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Corona South Riverside Bee (Newspaper) - July 7, 1887, Corona, California , ^ / ^ - . '-If'.;. v SÔgfg ^EBSlPE, SASr BERNARDINO COUNTY, CALIFORNIA, THURSDAY, JIJ1.Y 7, 1887. NUMBER 5. lifoitâÀ ïe a ' great î ® for mâftf cUfliiítélj, itì -fûèt, a wherc,¿lAoet ev;0ty yátíety of ' oyer tliö l6fibtifn;>iorïd cat» of ihe ; toíí» tòtp^ìt/ WlJiffttopics; Tíié best ìèno;^ pórtìòh of lató, ' year»;» the ««ái-trópical portion of iö á favotjed fipot. • Ii0)ir,iritew8t Í8 Wiiig called to '......... tlie "Tri^lçar CaliTortJiií;" wtieie all ilte'^tod^j^ of 4be most favored ! tHo- ioir^ letter by a: well ^Jtttôi^n citwen, addwiBÉed to A. N. ^ ' Towne, Í9 Iwndly farnished by him, V -- with the pennisBiou of thV i*nier, ; • 'í&r^íibUeatwh ^ the BuUetin,- It îà Worthy ojf.a-second reading for . the information it Retains; ■ ^ i M«. A. Tow«, (tbnebat. MAX-^ " AflEtt Southern Pacific Com- r^.-^ear Sir: Your letter,jre-Jative to my late visit and obaef- ■ vationa on date cultùre in the* so-called' Colorado Desert, between -Ij, the San Gprgonio P^ and Yuma^ duly received. I deferred writing inlmedi^tely aftenñy return, first, from knowing that you werè away in the East engrossed in business, and later, e*jpecting to get an an-' alysis of V specimens of soil so I -could iend with my observations an authentic statement of the very. l»eeuliar properties of soil exisUng 'ÎB the valley about Indio and Wal-' ters ; the iorrncr situated twenty «nd the latter one hundred ahd . ' ninety feet below the level of the sea on Ihe line of the Southern Pacific K. R. in San Diegb county. The peculiar conditions of extreme heat'with a soil rich in all , '. ^the elements of plant growth, and ^ -an atmosphere absolutely dry dur-.— :i«g the whole year, does not exist elsewhere on the American conti-^ iicnt. 1 The vallçy about Indio and Waltets ' îfc an anomaly in the ÏJnited States. Shut off "from- the - ^rect breezes of the Pacific Ocean , liy the San Jacinto Mountains on the West side of ,the valley, it . . basks in almost eternal sunshine. The cool coast air, heated and rare-lied in passing over the arid wastes of San Bernardino and ^an Diego counties, : rushes. down through the San Gorgonio Pass a'nd striking the San Bernardino Mountains to the north and east, is de-ilected back.to Ihe west side of the Valley, where its force is dissipated and lost in the torrid heat of tfiis mountain-girt valley. In the central portion of this Valley there is il little belt of country about twenty miles long and from, three to eight 'iniles wide, peculiarly adapted to • the,cultivation of the djite palm, and which, I beleivè, is practically the only place in the United States where- the date -'(^at* formó the ^ ' chief food oT millions ot mankitid jn the Orient) can,be raised "with ; . ' success arid profit. The date palm is. best grown in a sandy H^il, ' . strongly : impre'gnatfid , with l^e,' " and it even rejoices" in sltrong alka;^ line .waters that? render the cultiva-' , " tion of many jfcrees impossible. It xequires also a dry and continuous intense heat froin the period of , bloom to the period of ripening to . produce the best and most luscious j^tes. ' ' ' At.BOMç remote period in the > ' pafit, the valley has been' the .bed" \ of a fresh watcr"lake, and t^ scattered growth of indigenous palm tices'skirting mostly the base of the San Bernardino > Mountains to ' ' the north j is all the remains,'in all ' 'probability, df an ^ almost tropical >^vegetatiop in ^ome proceeding age, 1 , Lwheh Uift" Colorado tatried inc thîff' f''\ ; once fayored, váUey On Its way to ;.th6 sea. ' As the waters have ré-vceded by-evapopation. or diversion the saline deposits haveaccúmulat-ânjî^ the extremé southeastern ; "parfe o| the yaÙey is toow a yast bed dtfl^tt. '. Thé jgjjrtiôn^of 'Éh^ valley •"Vi, areiindiand toiîtÎLof^î^o ià cer-î ;tainíy, th^.^arííept fruit section in '^vlbèfow tKose Wf^the ^ost "•---tiities- in oth'èipo^jïB ¿i^J^^P can begiwinonthePâcîficcoast. The orange/and. the iQinon can be grown with as go^ e^cceçs as in tire Southern part of the State, and of far more beautiful color and ■greater Sweetness: - They will ripen weeks in<advance of San Bernardino or> Riverside, and will remain forever exémpt/rom the multi tude" of scale insccts that infest the southern coast counties. , ■ - /Ihe experiments at the station at Indio .have demonstrated -the success of mimer'ous .trees and plantSi and notwithstándiiig their method of irrigating during the iieat df the day, or at any lime con-;«èhîent, have given most wonderful results. The cottonwood, lor cBS^i- willow and black walnut grow with -most extraordinary yigoir^ and I believe the fig, almond and pomegranite will fiourish just as well. The soil in this central part of the valley is of wonderful fertility; mingled with the fine, sandy loam th^re aro flight deposits of fine clay "that I hâve never seen before ; thoroughly mixed with^these deposits there are i^ijrriads of fresh water shell, from the fresh water clam down to other specimens of almost infinite minuteness. The soil must of been ages in accumulating and ages' more must of passed before the country reaching away to the south was impregnated with alkali, dissolving so slowly from thr rocks of the sur-rounding mountains.- At'Walters the station is completely embowered with immense grapvines that seem to -luxuriate in the alkaline soil, while to. the north and ^west for twenty-five miles; the dense growth of mes-quite and numerous gigantic weeds would delight the heart of an Arab or.a dweller in the Soudan. The surface water is found picntir fully at the dçpth .of twenty-five feet to the north and west of Indio» and attwelve^ ten^ and even eight feet to the south of .Walters; " Alfalfa makes a remarkable growth wherever planted, and :will be the great forage plant of this valley, as its roots in a short time ' extend down to the surface water, which is; sô~ near and abundant ; and the native palms growing at the foot of .the San Bernardino Mountains all luxuriate in the strong^'eeepage of water impregnated with alkali; and there are thousands of acres where the date palm woul^^urish when ' water can be obtained for irrigation.^ If water cannot be obtained in abundance from artesian wells: it canv be piped from the mountains. ' There is a remnant of a friendly tribe of Indians who cultiyate some patches of com and grain near Torrës and MartineZ|i to the northwest J of Walterê, and their- ponies keep in tolemble condition on the scanty; grass growing in low places at the basé of the San Jacinto Mountains. ' The Indians subsist there in a great degree, as they do on the Colorado river, on the bean of the mesquitis tree. Rabbit« and ; quap flumish." them abundantly withga;m'e. These Indians would make, ^with some- instruction, good laborersj and: they aie far iiv» advance of the Yumas y or the Colorr' ado Indians, as: .'to intelligence and industry.- The "future of successful date palm cultivation in this valley admití of no doubt', for • eWry condi-i tioh is,"^-withoui' question, of the most "favorable choXiicter; and I beleivo'this oasis of the so-called e» Í Sir 'd^feert of the Colorado will yet rival the famous El Khasiin of Arabia. - People of California labor. under ^.'delunoii in regard to the cultiva-, tiipîof'the datç, Tlie' cultivation will never prove a success by plants ing 'the seeds of thé commercial date, as a good date -is the- result only of endless epiection ; a century produces ipèrhops only One great: man, or a fewi^fijuits ^superior' to àil others. V The' da|esof vp^luo now, like our choicest |hutSi,are' thj^ result of centuri^ of la^rious experiment and ¿lectbii. ' The fetnale, «rpifftiljate'varié^^^^ gives the valüe"? oB^^Wacte^r ta the. fruit, while, ^e Vti^iîte in ^^e'date, is, ciiltii- ya vtôimp sult^back to wild,-vigorous condition, and trees grown thus from seeds are often unproductive and valueless. , To cultivate the date palm with success, the ofisets, or suckers, bf proved^ bearing varieties mtjst be^ used. A feW hundred plajuts of: the best varieties would stock the valley in a few years. Tho"^Department of Agriculture at Washington would wi^h proper, representation of the case probably make any desired iinportattQia^ .. Tliere is one feature of the valley that has a peculiar interest to me. It' possessgs pre-eminently all the requisites as to climate, or ¿ perfect winter sanitarium for osthma, consumption aud all lung difficulties. i;or rheumatism it will prove un-equaled; Rich in oxygen'^ the pure, dense atmosphere will be the elixir of life to thousands in the.'years te come, and the .sunny sky, undim-med-^by clouds or storms and absolutely dry and pure, will do more for such patients than all the valued remedies x>f pharmacy or the mcdicinal springs of the world. It is situated on the most'favorcd line; of*EaBterir winter communicationy and with the luxurious modem cars will be easily accessible to the frailest and most, delicate patient; The coast of CalifoniiE'~is too damp for invalids laboring imder these infirmities, but in the - valley may be found the land of promise, with its perpectual sunshine. The winfer storms come over the peaks of the San^Jacinto . with snow, and San Bernardino's lofty summit looks down for months crowned with wiiiter glor)--, on the] oasis'^of the desert. The wild gales of win-r tcr drive the fleeing clouds just over the mountains, but can come no farther, and they melt away in the eternal brightness of its winter sun. If to.thig.rich climatic con^ dition may be add^d the adorn'^ ment and beauty that intelligence can make with capital and labor, tliis long-neglected valley will become the Mecca for the invalids of all; North America. One year ago last winter I made a careful examination of the temperature and condition of the climate in the elevated Owens River Valley, ^nd also - this winter in Yuma and vicinity, and neither of these locations approximate in advantages the country around Indio for a H'ij)i;cr sanitaiinm. - A date-palm orchard would be a •unique ,'product for the : United States, and if vineyards and olive orchards were planted this valley .would rival in attractiveness the renowned A'ale of Cashmere. Thanking you for your kind consideration in facilitating my exami-natioi^ of this section of the State I am, sir, very truly youi's. EDWIS KlHBAtL. HAYWABDSj Cal., JuBCr—, 1887. word "cured," as the fig of C050 raerce is not curei—it is allowed to remain on the tr@e until it drops or blows off, when it is picked up and graded^and packed. By the way, it is not always the early bird tbat gets the wormi ilniess the latter one is as, siinplo as it iisi tardy y for every fig cointains a worm, without which tiiere would be no su\3h thing as a nice fat fig. : The Famous Poxiilcmd Vase. The Figr ill California. „^The following extract is from letter in the New York Times, written by a spiii^l reporter who was commissioned' to investigate and xeport^on the resources of California r "California,^' he says, "is truly the home of the figj which grows in 45 counties out of the and in many, of - them bear twice. a year. There are'99,176 bearing trees in the State, jQiany of which are as fine< i^myrna figs as. can be - found in .their, own native land. The black fig thrives "as high np. as Gebrgetown, which has an altitude of 2,700 feet. Indeed almost every farmer in the state State has his fig tree, as it-is easily grown from cuttings, is entirely free from pests or, disease,' lives to a great age, conies into bearing as early as the, pe^h, and is . very hardy, bears crops a year,, and is an impor-'tani article of food—fresh, -ripe and dried. As an article of-food, if not so nutjpitipus. as, the baiiana it is the inpre-easily. digestible.' - the cured fig of CaUfomiaJs as.yet far behind th^ age in Smyrna. But hoi Angelein crystallized J'gs ^ut upby^the Benedict FtuitjDrys» 8tt« The Duke of Pbrtlahd gave the priceless original to the British mu^ jseumi^ of which it is now, o.ne ijf thé Chief ornaments. Some time afterward ademented fool; anxious to gain un unenviable notorietyj smashed the va.8e into, a thousand atoms. It has, with marvelous skill and patience, been placed tor gether again, so that it is almost as beautiful as ever, and is now caro fully protected " in the gem roc m, where it is, only to be inspected under the watchful eye of the blue íMbodimor^ The body of the vase is of clear glass of a dfitep sapphire A,color, snid the cameo decoration, which is in high releif, is a white,s)paqueglass. The subject of the superb ornamen-tatien is supposed to be "the .marriage dfPeleus andj Thitis, though there aré naany opinions ujpbri i this j^int; Thé váse when first made was entirely covered>ith a. thick coating of opal glass, which has been carved away by the .hand of the sculptor just as he would have treated a gem. For a long time, indetidj the vase was considered to be- a work in some magnificent kind of isardoayx. By the variation of the thickness of the white layer, gained by the differences of relief, most beautiful tones of color are produced. Even on the bottom of the vase there is carved in low relief the beautifid head of a man in a Phrygian cajfc^ This pie^ was not replaced when the slijutered vase was restored, but was ín<íun7 ted, for purposes of .easier inspection, by the side of the vase itself.—r Magazine of Art. The Train Despatcher; A Horticultural Department. We intend hereafter to conduct a horticultural department in which questions of interest to the fruit grower will be fully discussed. If you have practical experience on ^hj^yiubject in question, we shall be pleased to hear from you for the benefit of our readers. Address all communications to The Bee/ South Riverside, Cal. fiilk Culture. ' There is a class of railway employes, almost entirely unknown to passengers, whose responsibility is so much , greater, and whose slightest omission might jeopardize the lives of people on trains mòre than any oversight on the part of conductors or engineers, that it is indeed strange that they are so seldom ^«nentioned in the public prints. This class is the train dispatchers, whose every order is implicitly obeyed by trainmin ; and while the crew of one train is responsible for the movements of that train alone^. the dispatcher holds in his hands the livés of every individual on every train on the road ; and on a road having a large trafilo the duties imposed on him are^éry greiat and arduous. His position in the railway ser^ vice y unique ; were all trains running oh time and provided for on the periodic^ time taÙe issued by the company, he would have no duties to perform ; but trains will get' delayed and occasions will arise, requiring extra trains, or trains without any specified time or rights, to be run over the road, an^then his services are necessary to avoid hours of delay. All trains on railroads are divided in classes, according to their importance ; generally two, passenger and freight ; and all trains of one class running in a specified direc* tion have the right of the road, or ke^ no lookout for trains of the same or a lower clafis running in the opposite direction. Thus it is assumed that on a certain railroad -trains running eastward have the rightof way over trains^ iunning" westwajÈd ; then an.easi bound pas« s^ngar - train' can run thj^ wholo' length of the road in entire disre*, gard'^^idl trains; another passenger train going west. need only to: look't^f ioT the east bound passen-i'gei'.trMn,.wiiile the fright trains i^^T^^pt the'way .^t bothi and of the ^igh^^ ■îHj trains are gartered, or h^avé a time given for passing each station, which titne can in no instance be anticipated, andv hence all train men know where "all other trains ought to bè at any particular moment, if on time J but as trains frequently and generally get late, the train of inferior class must haye its movement'expedited by some extraneous caugo, or it may be delayed for hours awaiting a train that; rinay have" been wrecked, or has beén kept back for some other of many" causes. Then thé duties of the traiii dispatcher are of importance,!' /He probably give an order to the delayed train by telegraph diiiecting it not to go beyond a certain "place which ho thinks it can reaiîh without difficulty, and he directs the opposing train to proceed to the same place and there pass the other train, and in that manner the trains are enabled to pas5 each other without any delay to either. . His great responsibility consists in that he may have a dozen other trains in his charge at the same tiîrie, ând in directing one trâin to go beyond its usual place to nieet another he may neglect to give an order to the second train, and in such an event a collision-^culd probably ensue, much property bé destrqyed and proljably lives be lost; It will readily be seen that the slightest mistake of a train dispatcher rnight cause serious results ; aïid in this respect hi^ re-^ sponsibility ; is probably greater than that of any other individual under whose charge the public are placed.--Phiiadelphia Times. Ellon Elliot in Tho Clittutuuquan,] The earliest silk-grower seeins to have been; Hoang-ti, the third emperor of China, conteinporary with Joseph, the son of Jacob. His era-press discovered tho method of obtaining the silk from the' cocoons ; and with her own hands fed and tended the worms. She was deified as the, "Goddess of Silk-Worms,''on account of the great service she rendered her country by her discovery. Even now, on a certain day of the year the em-^ presses of China go through the ceremony of feeding,the worms, and paying homage to their "god»-dess." The Japanese raised silk as early\a9 the seventh century B. C. ; and.jln India the culture was well estubiished hundreds of years before the Christian era. Nevortheless, in those countries of western Asia and eastern Europe whereth^ siiken fabrics were in great demand, tho source whence the material was obtained, was wholly unknown for twelve or fifteen centuries. It was generally supposed to be the growth of a tree or plant, like cotton, or the fiber from an ii^ner bark, or the result of some flower. A few thought it might bo the thread of a spider or beetle. During the sixth century, the emperor Justinian gave protection to the persecuted Nestorians ;. and it was probably out of gratitude for his favor that the secret was made known to him. Two Nestoriaii 'monks, missionaries in China, at the peril of their lives journeyed Oicrbss the continent of Asia^ and appeared before him in Co&etanti» noplèin 665 A. D, In their holio\r palmer staves they had secreted a quantity of jsilk worm eggs which they presented to him, disclosing at the same time ^e entire process of silk culture. ' , ' . The emperoc gave', the monks every faclUty for establishing -the ,ney % his dominion, but gold. ■ ; ' Aristotle •^ting tnore than three himdred years B. C., tells how ^a^ nymph of Cos took silk fabrics from the East unraveled them, split the threads, spun them anew, and then wove them into a transparent gauze, so airy that it was called "woven wind." Silk culture was introduced into England by James 1., who also attempted to force it upon the colonists in Virginia in lieu of tobacco raising. In 1619 he sent over from his royal gardens at Oatlands, a supply of eilk-worm seed ; • promising aid to those who engaged in the work, and ordering punishments for those who neglected it. But the hardships of the new settleiment gave little opportunitjpto carry, on an industry like the one. in ^question. , ,, . , ' ^ , ■ ; . About the middle of the eighteenth century, a good deal of silk was raised in South Carolina. At Silk Hope plantation, six hundred and thirty pcrands were produced in 1765.'^^^rrs; Pin near; Charleston, raised iind^spun silk enough for three, dresses. She took this silk to England, where she gave enough for a dress to the princess (dowager of Walesr ; ariôiher portion she gaVe to Lord Chesterfield, while the third^dress was retained in t"he Pickney family more than fifty years. Queen Caroline, in the year 1735, wore a dress of Georgia silk, reeled and woven by Susannah Wright, a %iakeress. A few years later over twenty thousand pounds of cocoons were raised in the Georgia colony. At about the same date, silk-worms were commonly kept in the Connecticut colony. Tàe malting of sewing silk was a household art there, at the period of the Jlevo-lution. The first dress made of Ncav England silk, was w.orn by the daughter of Governor Law of Connecticut, in 1750, . The war of the Revolution put a stop to. the silk industry throughpnt the country. A generation later it was revived, ^d in various sections wad carried on with BuccesB. In parts of'-New Jersey there was hardly ^ house where the inmates were not engaged in feeding the worma, tJnfortunately, just at this juncture, a new species of mulberry tree was introduced whose value to the silk grower was greatly. latided. The first "Morus multioaulis'^ tree in the country, was planted, in Baltimore, in 1826. After a few years a most remarkable tide of speculation in this tree swept over thé land. Extensive orchards of it were planted in every state of the Union. The money yalue of the trees became far greater than that of the silk which they could possibly be the means of producing. "The sales in a single week in Pennsylvannia exceeded three hundred thousand dollars. Trees af a single season^s growth-were sometimes sold, for five dollars each. The bubble burst in 1839, financially ruiiiin^ hundreds of men. , ° - Silk culture, though not accountable for thé wild speculation, fell into disrepute^ and received its finishing blow-¡a few years later when a blight attached 4he. entiire mulberry family. ¿If The present revival of the industry is under far better conditions : than have before' existed. From smallest beginnings, it has grown to such dimensions as to attract the attention and aid _of the general governmept. The automatic silk-reels now being placed upon' the : greatly reduce the cost of reeling-the thread from the coctosj and ^ overcome the most serbtts difficulty ; ■ the cultivator experiences; ' ' " A filature, or silk-reeling station^'piy was opened last autumn in an an- < nex of the Agricultural tiepartment '. at Washington. Both' the reels' , and people to run theni were ...-, brought over froin France ; though the inventor of this wonderful auto- ^ matic machinery is an American who contemplates returning ^ the United States and starting KMen- -.^ sive reeling factories in California. He expects to import a portion of; his cocoons for some years, as tkA enough are raised in the-entire . 0untry to supply even a factory of .' very otdinary capacity. Silk is originally a liquid, gummy substance socrcted by certain insects from their food. It is held in cells on each side of their bodies, and can be drawn oiit at wiH^ through minute holes ealled "spinnerets." As they are drawn out, from two to Mx of thesé lines unite and harden into a fine and strong thread. The spider family produce exquisite silk which has inany times been used to make small articles. Bui their product cannot be .'COtin-ted on as it has been found im|K>Si-sible to keep them at woric long "enough to exhaust their supply of material. ■ , . Even of tho extensive silk-worm family there are only fourteen or fifteen species that can be made useful for industrial purposes. Some make cocoons that cannat bo reeled—some make soft and dark-coloured ones—some species refuso to thrive under culture. Even the best are affected in size and color by the climate in which they aro reared. At tho present time there is . a general interest in silk' culture in the United States, and extensive effotte are making to rear silkr wormà. All things indicate that this form of industry has com« to stay among us, " Our silk manufactures have become an item of importance to the country, amounting in value to about fifty million dollars a year. The raw silk imported ,.ior use in making these goods, reaches nearly twelve million dollars in cost yeai-ly' —a sum that might perfeelly weh bo earned by the thousands of women and children who desire means of convening their labox into money. ' • In Pennsylvania more has been accomplished in this line than in any other stale excepting California ; and many families are already receiving a fair income through their efforts at silk raising. , The small outlay required in starting the businesst ' brings it within the reach of every one. The cocoons produced in Francein 1884 were raieed by oy^r one hundred forty thousand families.. There is nò reason why this form of labor should hot,be as generi^ly and. as successfully carried on in America;; indeed We have a peculiar , adyan-taige over other countries- in that the osage orange which grows so abundantly in many sections, furnishes silk*Worm food of the best qualityj! equal, iia fact, to the white ^i^ulberi-y ; it is easily cultivated and gféwfl rapidly. Various attempta have been made to make America a silk-grpwing country ; but until \tity recently the dificulty of reeling tho (Continued on 2nd page:) i[¡itizens B w .........liiialSifJ mm ri
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