Earl of Afcrdetn, K. T.tfe Sfc.  First Enclosure in No. 6.  [Here follows the President's Proclamation of Oct. 6th, opening our ports to British vessels from the British West Indies, subject to no higher duties than are imposed upon American vessels coming from the same ports.  Second enclosure (A) in No. 6, is a note from Secretary Ingham to Mr. Van Buren, enclosing a copy of the Instructions issued on the 5th Oct. to the Collectors of the Customs, directing them to admit British vessels into our ports from the. said Colonics,.subject only to such duties as would be imposed upon American vessels coming from the same ports.  Stvond enclosure (B) in No. 6. is a copy of these instructions.]  No. 7.  Frc/gn Oft re, vVot. 5th, 1330.  The undersigned, &c. h-»s the hmor to acknowledge the receipt of the note of Mr. M'Lane, Sic. of the 3d instant, in which he encloses a Proclamation issued by the President of the United States, on the 5th ult. and also a Letter of Instructions from the Secretary of the Treasury, in conformity thereto, to the several Collectors of the United States, removing the restrictions on the trade in British vessels with the ports of the United States and the Colouial Possessions of Great Britain.  Mr. M'Lane observes, that by virtue of the Proclamation in question and the operation of the Act of Congress, of the 2?>tli May, 1830, the restrictive Acts of the United States are absolutely repealed; that the Ports of the United States are opened to the admission and entry of British vessels, coming (join any of the British ports mentioned iri both sections of the said Act, with the same kind of British Colonial produce as may be imported in-American vessels and upon the same terms; that the Alien Duties, in the ports of the United States, on British vessels, and their cargoes, an«i also the restrictions in the Act of Congress of the United States of 1323, to the direct intercourse between the U. Slates and the British West India Colonies, are abolished.  Mr, M'Lane adds, that in performing these Acts, the President of the United States has adopted, without reserve, the construction put upon the Act of (Congress of the 29th of May, 1.330, by himself, and by the undersigned, in his note of the 17th of August last.  The undersigned having stated to Mr. M'Lane, in his above mentioned Note, that under such circumstances, all difficulty oil the part of Great Britain, in the way of the renewal of the Intercourse between the United States and the West Indies, according to the proposition made by Mr. M'Lane, would be removed—he has now the honor to transmit to Mr. M'Lane the accompanying copy of an Order issued by His Majesty in Council this day, for regulating the Commercial Intercourse between the United States and His Majesty's possession«'abroad.  The undersigned cannot omit this opportunity of expressing to Mr. M'Lane the satisfaction of His Majesty's Government at the promptitude and frankness with which the President of the United States has concurred in the view takeu by them of this question ; and at the consequent extension of that-Commercial Intercourse, which it is so much Ihe interest of both countries to maintain, and which His Majesty wfyl always be found sinccrely desirous to promote by all the means in his power. The undersigned, &c.  ABERDEEN.  Louis M'I.ank, Esq. &c. &c. &c.  Whoever reads the diplomatic correspondence, [«ays the New-York Journal of Commerce,] between Mr. McLane and Lord Aberdeen, relative to the Colonial Trade, will be convinced that the negoiation was conducted by our Minister with pre-eminent a-bilitv. There is a vein of sincerity running through  "It is dcinons'ralc 1 tl'.at our Minister at London, not content with coming down to Liverpool, person aily to deliver hi) despatches to the Captain of the Packet, must have also furnished duplicates of hiscor-respondence with the - British government to some persons in New York, f«ir publication, in case th<-Cabinet of General Jac l:san should be inclined to any unreasonable delay in the publication of this correspondence. We do not think that many precedents can be found of a proceeding quite so irregular, and obviously so improper."  W • < nnnot express the indignation with whi, h we read this gross libel. No American, we tiust, could have written it. The uimliii l which is thus ascribed to the representative of this Republic in London, may be styled impossible, his c.haracfer, and bis personal and official relations, being duly considered. Whatever may be thought of the value of the arrangement which he has concluded with the British Cabinet, it cannot be denied i! ;;t t he has displayed the most creditable ability and zeal in the discharge of his functions. He could have no motive for supposing that any unreasonable delay in the publication of the correspondence would bo practised at Washington. The New York Evening Post of yesterday, mentions that " the reprint in New York, of the Correspondence, was copied from a document printed several months ago in London, by order of the King, for the use of Parliament." Some days ago we suggested this as one of the two forms in which it might have been obtained. It is not by such imputations as (hose of the Journal, that opposition can be successfully made to the present administration at Washington. The » lection of General Jacksou was materially promoted by a similar course.  -«III»-  From the Richmond Enquirer.  Some of the Southern Prints still express u'oubts, whether the summons addressed to the State of Georgia, be not spurious. They may dismiss such doubts. We have ascertained that the paper is unquestionably genuine.  Most of the papers in Georgia and South Carolina, ha ve already sxpresaed their astonishment and resentment at the issuing of any such summons. They rejoice at the course which tHe Georgia Legislature promptly took upon the occasion—some of them only are surprised by the moderate tone in which Georgia has asserted her inalieanable rights of jurisdiction. But what species of jurisdiction would she possess within her own acknowledged boundaries, if she could not exercise a criminal jurisdiction upon her own soil; if she could not try and bring to punishment an Indian who had been guilty of murdering a white man? How does the Supreme Court get any jurisdiuUou iu thocase? Suppose the Cherokees to be Citizens of Georgia, the Constitution gives the Supreme Court no power to take cognizance of cases instituted against a State by her own Citizens. If they should, peradventure, be considered as Citizens of a-nother or of a foreign Statevthe 11th artiche of the a mendinents to the ConstitttHjuin declares, "That tlit Judicial Power of the UnitM States »hall not be construed to extend to any suit,In Law or Equity, commenced or prosecuted agaidst one of the United States by Citizens of another State, or by Citizens or subjects of any foreign State." In the case of Chisholin, Ex versus Georgia (2d, Dallas's Reports) the right of a Citizen of another State to sue a State was maintained by the Supreme Court in 1793. Rui this a-mendment was subsequently made to the Constitution, which, says the Reporter, "swept at once from the Records of the court, this case, and all the other suits against States." In the Federal Convention of Virginia, Mr. Marshall held even, that under the Constitution as it originally stood, no such cognizance could be taken by the Federal Court: "I hope, (says he,) no gentleman will think that a State will be called at the bar of the federal court." "It is not rational to suppose, that the sovereign power shall be dragged to that bar in the case of the Cohens—and Georgia is to be dragged in the case of Tassels.  But will she now? The man is actually hung, as appears from the following paragraph extracted from the Georgia "Athenian" of the 28th ult:  "Grorge Tassei/S.—The execution of this unfortunate Indian took place on the 24th inst. A large number of persons were assembled on the occasion, among whom were some eighteen or twenty Indians. We understand that on the day previous to the adjournment of the legislature, the Governor received an order from Chief Justice Marshall to defer the execution till the case could be tried before the United State's Supreme Court. He immediately laid the order before the legislature, who sent an express to the Sheriff of Hall county, to proceed in (he execution. No notice from the United States' Court was served either on Judge Clayton or the Sheriff. This collision of authorities portends something serious. What its effects will be, it is impossible to predict with any degree of certainty.—Perhaps His Honor, Judge Marshall, may think it incumbent on him to arraign and punish [if perchance he should possess the power,] the State of Georgia for contempt of the Federal Court."  Tassels then is gone beyond the verge of all human authority. No power of the Supreme Court can "touch him now." They cannot bring him from the grave. And what will they do? Will they punish for a contempt—Whom? Will they imprison the State of Georgia? Will they punish the Sheriff or the Judge of Hall county, on whom no notice was served? Will they tay their hands or levy a fine on the Governor? They d a re not.—The fine never would be paid.—No Marshall or posse comitatus would dare to lay a finger on Governor Gilmer, to incarcerate him for an alleged contempt. How then stands the case? Where is the dignity of the Supreme Court in this dilema'  The fact is, that the two. goveri.ments ought to bear and forbear.* Much discretion aud delicacy must be shewn in the use of the authority they possess—aud much more care, lest they assume a power which does not belong to them—else, the two systems must clash with each other—and discord, distention, and we know not what direful consequences, may yet endanger one of the most beautiful and useful forms of government, that was ever devised by the wit of man.  Ol li YL\1?S, ofUr l>< THAT OKT!« E."  Could langii?»¿;-e be n.rr Constitution pir-11 i v e I \ ci ^'•t ill >o r be eligible for t! tioii of rot H y ? ars. .»i l« i the oíli-e, v« t, iillhcu;. y<arouI. ics polnii a s!ai ing 111« ¡ i in the lac pie it Under foot. '„In v. e.'i to ki.o's how the in lilis i.islanci:— \vc til ill I 'le.-e.illeent ifl this . ii'iir f«irv\ aed hi intuii y, or t  and i;ive ricir constituent, Several questi.» ;s wool,i i¡ to  <11 Kav< l.an «il T < I'  lie,  ti r,  (Vic/ h;;\ di -1 V.o., -i t;  o}.licit? 'n-i  ti e < io\ i rii i-oi'ice Ul"! ll the c\pi¡ a -.-di«i!l liC'% i Ihi n oct cf d:u tin b.«s been but on k s nitli the Constitution thought proper to ti arn-. ud its ¡-ciiiiiatcs.— We ,;>!mry delegation vnlr-J •ic will be no shvlll.ng -Nut (hat they will stc(> u.pclent friend for them. ' ile-hed infinite,ition. iurall v nri:-« in the mind iu relation to tiu" awkward situation in which Mr. Martin is placed.- -If not eligible (which there is no doubt in our tidnd that he ii not) would not nil hi^ OKt'ieiAi. act.- be inoperative on the. people? Or, iu oilier «oids, having bc< u elected Go\ernor of tin-state in violation of the Constitution, w ould not every public act proceeding fioin liiin, le an additional in friiigcnn lit of the ( oi¿s;iti;ti',n, and therefore, giving the people the right to di o-egard an y mandate coming from him ? If then these p. cini-is and deductions be corred, what must !.e th>- feelings of Mr. Martin' -Surely, if he i- a high ininded aud honorable mail he will at once with Ir.ivv himself- from an office which the Ian so. 1  hi* Slate positively say h( xhaHn >t hold.—  AUu-jjIund i rte Pre**.  —  I'r<>?nthc ,'\'nr York Ftaiulurd.  Cfohcia.—That the doctrine lu id by (he State of Georgia in rcfe/enee tuber right of Sovereignty ovei the Indians within her limit-;, is not without precedent, at least up to the moment of the sentencing of Tassels, wiil be upp uent t• «mi the perusal of the following statute p..s.,ed |,v the Sb.te of New York, on the 12;h April, 1 ■-'.:?'!, and recognised as being constitutional by Cham elior Kent, \i hen (sitting as a Jud;,r. ii the highest tribunal iu this Side-  AJY A CT dv<  'anna; the jurisdiction nf the ('»n, ts of  ttdi Stat, and pardoning Xo i-von-xizc. ottniin.e  c<dhd Tumtufj Jtinmy.— Passed April'12, 1S22.  Whkkkas, tiie Seneca and other tribes of Indians residing within this State, have assumed the power and authority of trying and puni hing, and in some cases capitally, members of their respective tribes, foi supposed crimes by them done and committed in their respective reservations and within this Slate, And whertas, the «ole and exclusive cognizance of all crimes and offences committed within this State, belongs of right to Courtsholden tintltr the Constitution nn<l J.an s thereof as a necessary attrilmtc of Sovereignty, except only crimes and offences cognizable in the Courts deriving jurisdiction under the Constitution and Laws of the Unite;! States. And whtreas,. it has become necessary, as well to protect the said Indian Tribes, and to assert and maintain the jurisdiction of the Courts of this State, that provision should be made in the premises: Therefore,  L Be it enacted by the People of the State of ¿\~eio York; represented in Senate and Assembly, That the sole and exclusive jurisdiction oftryingand punishing all and every person, of whatsoever nation or tribe, for crimes and offences committed within any part of this State, excepting only such crimes and offences as are or may be cognizable in Courts claiming jurisdiction under the Constitution and Laws of tha United States, of right belong» to, an«l is exclusively vested in the Courts of Justice of this Slate vrganizui under the Constitution and Laws thereof.  And whereas it has been represented that thesaidSoo-non-gize, otherwise called Tommy Jemmy, an Indian, of the Seneca tribe, has been indicted for the murder of Caugh-quaw-taugh, an Indian woman of ihe same tribe, which murder is alleged to have beeu committed within the Seneca reservations, in the county of of trie. And whereas it is further represented, that the said alleged murder was committed under the pretence of authority derived from the Councils of the Chiefs, and Warriors of the said tribe; and, under the then existing circumstances, it is deemed by the Legislature eifpedient to pardon him; therefore.  II. Be it further inac.ted, That the said Soo-non-gize, otherwise called Tommy Jemmy, be, and he is hereby fully and absolutely pardoned'of and from the said felony.  The case which came before the Court o» the occasion alluded to in our introductory remarks, was one involving the question of descent under our statute,, and the property in controversy necesswijy brought up the right of sovereignty of New York over the Indians within her borders. The Chancellor on the occasion, in approbation of the act above cited, said that "their irregular and foul executions (of Indian* by Indians among themselves.) were shocking to humanity, ami were not to be tolerated in the neighborhood, and under the eye of a civilized and christian people. Under the circumstances in which we were placed in relation to those Indians as- their guardian* and protectors, we had a right to avail ourselves of the superiority of our character, and put a sh>p to such irregular and horrible punishments." It should be remembered that duel Justice Marshall has not in the-case of Georgia, expressed any opinion; and that the writ which issued from the Supreme Court of the U-nited States, is but a common writ of error, allowed of course, without reference to the merits of the ot«e.  The enemies of General Jackson endeavor to propagate the belief, that he is not actually the President. Befote his election, they were equally indutitriou.s in spreading the notion, that he was a tyrannical .Military Chieftain—impetuous, headstrong and uncontrollable, who would be perpetually embroiled with his own cabinet and with foreign nations. At what point of time do the enemies of Gen. Jackson speak truth? Certain it is, it would be as easy i-task to convince a sensible man that Gen. Jacks«an was a mere, nominal General at New Orleans, as tiiirt he is in leading strings as a President of the United States.— Harrivburg Chronicle.  From the Nashville Republican. ALABAMA.—Gov. Moore lias been elected Senator in Cougress from this State, by a majority of nine votes ovcr liis opponent, Col. McKinley. The former received 49, the latter 40—and 3 scattering. The Tuscaloosa Inquirer says: >this election may be regarded as an evidence of/he strong attachment of Alabama to State sovereignty, and the principled of the celebrated veto message."  We regret to see, in the Republican, such a remark, calculated to do great injustice to Col. McKinley. The election ofcGov. Moore, can be satisfactorily accounted for, without attributing tojhis distinguished predecessor - a want nf attachment fo the interests of the States, or to the Administration. Col. McKinley has been the able, efficient friend of the Administration. He has been a faithful and successful advocate of the rights and interests of his State.—Telegraph-  The Washington National Journal says:— " The moment the question of Clay against Jackson was broadly and undisguisedly submitted to the people of New Jersey, the result has been unequivocal and triumphant to the friends and the principles of the former." ,  Thjs may da for the marines—Here every body knows that the Anti-Jackson party stoutly df>n.iyl that  J. J. Knapp, Jr. was executed at Salem on Friday last about nine o'clock. It is stated in the Bostou Transcript that during the latter part ofhis confinement in prison he discovered some degree of penitenc*-for his crime. At his execution*- he was calm aud composed. His last interview, says the Transcript of Friday, with his young grief-stricken wife, took place last evening. The scene is represented by a persou who witnessed it to have been truly heart-rending-». She was unable to suppor- herself on leaving the cell His afflicted father also took his last farewell at the same time. Two or three of his male friends vioited him this morning.  It is hoped that this will prove to be the last act of this horrid tragedy, but rumors are still kept up of disclosures implicating others in the dreadful crime, which has already brought three young men to premature graves.  Imprisonment for Debt.—A convention has been recently held in Madison county, N f ; Y, for the purpose of taking into consideration the necesity of petitioning the legislature to abolish imprisonment for debt. A series of resolutions, and a memorial to the legislature, were unanimously adopted, and a committee appointed, for each town in the county, to obtain signatures thereto-. The convention was unanimously of opinion that imprisonmeut for debt ought to be abolished. A vote of. thanks to colonel K, Mr-Johnson was passed, for his efforts in congress, iu favor of the abolition of imprisonment for debt.  We understand that the supply of Penknives usually ordered for the use of members of Cougress during-its session, has been furnished this year by a manufacturer at Worcester, Mass.  Dividend.—The Bank of the United States, declared on Monday, a dividend out of its profits lor the last six months, of three and a half per cent, pay-able after the 13th inst.   

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