Edinburgh Chronicle, November 21, 1759

Edinburgh Chronicle

November 21, 1759

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Issue date: Wednesday, November 21, 1759

Pages available: 16

Previous edition: Monday, November 19, 1759

Next edition: Saturday, November 24, 1759

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Publication name: Edinburgh Chronicle

Location: Edinburgh, Midlothian

Pages available: 1,267

Years available: 1759 - 1760

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All text in the Edinburgh Chronicle November 21, 1759, Page 1.

Edinburgh Chronicle, The (Newspaper) - November 21, 1759, Edinburgh, Midlothian E VOL. 11. EDINBURGH CHRONICLE From WEDNESDAY NOVEMBER 21. to SATURDAY NOVEMBER 24. 1759. _________________________ _______________ _ _ fort bijttry of the origin anatrotrtfi tf that tart, of tbt art military which i' ttrmed EXERCISE Jhewing tbo utility of and the on which it it T is nniverfally allowed, that the Greeks and tne Romans carried the art of war to a greater oegree of perfection, than any fier people in their days; and indeed the ft judges feem to be agreed, that they ve fcarcetybcen equalled by anyxof the derns. By what appears from the aa- jrs who have treated of their difcipline, t cannot find that they had u hat we caii manual exerctfe. The Grecian order of 5 phalanx, whofe whole ftrength confifted being dofely united and in perfect order, mired that they fhould be ftriclly exacl in eir marching and evolutions; and thefe tints were what they chiefly attended to, id praclifed in their exercife as may be en in (chap, who has alfo iveit ns their words command from rhich it appears, that the clofing, opening, nd doubling their ranks and files, together te variouf njethooYof changing tHeir front p counter-marches, conltitutcd aim oil the fhole of it The exercife of the Roman foldiers, col- lively, fcems to have chiefly confifted in raftifing the evolutions of the legion (Ve- etiusjib. i.chap xlvii ib. lib ii. chap. ix. lib. iii. chap, and in marching r fomctimes 24 ooo geometrical paces. in ve hours, for that was their military pace f: ns they performed loaded with their rmour, weapons, and other military im- lements, which all together made UP a very eavy burden and at the fame time kept Marechal in his Reveries, chap. i. art. aslbqne very ingenious and obferva- wns on the manner of the marching of the an- ients whom he fuppofes to have marched in exact imeand cadence, to the found of their mufical in- rruments and rives good reafons for the exccllen- :yof that method; which is (he fays) prattled prefcnt by the Pruffians. He was fchoLr Mich has led him into a grofs miftake about the neaning of the word tatticki j but he might have upported his opinion, with regard to their march- ngm cadence, by many paflagcs of the ancients; urticularly the following one of Thucydides, in the iccount of the battle between the Lacedaemonians md Argivcs, book v. After this the fight began, he Argives and their allies moving on with vio and fury; but the Lacedaemonians deliberately, "id to the found of feveral pipers, who were ap- pointed by law j not on account of any religious xremony, but that the foWiers, marching together, "night make their attack uniformly, and not break iheir ranks." Whoever has a mind to form a marc perfect idea of the dffcjpline of the ancients, jnayeonfultGuifchard, mcmoires militaires, printed m Holland in twovols 410 1758 .t At the rate of four or five Englifo miles in an hour. __._ their ranks. They excreted themfelyes feparately, in running, jumping, and fwim- ruing over rivers completely armed i and, above all, etdeavoored the great- erf (kill and dexterity in the throwing of .the the faropd and (hield (Vegetius lib. L chap ix. ib. lib. iii. chap. iv. ib. lib. i. chap, xviii.) For thefe purpofes they had called Campi Dotfnres whofe bufioefs it was to tench the youth and the foldiers; arid the Campus Martins, at Rome was fee apart for iuch exercifes; where all the molt emi- nent citizens whole age or infirmities did not difable them from fervice, took a plea- fur c and pride in publicly endeavouring to excel in thefe military accomplishments .Be- fides thefe exercifes, they were enured to hardOiips and fevfcre labour by a continual of fortifying their camps, making and carrying on, at the fieges they fuch unmeuie works as appear to us almoii inctedible. By thefe methods they formed foldiers, wha were robuft, hardy, and parfeftly well (killed in the ufe of their weapons but they do not feem to have had that ed. Indeed the lance, the pike, the fword, and fhield, and the other weapons that were ofed before the invention of gunpowder, do not require that precifion and uniformity in the ufe of them which fire-arms do, neither indeed do they admit Of it; for, with thefe weapons, every thing chiefly depend on the valour, ftrength, dexterity, and {kill of the individuals and every man muft exert himfelf in proportion .to his natural and quired abilities, which are very unequal in different men: whereas fire-arms have re- duced mankind more to a level; and in faft, in the ancient faftories we read continually of the brave actions and feats of arms of particular heioes, excelling in valour and ftrength on the contrary, in the modern hiftoiies, private valour feldom, but by great chance, is remarked or recorded j though we find frequent relations of whole bodies of men, which have fignahzed them- felves., and are there praifed for their firm- nefs and difcipline. After the downfall of the Roman empire, we rnufl not expect to find, amongft the barbarous nations that deftroyed it, any great traces of military fkilf (Puyfegur, art de la guerre, premiere partie, chap. ii. art. In general it appears, that they fooght with- out much method or order though they certainly were not unacquainted with the neceflity of keeping in a body, and afting together; and confequentlythey muft have 'pbYerved fame fort of diftinftions of ranks and files (Here Daniel, hiftoire de la mil. Francoife, vol. i. p. 175.) 5 but they had not reduced their motions and evolutions to any regular or uniform method (ib. p. Every individual exercifed bimfelf in the ufe of (uch weapons be ap- pointed to. fight withal and wefiftd. that aimoit every people bad tnelr f aTOtwitt in which they particularly excelled.. That of the Franks, or ancient French, was the hatchet which they ufe4 as a miffilc wea- pon, throwing it in manner at the North Aoicrcaw Indians do theirs, which they call de bello Gotb. lib. ii. chap. The Gafcons and Genoese were excellent men, (hilt, de la mil. F anc vol. i. 109 The Swift the ftvnai viaories which they gamed over the A u ft nans and Burgondiana, and the great reputation they were in as foldiers. td Uietr ftrengch and ikiil in the ufe of the pike, hafbtrd, and efpadon, or two-handed fword, ;Guil. du Beliay, difc. mil. chap, iv And the victories of Crefly, Poiftiers, and Azin- court, will occafion the valour and (kill of the Englith archers to be transmitted down with glory to the lateft pofterity. Among the nobility and gentry there fcarce any oae that could tfcey 3ookti as a difparagcment to men "dtdfctteH ta arms; but made the practice of their wea- pons, and all forts of martial exercifes, their whole ftudy, and the only buiinefs of their lives; and what they efteemed of all others the greateft pleafure and were tnofe imitations of battles, the tilts and tournaments, though often attended with fatal accidents and bloodfhed (hift. dela mil. Franc vol. i p. However, for the reafons I have before mentipne'd, there could be little or no uniformity obferved in their troops, but every man was left to perform, according to his refpeclive abilities (Mont- luc memoires, I. i. p. 8 Engl tranfl. Bran- tome eloge de Monf. le Mar de Strozzi, et duD d'Albe, edit delaHaye, 1740, torn. 4. difc. 4. ct com. 10. difc. The invention of gunpowder totally chan- ged the manner of fighting, and confequent- ly the military difcipline of all Europe. The Spaniards were the firft who armed part of their foot with mulkets and harquebuzes, and mixed them with the pikes: in'this they were fooq imitated by moft other na- tions thocgh the Englifh had not entirely j laid afide their favourite weapon the long- bow, and generally taken to the ufe of fire-arms, during the reign of Queen Eli- fabeth (certain difcourfes written by Sir John Smith, Kt, concerning the forms and effects of divers forts of weapons, prim- ed at London, The firft roulkets were very beavy, and could not be fired without a reft they The old Engltfh writers call thole large kcts Calivcrs j the Harqutbaze a lighter ;