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   Delaware State Reporter (Newspaper) - January 6, 1854, Dover, Delaware                               t x DELAWARE S T ATE R E P O R T E VOLUME 2. DOVER, FRIDAY AFTtilrfiNOON, JANUARY 0, 1854 NUMBER 37. THE-DfetAWARE STATE BEPORTER IS PUBLISHED SEMI-WEEKLY BT GEORGE W. S. NICHOLSON, kfrftfrer, ttie Capital of the State of Delaware. HAVING been in successful operation since i the 1st of 1858, constantly increas- Ing in circulation, the REPORTER can no longer be considered an airy but it has its way into popular favor and achieved for itself "a local habitation and a and it affords us niuch pleasure to announce that it is ribwpefmanently and durably established, enjoy- ing it large Share of the patronage and the favor of the People and the Democratic Party of Delaware. Before the idea of the REPORTER was entertained at all, we o'ften expressed won- der that there was no paper published at the Capital Of the State and we felt sure that if one Wore started here, it would, from its central position, possess advantages over all other toapers iii the State which none other could ecfual; and, if judiciously and with enterprise conducted, it would necessarily become THE STATE PAPER. When it fell to our lot, by solicitation, ready tencouragement and otherwise, to tempt a trial of the jdea, we did so; and the opinions Me then entertained have become a fixed fact. SJuiieess has been the reward of all our efforts. The DELAWARE STATE-. REPORTLR is not and bever will be the mouth-piece or organ of any clique, or division of cither or any Party. It is the fearless and the faithful advocate of the principles contained in the DEMOCRATIC PLATFORM OF 1850, And on all National questions it stands boldly and undeviatingly on the Baltimore Platform Of the NATIONAL DEMOCRACY OF 1852. For its chief aim it has the U.VION and the PcRtTY of the Democratic Party of Delaware. In its NEWS department it will not be behind iny other Delaware newspaper. What the mails and our exchanges do not afford in time, is regularly and fully obtained by means of the Blectrietelwgraph A summary of the FOREIGN NEWS given in our fssues next after the arrival of every steamship. DOMESTIC INTELLIGENCE received by mail and the telegraph from every section of the Union. AGRICULTURAL ARTICLES, for the benefit of the FARMER, will be found in every issue oi the REPORTER. ORIGINAL CORRESPONDENCE from all parts of the State rs one of the most valuable and interesting features of our paper; and situated as we are immediately in the centre of the State, the correspondence and the com- munications of the REPORTER will be found to tie' more volumnious than any other Delaware PMladelpiia MEDICAL. R. LOCAL NEWS AND THE MARKETS will receive careful and prompt attention every issue, when a full and reliable report will be given. The Miscellaneous, Romance and Poetical departments comprise original contributions and Selections from the best periodicals and literary magazines and newspapers in the country, morality 'and instructive reading strictly adhered to in all selections. The citizens of Delaware would do well to keep in view the fact, that in this town, the C-aptUl of the State, where the REPORTER is the only paper published, all PARTY CONVEN- TIONS, LEGISLATURES and all PUBLIC MEETINGS of STATE IMPORTANCE are accustomed to assemble, and being on the spot, We are' enabled to give a more full and speedy report of their proceedings than any other paper. T'nrthermore it must beTemembbi-ed that the DELAWA.BE STATE REPORTER is The Cheapest Paper in the State, 'jeing published every Tuesday and Friday for the small sum of TWO DOLLARS A YEAR. Onr subscribers may implicitly rely on our constant endeavors to enhance the value of'onr   Mvkct stf Tif n lirre n'RorlTifrit of nicl f.f I (for Onr-iTy Bslfv 1 ni't, fee..) ncrrr n "'l in city OTriarnfTttl Iron F f-f All done at rani'-'I to fire j-jf ij..'.''iOri. X. H psM to ent'oslrp 1 Prroe-ttrr it will be rcadilv coifed'-d nrd on thec-miT. arf not will ttmt it is for th it be- air] the j tnent njnJh confined within its prc Ii thm T do rr-ott r'r.re tf.nt. ni p'ritvS of I Ini'erc tf'ai tbf hr3vv n-id Trtijhty rKjwi.il'i'i'.y ri1-'1 Ufirn the cr'iat Demrcratic of tbi- n.it'on c.f re-rnrring ir.orc to principle the i rcinnl dcsipn of tie- if p'ifcMUe. in i! burs to Hi, Tffnb. tine- itTr'sthm the d n kT.'l Itis pfllTjr.ur in thf f-RTlrtT ntv] pnrf r days If ;.r< dm-i'-n tbe TtirlT. I clsirn 1o U) n? to thai dmt-ro 'f it "ill itfi-i 1 the c'.rr.bir ed fli') d jndirmiT t of the until ilitn J.'ifj whi-h ifilhft; HT] rigi'l re-ep-r c. In'ilv n'o every 'I'pft-ir T of Iff- g'.verDmTTit I to that of tbe 13 exist, and the Gliurch Triumphant begin at the same point, Democracy progressive will gue way and ceasu to eiist, and Theocracy begin. The cminity of man being now fully devel- it mav now be confidently and exultingly asserted that the nf the peopl' is the voice nf God; and proclamation be made, that the millenial morning has dawned, and that the time has come, when the Lion and Lamb shall lie down together when the voice of the tur- tle" shall be heard in our land when the suckinfr child shall play upon the hole of the and the eaned child put its hand upon the cockatrice's den." and the glad tidings shall be proclaimed throughout tbe land, of man's political and religious redemption, and that there is "on earth, peace, good will toward men It will bo readily perceived by all discerning young men, that Democracy is a ladder, corres- ponding in pohiics. to the one spiritual w hich Jacob saw in his vision one up which all, in proportion to their_merit, may ascend. While it eitcnds (o the humblest of all created beings here ou earth below, it reaches to God on high: and it would seem that the c'a.ss of young men to which I might find a position soracHrbere between the lotver and upper ex- tremes of this ladder, commensurate, at le-ast. with their virtue and merit, if not equal to their inflated ambifon, w 'men they could occupy with to thtmsehcs and advantage to country. Inio'mil by the General Gov- cmr cnt. is a "il't-it that is much a'.'cn'i'n and nod jubt wnl continue to do fji sr-j-f trre loeirne. Hor.  by the ihlrM md of the w ithc'-jt rotr in" lf> The prHs: line nt the nntrnal character of a wr.tk orintcrnaJ ImpTovcmcn! ce-av-. and the Jocittl approximate K 1ha! d-JIbutl determino, even by trlir'e to fir in )'s (-'inra-'.rf IM of r r f this pia'T f :i ever pv.anl wor'ce. n nations! is much per- felt in eter'Xc be pan of the Genera.] Goicrn- of 1-iitrnval r, in Trew, tbe ra-stny ;m- Trhish there a sn rnmh large portion of the and ra of ft ment, tny own deliberate opinion is, thit be-fore the General Qoremihent advances another of Internal Improvement, at least tliose ofa doubtful character, there should be an appeal made to the several States composing the compact, to definitely fix find accurately des- cribe the almost boundary of power intended' to be exercised by the General Government m the construction of works of Internal Im- provement. The Government, on a sutj'ect so grave and deeply important as the one now agitating the public mind, should move within limits well ascertained, both as to power and the amount of money to be raised by taxes, and to be expended in the various projects of Inter- nal Improvements, which nwy hereafter be pro- jected. If the States intend that the General Government shall embark in a gigantic scheme of Internal Improvements, let the power be con- ferred as provided in the Constitution of the United States. If not, let the General Govern- ment at once be arrcs'ed, and confined within the written command of the States that spoke it into existence. The subject of Iriternal Improvements by our own local authoritj', has also excited a deep and lively interest among our people, in many por- tions of the State. A well regulated and judi- cious system of Internal Improvements, intend- ed and calculated to give all reasonable facilities to the Mechanical, Agricultural, and Commer- cial pursuits of the country, ought to receive such aid and encouragement from the State as will come clearly within the financial ability of the people. If such aid has to be given by the creation of State indebtedness, the Legisla- ture that creates the indebtedness should never to provide the means to meet the annually accruing interest and the principal ns they fall due. In connection wkh the Internal Improve- ments of this, as well as other States, there is a question of much importance, which has not, hitherto, very generally attracted the attention of the people in this State. It is one that involves the first principle of free government itself; and will no doubt ultimately come before the judi- cial tribunals of the country, or before the sov- ereign people, for action and final adjustment. How far the Legislature can go in granting the right of way to all companies, whjch may be authorized to construct works of Internal Im- provements, through the real property of indi- viduals, without their consent, is the question referred to and it is one not well defined in the mind, nor distinctly understood by the people. The right of Eminent Domain does not, in this State, authorize tbe Legislature to go be- yond, in appropriating the property of the cili- izen, is absolutely necessary for the public good, and not then without just compensation being made therefor. To set apart so much of the real property owned by the citizens, as may be desired by every company which assumes that it is constructing a work or works of Inter- nal Improvement, for the public good, would be destroying one of the great guarantees in the Bill of Rights, whicli secures the people in the enjoyment of their real and personal property. At as early a day as may be practciable, there should be some boundary fixed, by the judicial tribunals of the country, or the people them- selves, os to the extent this all-important prin- ciple is to be exercised by the legislative depart- ment of the State; and that boundary should be, when fired, the public not tbe mere assumption of public convenience. All companies incorporated for Internal Improve- ment purposes, may claim that, they were crea- ted for the public good; and under the plea of public good, claim the right of way, and, conse- quently, the property condemned, and the right- ful owners compelled to part with the title to it, and that, too, without their consent. This, i among a people calling themselves free, and who claim to have guarantees which will pro- tect them in the enjoyment of life, liberty and property, is a question of no ordinary' magnitude, and is entitled to their mature and profound consideration. The best policy to be adopted by the General Government, in regard tn the future manage- ment of our immense public domain, has, for some time, engaged the public attention, and will continue to do so, until some permanent disposition be made of it by the General Govern- ment. There is a class of persons in the United States, more properly denominated Innd-mon- gers, or land-monopolists, who desire to have the public lands thrown into market hi large quantities, in the shape of land warrants, and grants to incorporated companies, so as to enable them to become the purchasers at reduced pi ices, and then to realize immense fortunes from the j landless thousands, who emigrate to the new i States and Territories, and settle upon iThis spirit of speculation and plunder, in the 1 homes of tne great mass of toiling thousands, i ought at once to be arrested. and stifled to death I by timely and judicious legislation. After some j experience, and much reflection, as to the mode of disposing of the public lands, I have cometo the conclusion, that the General Govern- ment ought, and that without delay, to set apart the entire public domain, by enactment, per- manently, as homes for the people. The Home- stead policy ought to be fully carried out. and j the further sale of the public lands confined to actual and to them only in limite'd quan- tities. The public lands should be unalterably fixed and set apart as a hen tage for Onr children, ia the far distant future. 'They should at onoe be consecrated to thus high and benefi- cent purpose, and never thereafter be disturbed. The Homestead great idea of providing homes for the thousands now lir- ing, the millions that arc yet to come after we have passed and one that has I occupied much of my time and anxious thoughts for many years post, and I have not 1 yet abandoned the confident hope of its final consTimoiation. The American mind has been aroused to tha consideration of thi? great scheme of every head of a family ia the United S'.atcs being provided with a home he can call his own It is based upon tV e'er-inl principles of Justice, and is replete w :th all that is nobb and good in our nature, and sooner or later, must become the settled policy of the. govern- ment. I never recur to tii.s gre-at with- out an expansion of all the nobler c.r 1 the Mul." It "is one upon which I to dwell, and eontcvnpjlato the future pwd is to flow upon the- coming ge-rrations. I will i refrain, however, from sayi-r more, on the 1 sen! upon a which is intcr- 1 woven with the dearest mpilbics of my Mai. i The true policy of Ihr ptfvtTTiment, both State- und (rcncral, con.-a.tts the etiucamn a-'id dif- fusion ofgtu'-nil info-mstion sroong the great mass of lht people-. at tvie some tirne cm- inc ftl] rorcn' bf which the toiling, pro- ducing libor of iheoountry ran be elevate! to its proper rxn- uon. Our children should i made trorcrxMy acquainted with the'grnius 1 and spin! beautiful. eornplcA form o! gwrnrr.cnt. Tb? Gonsritntnn of the i Svfjtes. a '1 Of the StsTet, Wfth Irjtir I Um-a, thoold on? of tb" principal books to bfe gtndied understood irf tfco ssbcola of tbe thus thorough i knowledge of genius And of our fre mstitatiftrs aocm-jfd. tf it be to this, so far, favored nation from all wars, for tba next fifty, it be pernritfe-3 to go on as it has cultivating the arts olid sciences 6( peace it will, nave -no equal, throughout the cmUzcd or Eaggn world. If Agriculture, Mechanics, Inte'rnal Improvements, with all tlielr legitimate incidents, are.' pp'rmU- ted to jippraximate any.tbing.1ike vns will be the most powerful and formidable people on God's habitable globe. "Why not, then, pur- sue that line of policy which will enable us to attain this great and important end, making this people the wonder and of the enlightened nations of IBe earth t TTe should adopt, as a rule forour future action, that was laid down by (he immortal Jefferson, on the 4th of March, 1801 Equal and exact justice to all men, of what- ever state, or persqafion, religious or political peace, commerce, and honest friendship with all entangling alliances with none." Within the last few years not to go farther the American people have given to all nations with whom they have any inter- course, the mott incontestible proof of thei? prowess, nnd military skill and power on the field of battle baa caused and will con- tinue to cause, the rights of our citizens to bo respected abroad. Let our people goon, rivaling each other in all the pursuits of peace let them acquire renown in the civil, equal to that which they have ac- quired on the field of military glory, and which is much more valuable and honorable than -all the glare of the military world combined. T would be doing- great injustice to my own feelinps, were I not, in this connection, to declare though it may be considered by some as being in bad taste that I would rather wear upon my garments the dinge of the shop and the dust of the field, as badges of the pursuits of peace, than the dazzling epaulet upon my shoulder, and the sword, with its glittering scabbard, dangling by my the insignia of honorable and glorious war. The Army and Navy in this, as in most of the nations of the earth, are the two great absor- bants of the people's substance. They are the two great arteries that will, unle'ss confined within proper limits, bleed this, as they have some of the other governments, well nigh to a state of exhaustion. Even here, where we seem lo havejv fixed prejudice against large standing armies, and extensive navies, it is almost start- ling to announce the agregate amount thepeople have to pay for the support of their Army and" Navy, in time of profound peace. According to the most recpnt estimate made out by the late Secretary of the Treasury, and submitted to the Congress of the United States, it will require, during the present fiscal year, twenty-one mil- lion of dollars lo sustain our Army and Navy which is a tax of nearly one dollar per head, fbf every man, woman and child in the United States. The entire amount collected from the American people, by the General Government alone, in the shape of taxes, and expended since the 4th March, 1T89, to the 4th March, 1846, is in round numbers. Of this amount has been paid out in the shape of a national debt, contracted for the purpose of carrying on our various vraTS, at home and abroad, which will leave 000. Out of the last named sum, there has been paid, for the support of the Army 6nd Navy, six hundred millon dollars, exclusive jf att pensions, which is sixty-two million, and is properly chargeable to the Army and Navy. It will be very readily perceived from this sim- ple statement of facts, that two-thirds of the whole amount of revenue collected from tha people has been appropriated for the support of these two branches of Government. It is not tny purpose, in making this allusion to this vast amount that has been expended m the name of our little Army and Navy, to detract aught from their high character but to show that they are costing the American people more, in proportion to the number employed in the naval and military service, than any other government in the world and for the furthe purpose of showing, that and military glory is not without cost, even in this republican form of government of- ours, and that, too, where most of the m time of actual war, is dona by the citizen soldier. While I make these remarks, I am not to be understood as being opposed to the Government keeping in readiness a sufficient physical force to maintain the honor, dignity, and rights of our country, at home or abroad, upon the ocean upon tho land. But I must be permitted, incidentally, to recur once 'more to that great scheme, tlw Homestead Policy, as being better calculated in ah" its bearings, if faithfully and successfully caried out, for Build- ing up the most reliable physical force for this co'im'ry in time of w ar. If this scheme is once established, and carried out in good faith, it will build up a standing army, in the character of the citizen soldier, that will, by its own productive power, supportitself in timeof peace, and will be in readiness to defend the country in time of wai It is one that will protect your frontier settlements against any disturbance growing out of unfriendly or hostile relations with our numerous Indian tribes. And in the event of war with any foreign power that dare invade the soil of freedom, it would be the first to obey its country's call, and, after having participated in the hcaj and strife of tho I benignant star of once more resumingthe tne citizen soKlfers who compose it would, with alacrity., return to thtir homes and their firesides, to Jfreir wives and their children, and there renew the avocations of This would be a standing army composed of ths citizen soldier in fact, that would go wbca svar came, end come when wir1 went, and only kind of an array, that can be safely relied upcta and trusted by RepubJ icart or s Democratic form of government, either in peace or in war. At as earjy a day as may. be deemed practi- cable, I will prep-ire and transmit a communica- tbn to both branches of the legislative depart- ment, presenting for their consideration sucfa of public pobcy as may seem to re-qu.rc legislate action. There ;s 3 high and solemn duty imposed l''f Executive, to take care that the laws be fj-thfully which are in conformity the Constitution of the State. In til (jueslicns of difhcuUy, shich may arise in rs- ganl to the faithful execution of the Constitution, aiid the law.s maS" in pursuance thereof, the Eitecaiire will expect the willing co oponvtion of the other two cf the- tjcMemmeii. In the various and rcipcmsibla diiiiev -d on me as. the Chief Exe-cntire O.Tiacr of the Sia't-. by law and the Constitution! I rnav often, from dr'ect of judgment, go wrong, and trhcn right, will ni doubt be cm-urc-d cnrkmnpt} by tbe ftylt-ftuding prtiori of tbow who may with sentiment, which jlfflost precludes the thst general satisfaction will be gnen to all. bv one Minprmg the- IT hich I hare jiiit bce-i e'Kn-ato-i '1 enf onnj; upon the of rwpcwi-cible and delicate in Iheir in rpferenco to which there is sucb A greavarxiy op must ncee-sswilj' to one v; bo feels so forciWy fit in competency to the of m> t rd Tisw Bat nclyi np, I atf, WJtm that u Njf E W Si'APERr   

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