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Covina Argus (Newspaper) - January 24, 1930, Covina, California T THE GOVINA ARGUS JAKTJABY 10W Farm Adviser Summarizes Frost Protection Results The spring of 1929 was the first time eince growers began installing heaters in walnut groves that a teal froat Growers in some areas have had heaters installed for four or five but weather daring blooming time was such that heating was not Last the story was differ March 25 and 26 were both and several growers lighted their Not content with one Jack Frost returned on April 8 and 9 with dangerous tem Thus there were five nights last spring when walguts were endangered by temperatures varying from degrees Orchard heating has been prac ticed for years with Its econ omic success isl wthout We know that temperatures can be rais ed from two or three degrees to as much as six or eight degrees under favorable There has been much speculation in the minds of those who are familiar with the walnut industry whether or not heat ing could be applied economically to the results of last years heating were watched much United States weather who has cooperated with the walnut growers of the PuenteWest Covina area for the past two years in a frost warning service Braueher of the California Walnut Growers and others spent considerable time in the field checking up on In company with the writer spent two nights in the field observing tem watching heaters in oper and making various Considerable data was At the outset let it be said that what data is available is based upon one By MAESTON KIMBALL Assistant Farm Adviser Ios Angeles County years operations there is merely indicative of what ground is only a thin layer of air is be cause air is a poor conductor of This when expands and is forced into the upper atmos More replace that cool air comes in to is carried tip may later be substantiated by the gathering of additional Before discussing what happened on the cold nights referred let us look for a moment into the nature of a How does a frost form What makes heating possible How much heating do we need These are some of the questions which come to mind in considering the subject of or chard How Does a Frost Torm Strictly a frost oc curs when temperatures drop below 32 degrees the freezing point of Some crops will be injured by this Other crops are not injured by frost until temperatures reach considerably lower There are two meth ods by which heat is These two methods are radiation and Sun heat comes to us by radiation thru the space sur rounding A fire in a fireplace heats you on one side by direct ra Conducted heat travels thru a If one end of a bar of iron is heat will travel thru that eventually more or less warming all portions of A great er or lesser time is required by con ducted heat to travel thru different depending upon whether or not the material in question is a good or poor conductor of Iron is a very good Wood is a poor Soil and air are very poor what has this to do with aid temperatures The sun radiates heat to the The surface qf the ground is warmed by these radia Then by conduction the air in contact with the surface of the LOANS Straight or Amortized WE PAY SIX PER CENT ON CERTIFICATES Valley Building and Loan Association I Stocker Baldwin Estate Choice Citrus and Walnut Acreage Tracts of 10 acres and up Make your selections now Easy terms SERVICE Selling Agent 117 West Main Street Phone 55024 BORROWING Presupposes definite repayment at a Capital borrowings and current borrowings usually determine the which is one of many vital considerations to be deter mined by Assistance in both types distin guish these First National Bank of Covina OF FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Covina VaDey Savings Bank The Associated Banks This process is the layer of warm air increasing in depth thruout the day until sun down the temperature of the air near the ground is highest and de creases as higher elevations are After sundown no mote heat is received from the Then radiation starts from the earth and the heat which was absorbed during the day is rapidly given off into space and is A reversal of the day s process takes The earth becomes cooler than the surrounding and a thin layer of cool air is gradually built Instead of ris ing as did the warm this cool air stays close to the ground and forms a layer varying in thickness from a few feet to a few hundred Above this cool air layer are the remains of the body of warm air bnilt up during the Such a situation cool air near the ground and warm air above gives rise to what is commonly called tempera ture We are accustomed to thinking of the upper atmosphere as being cooler in fact than that in which we walk At this is not the It is upon this fact that the success of orchard heating Frost occurring on a night when these con ditions exist is called a radiation There are other factors which enter the picture at this Water vapor in the air has a great effect on the movement of tending to intercept heat and pre vent its The formation of dew also has a great effect in pre venting temperatures from going too A frost will usually be much more severe in cases when the air is very or when the humid ity is than on a night when the air is full of Wind is also a very great modifying if it were possible to mix the warm upper air blanket with the cool air close to the ground on a large the surface air would be This is what occurs when a slight breeze springs up on cold Temperatures imme diately become Attempts have been made to protect orchards from freezing with wind making ma The idea is all but the volume of air moved is insufficient and as a rule the air which is being blown is taken from the same ele vation and thus no material stirring of levels The upper warmer air is not Not Heating All Out Doors Thus the problem of frost protee I tion on the ordinary cold night is not that of supplying sufficient heat to warm up the air for an indefinite height above the but merely to warm that relatively thin layer between the ground arid the ceil This term ceiling is ap plied to the approximate elevation at which the air becomes It is comparatively easy to raisearound urB uf 30 aliid 31 degrees constitutes the absolute minimum for walnuts in tee stage just It is entirely possible that 31 degrees for a sufficiently long period will get many of the These conclu sions were baaed oh the fact that in many orchards whore temperatures at five feet from the ground were not below 30 degrees many wal nuts which were not in evidence at the time dropped off a few days after they This was the case even tho leaves and catkins re mained Accompanyng this there was a long period of weather thoroly chilled the nuts many times without freezing This may have had a considerable influ ence on the final drop of As pointed out this data is not as an irrevocable but us observations made during one season of cold Effect of Heating Of all the orchards equipped with orchard only one was heat ed with the idea of holding tempera tures to 31 or 32 degrees The man who owns this orchard is Wal ter Lockwood of West Many growers thot their trees were not far enough advanced to be in dan Others allowed the trees to stand 30 degrees before firng One or two let a night or two of the cold weather go by without As a the oil which they dd burn was quite largely wasted be cause the damage was done by any one of the five nights Lock the a certain amount of expense which The walnut cost which has been carried on survey in Los comparatively easy trniyjiteS the air The extent to which this lower air can be heated is controlled by the height and tem perature of the If the ceiling is and the air above relatively a few fifes will quickly heat the intervening space and a quick rise of temperature will If the ceiling is and the air above it not warmer than the air at the ground the amount of rise in temperature occasioned by the heating will be On all the nights when frost occurred in walnuts this past there existed a typical temperature The weather in cooperation with walnut built a temperature tower on Sawyers place in West The reading for the night of March 26 at this tower showed the following Height from Minimum Temper ground ature recorded 5 feet 10 feet 15 feet 20 feet 25 feet 30 feet 35 feet 40 feet Between 25 and 35 feet there was a difference of degrees in the examina tion of the trees surrounding this tower the day after the frost showed leaf burn up to about 20 This temperature condition shows that a very small amount of heat would have been required to raise the temperature in the first 40 feet up to 30 degrees at The prob abilities are that at 50 or 60 feet from the ground the air was consid erably warmer than at 40 so that temperatures could have been raised four or five degrees without much woods arc only evidence which can be It is unsatisfactory to make any sort of comparison from the experi ences of one the result which Lockwood beng the only evidence which we is Loekwood fired on all five On the first two nights in March the buds were some what with a few small leaves In April the leaves were considerably with nuts showing in considerable There was a cover crop in the or which perhaps added a little to the coolness of the air within a few feet of the Heaters were operated from three to seven hours a At no time were more than half the heaters The Lockwood place consists of thirty which were originally part of a 400acre There there are several holdings im mediately surrounding his place planted at the same time with the same of and which in the past have yielded almost the same tonnage per In an ex amination of the record shows that year after year four or five orchards in this territory have yielded within a few pounds per acre of one an This gives a good check on Lockwoods expected and forms a basis for judging the effect of Among the orchards around Lockwood was found a var iation this year of from 1349 pounds per acre up to In order to be as conservative as the three highest yields per acre on proper They ran and Angeles county for the past three years throws some light on this ex There are among the orchards covered in the survey several in which heaters are Heat ers must be put into the orchard and put away for the sum mer The cost of these oper ations during three years on four ranches varied from to per acre per The average cost amounted to per acre per About five cents worth of oil per acreis wasted in This fig of does not include any depreciation or interest on invest Using Lockwoods acre age and investment figures we find these to be the annual carrying charges Labor handling per Interest on jser Annual depreciation per per Here is an annual charge of per acre which must be carried whether heating is necessary or The question comes to mind at once How long can this be economically carried in the absence of frosts To put in another way How often would Lockwood need to save 288 pounds of walnuts at 15 cents orchard to carry the ex pense For labor of heating and Lockwood spent per Subtracting this from the extra income from walnuts saved per acre we have per acre to cover carrying Di viding this by the annual charges of we get 5 In other if Lockwood can save 288 pounds per acre at 15 cents per pound orchard one year out of the investment would seem to be In using these figures to deter mine whether or not heaters should be installed on any given one must remember first that the data presented is only and comes from but one only one years experience is Before deciding on the in the frequency of damag ing frosts should be It is undoubtedly possible to raise tem peratures an a walnut orchard to a reasonable Everyone must settle for himself the economic fac tors is a very ex cellent bulletin on frost and its pre vention by Floyd Young of the U The Smoothest Highway weather as well as sev eral bulletins issued by the Univer sity of California on heat These bulle tins are all available at the office oJ farm advisers in any county in the First I got followed wit appendicitis and After that I got erysipelas wit Following that got and finally ondo Then they gave me and never would and more economical I milt the Big Red Cars next JL time you go to Glide along on smooth steel free from traf fic responsibilities and park ing And save Low round trip fares make the Big Red Cars your most eco nomical means of transporter Commutation and Monthly Pass fares are only slightly over one cent per Compare this with your present travel re member you save parking fees also you reduce nerve gain extra leisure for reading or quickly and safely at your Try this smoothest highway to town next time you Make an actual and know why thousands always ride the Big Red PACEFIC ELECTRIC RAILWAY 1 1857 pounds per The average of these three totaling 71 was 1803 pounds per Lockwood s yield was 2091 pounds per a gain of 288 It may be questioned whether this dif ference is due to heat or to other The yields in past years is the only check have on this It seems quite probable that this dif ference was due to the protection which Lockwood afforded his One of the three pieces of property used in this average was in the drift of heat from Lockwoods and undoubtedly benefited thereby to some The other two orchards were unaffected by the Did the Heating Fay No orchard practice is of any value unless it pays a Lock wood very kindly furnished his fig ures for the purpose of analyzing this angle of the We find that Lockwood has 500 or one to a He has a storage and other He does not have a tank hir ing that part of the work For the purpose of complete the price of a tank wagon is figured in the following table on invest ment 500 heaters at Storage tank Tank Lighters America is paying a record tribute to these two great more Oil Total expense for year Critical Temperatures Not a great deal of work has been done on the determination of just when young walnuts will Some observations were made a few years ago by various and fci preliminary conclusion reached that j Labor of firing 29 degrees was the danger Ob servations made after the frost last spring indicate that 29 degrees too low for walnuts in certain When this frost the buds ori many trees were just starting to Very few trees were rut in This was parti cularly true thruout the two cold nights in By April more i trees were out in many catkins j were in evidence and some nuts were the size of a small Tempera tures as low as 29 degrees appar ently froze young which were entirely enclosed in bud scales and which would normally be called barely past the winter bud Catkins which were over onehalf inch in length were froze by tem peratures of 28 degrees At 29 degrees smaller catkins apparent ly escaped Some of those which had developed to two and a half or three inches in how were blackened at this Jaat named After watching the crop develop and comparing the probable damage with spring tem it is believed that between Interest on this sum at six per cent amounts to Depreciation on a fifteenyear basis totals or a total overhead charge of or per Heating Charges Five Heatings on 30 Acres Putting out Filling heaters Hefilling heaters Emptying heaters Bringing in and stacking heaters in shed i n B U I C K S operation today than any one of the fifteen other makes in BUICKS field Total burned Total labor and Overhead charges Thus the total expense for heating this 30acre including over head on the amounted to or per did he get his money back Assuming that the 288 pounds per acre of walnuts harvested in excess of his three highest neighbors was due to and assum ing a net return of 15 cents per orchard Loekwood re ceived or per acre extra income as a result of Deducting from this the per acre total cost of wo have left a net gain from heating of per On 30 acres this amounts to Heaters Not Always Neseasary But heating is not necessary every Whether used or there is vested by motorists in new MARQUETTES during the few months this car has been on the market The proof of value is in the America is buying BUICK and MARQUETTEt will profit by making BUICK or MARQUETTE BUICKMARQUETTE 1RVEN REYNOLDS Citrus and Badillo Buick Distributor WHEN BETTER AUTOMOBILES ARE BUILT BUICK WILL BUILD THEM
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