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New Haven Gazette (Newspaper) - June 1, 1786, New Haven, Connecticut (VoLo L) TJhiurfdayj I M.DCC.LXXXVL Non sini sed toto gekitos se credf.re Mundo. (No. i6.) NEW-HAVEN: Printed and Publiihed by MEIGS & DANA, in, Chapel-Street. Price UilUngs per Annum. fZ-i following is takenfrom a Pamphlet late-iy pxihlijhcd in Philaddphiat by the Au hor if COMMON SENSE, entitled, mi^-ertations on Government, the AiFairs of the Banlw, and Paper iMoncy— Paine^s patriotifm^ and his eU'vaied repu.' tafioii as a writer^ <will render acceptable is our readers any praduäions of his njjhich vuiy have a general application^ ^VERY Government, let its form be what it may, contains within itlelfa Iff principle common to all, which is, that of a fovereign power, or a power o\'er which there is no controul, and which controals all others; And as it is impofiibl^ to con-ilrud h. form of government in which this ji^ower does not exlil, fo there muil of necef-fity he a place, if it may be To called, for it to exift in. In Dcfpotic Monarchies this power h lodged in a fingle perfon, ot lovereign. His Will is law ; which he declares, alters, or revokes as he pleaies, without being accountable to any power for fo doing. I'here-forc, the only modes of redreis, in countries fo governed, are by petition or in-furreition. And this is the reafon we fo frequently hear of infurrei^ions in defpotic jrovernments; for as there are but two modes ofredrefs, this is one of them. PniiHAJ's it may be fa id that as the united refiftance of the people is able, by force, to controul the will of the fovereign, that, therefore, the coatrouling power lodges in them : but it niuil be uacierllood that I am fpeakinjj of fuch powers only as the con-Cituent pares of the governmcnr, not of thofe powers which arc applied to refiit and overturn it. In- Republics, fucli as thofe in Aniericn, the fovereign power, over which thete is no controul arid which controuls all others, remains where nature placcd it ; in the people ; for the people in Amcrica arc tlie fountain of power. It remains there as a matter of right recognized in the coiiilitu-tions of the countrv, and tlie excrcife of it IS conilitutional and leg«!,-This fove- reignty is exerciiedin rl(xtir,g and deputing a certain number oi pcrions torepre cni and aft for the whole, and who, if tlifv (lo not afl right, may be di:[ iaccd by [he (: me power tiiat pi.iccd them there, «'¡u elefted and deputed in their ilead, and the wrong meafures of former reprefentatives correded and brought right by this means. Therefore the republican ibrm and principle leaves no room for infurrection, becaufe it provides and ellabliihes a rightful means in its ftead. In cotïniries under a defpotic form of government, the exercife of this power is an aifumption of fovereignty ; a. wreiling it from the perfon in whole hand their form of governaient has placed it, and the exercifc of it is ftiled rebellion. Therefore the defpotic form of government knows no intermediate fpace betv/een being flaves and being rebels. I SHALL in this place offer an obferva-tion which, though not immediately con-neiled vidth my i'ubjecl, is very naturally deduced from it, which is, that the nature, if I may fo call it, of a government over any people form the mcdes which the people purfue to obtain redreis 5 for like caufcs will produce like effeds. And therefore the government which Britain attempted to ercd over America càuld be no other than a defpotifm, becaufe it lef. to the Americans no other mode of redrefs than thofe which are left to people under dofpotic governments, petition and refiilance : and the Americans, without ever attending to a compariibn on the cafe, went into the fame fteps which fuch people go Into, becaufe no other could be purfued : and this iimiJarity of caufes leads up to, and afcertains, the fimilarity of the caufes or governments which produced them. B u T to return.——The repofitory where the fove/eigii power is placcd is theTril criterion of diltindion between a country under a defpotic form of government and a free country. In a country under a defpotic form of government, the fovereign is the only free man in it.-In a republic, the people retaining the fovereignty in themielves, natcrally and ueceiftirily retain freedom with it : for, wherever the fovereignty is, there mull the frtedcm be; the one cannot be in oue place and the other in another. As the rerolitorv where the fovereir^n power is lodged is the iirîl: criterion of dii-tinclion ; the fécond is the principlci on uhich it is adaîiniirered. A DESPOTIC government knows no priciple but will. Whatever the fovereign wills to do, the government admits him the inherent righ% aud the nncontroul-ed power of doing. He is reftrained by no fixed rule of right and wrong, ior he makes the right and wrong as he pleafes.—If he happens (for a miracle may happen) to be a man of confummate wifdom, julHceand moderation, of a mild afFedionate difpofition^ difpofed to bufmefs, and underilanding and promoting the general good, all the beneficial purpofes will be anfwered under his adminiftration, and the people fo governed may, while in this cafe, be profperous and éafy. But as there can be no fecurity that this difpofition will laft, and this admini-ilration continue, and ftill lefs fecurity that his fucceiTor ihall have the fame qualities and purfue the fame raeafure s ; therefore m people exercifmg their reafonand underflandi ing their rights, would, of their own choice» inveft any one man with fuch a power. NsfTHER is it confine It to fuppofe thé knowledge of one man competent to the exercife of fuch a power. A Sovereign of this fort, is brought up in fuch a d^ftant line of life, and lives fo remote from the reft of the people, and from a knowledge of everything which relates to their local iituations and intereils, that he can know nc thing from experience and obfervation, and all which he does know he muil be told. Scvz-reign power without fovereign knowledg?p that is, a full knowledge of all the matters over which that power is to be exercifed, is-a fomething which contradicls itfelf» There is a fpecies of fovereign power in a fingle perfon, v/hich is very proper when applied to the commander in chi: t o-ver an army, fo far as relates to the military government of an army, and the condition and purpofe of an army conilitute the reafon why it is fj. In an army every man is of the fame pro-felfion, that is, he is a foldier, and the commander in chief was â foidier too: therefore the knowledge neceiîary to exercife the power is within him.'eif. By un-derlbmding what a foldiet' is, he c rr%;re -hends the local fituation, intereA.. of eve I y man wi.hin, v/h;:t m::y L : the dominion o( his ccnmiaiici ; ■ fore the cori-;ition and en: 1,
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