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Newsman And Morning Mail And Telegraph (Newspaper) - September 18, 1864, London, Middlesex AND SUNDAY MORNING MAIL AND EKOHTEBXD JOB TRAHS MISSION SEPTEMBER PRICE ONE DOINGS OF MARTLBfiONE tE duties of an officer of health are of the highest of importance to the poorest as it is his especial busi ness to look to the removal of the preventible causes of diseases by which the labouring classes are the most epidemic and The average loss of life from bad sanitary conditions in Marylebone is three to the welltodo classes and fourteen to the How does this come about but mainly from worse sanitary conditions and largely from overcrowding in illcon ditioned dwellings P Frdm an examination made by a com tnittee of the Statistical Society into the condition df the poorer classes in the borough of it appeared that amongst the portion of population examined showed that no more than one family in a hundred had a third occupying part of a 159 families and 196 single one 382 56 two 61 2 three 5 7 four 1 0 Such conditions account for the way in which the children of the artisan the lower middle class are sheared down da shown by the more than any others in Gentry and professional persons Tradesmen Artisans Proportion per of deaths of each class from epidemic disease to total 10 15 17 Proportion per of deaths of children of each clars to total 20 46 52 This surely is a state of things which demanded the applica tion ttf sanitary but the through their leading set themselves to oppose the Public Health Act id It is to be said in excuse that middleclass people who press themselves forward to get themselves elected on vestries and Local Boards of Health are often of a grossly ignorant who do not know what is good for themselves and are careless of what concerns1 even when they have no direct interest in the How it may be in Marylebone more than in others we do not pretend to but the sort of people Who frequently get themselves elected td the office of vestrymen in metropolitan parishes are the owners of the worst sort of house that occupied by the labouring for which the highest rents are badly and supplied with These houses aa the returns are most frequently fever The medical offioera of whose duty it is to examine and report on the causes of often find that they have to report on those which occur in houses owned by by whom they are and who give the strongest opposition to effective sanitary under which they are subjected to orders which incur from them immediate expense for the removal of the the erection of the laying on supplies of Such which are the landlords legal are also to his interest to He saves rent by it he avoids the losses consequent on the interruption of wages from disability by from fre quent deaths of children and parents and he gets a more able class of A middleclass house which has a good watercloset is of five pounds ayear more letable value than one which has But the owners of these tenements are commonly a very stupid who are blinded by any immediate outlays to their own When vestrymen are not themselves owners of each they have jobbing connections with those who who busy themselves in parish and in Parliamentary and in getting np their various tenants to the different qualifications for a medical officer of health are peculiar and and of a very high Sanitary the science of the prevention of is and far different from medical or the science of the oure or alleviation of The prescriptions of the officer of health do not go to the but to the engineer and to the architect for proper for the the water and the right qaalitiea of supplies of waters and foods to the to avoid bad flour and its adulterations to the to avoid the disease in his cows and prevent milk for children to the to avoid adulterated beer and spirits to the to avoid adulterated sugar and teas to the not to sell mustard adulterated with plaster of and to avoid the oale of pickles coloured with minerals to the to avoid the sale of oomfita for children coloured with red The business of the drug man or of the medicine man is to as far as he the pains and disorders occasioned from such sources of impure as well as impure A child gets its stomach disordered by adulterated or bad food which it cannot digest its bowels do not act it does not get on well with its teething it becomes rest less night and The mother then rnns to the drug the for something to set it or to quiet and he gives her a purge for or some an to alleviate the and these opiates given to poor children frequently quiets them for But these very such is the abominable spirit pervading are frequently When the large block of model was set np in a drug calculating on experience that a population of that extent of Working people would afford business for opened an apothe wd hobrtad large red wijthhia window flaring with blue and other with signs of occult But such was the effect upon the class of mainly of one element less impure and a space of play for that be had a wretched sale of and that he did not get sufficient custom to keep or he managed to sell his practice to who found that he could not get it and live there and he being unable to sell his practice was compelled to shut np shop the the red was and he went to seek his livelihood in some place where sanitary science was disease more and the demand for drags and childrens more The shop was afterwards opened as a shop for the sale of for which the appetites Consequent on improved health created a good There can be no donbt iti godd sanitary even allowing for excesses in eating and the demand for drugs would be less than and that the greater proportion of the red bottles which abound in the bystreets of as may be seen in passing through them at denote its bad sanitary and would be struck if complete health measures were carried It has been estimated that the expense df the excess of sickness there must be more than fifteen thousand pounds per annum of the excess of funerals from premature deaths averaging five or six about three thousand pounds per which goes amongst the besides upwards of a hundred and eighty then sand per annum from wages lost by reason of excessive sickness and premature The pecuniary losses would pay for a large staff of the first class officers of health for their prevention but the tradesmen or the Vestry cannot see The drag or the or the medicine who confines himself to the business of or of has no enemies and many friends whilst the enemies of the professor of sanitary the science of tho prevention of profitable and tie presefvatiofi of especially when it is discovered what he is poking into nuisances and interfer ing with How it or by what sort of such an officer as the late Dandas Thomson got or accepted the Bcnrvily paid appointment of Medical Officer of Health for a matter of He did good work however routed out a great deal of the sources of checked the increase of the deathrate above dis and occasioned its reduction in so important a degree in as to show by complete might be done in By his regular chemical he showed periodi cally to the population of where shareholders in the metropolitan water companies aa well as to the people of the restof the with what inferior and often positively bad qualities of water they are being supplied it may be at double the rates at which but for the opposition of the metropo litan in the interests of the led on by a metropolitan member who was a chairman of one of superior supplies might have been But if the Marylebone vestrymen appointed a man of special qualifications in sanitary science a number of them appear to be determined not to do the like Dandas Thomson sacrificed his own health to his zeal for the preservation of that of and he fell and appeared likely to be compelled to give np his He re cently d Whilst he was and before he was a named who is described as kept an apothecarys a man certainly unknown to sanitary got or had a re quisition signed by a majority of his fellow asking him to take the sick mans office directly it became In consequence of this deemed extraordinary by men of education and good a requisition in the way of a remon stranoe has been addressed to the signed by the President of the College of the President of the Medical and by two hundred and twenty comprising all the leading medical men ia Maryle They pointed out the high qualifications which are requisite in the person of the medical officer of expressed their regret that members of the vestry should have thought it right to pledge themselves to the support of a candidate for an office not yet and trusted that the vestry one and would feelat their duty to reserve their decision until the merits of the several candidates should have been formally submitted to their A stronger case for vesting a distinct and disinterested and sible authority with the power and the duty of prescribing the qualifications of the candidates for and receiving their adop tion for the protection of the as in poor law could scarcely have been presented but this was violently op posed by the vestrymen and their representatives in Encouraged by the success of the late a man of pre eminent sanitary qualifications has presented Arthur who took the lead in bringing the microscope to bear where chemical analysis alone had failed in the analysis of the impurities of waters and in the food of the who detected the impurities in the metropolitan water the widespread adulterations in food as also in drugs which wera made known in tho who was examined before the House of and which led to the passing of the Act against the adulterations of The vestrymen treated the re monstrance referred to as an insult to One of them declared ih stood to reason Marylebone vestrymens reason that they should support one whom they knew in preference to a Faraday waa a stranger to them Liebig was a stranger to these vestrymen They inferior to their fellowvestryman whom they BO well knew as soiling drugs in their Besides Arthur who is eminent for hia ablo expository writing ou sanitary is talked of as a Wo have noticed thia case at length as one of great public im Howsoever the election may if there were any proper and intelligent public spirit in the the names of the vestry men who signed that requisition before tho Dick man waa and to his knowledge began a scandalous contest for hid should be and they every man of bo turned out aa the toast public example that can be made of THE SOCIAL SCIENCE The following is a summary of the arrangements which have now been completed for the ensuing meetingof the National Association for the Promotion of Social Science at on the 22nd The several railways by which York may be reached have conceded to the Association the privilege of issuing cards to the OB the presentation of which the ordinary railway tickets can be ob tamed at single between the 20th and the 1st The Archbishop will preach in the and there will be a working men a over which Lord Brougham wfll With a view of giving the principal points in each department addi tional three of the subjects will be stated to the mem bers in the form of and discussion opened npoa The first question in Jurisprudence will Are the of real property ia the three parts of the United Kingdom respec in their substance and suited to the present condi tion of society if how should they be improved This1 question ia to be opened by Professor followed by Dan Eoteert and Denny The other two tions relate to the legal proof of and the conduct of criminal Two sections have been added to thia one dealing with reformatory the other with general In the reformatory section the following question will be introduced by Sir Walter Can a uniform system of penal discipline be established in county gaols P and if in what way The legal division of the Association has authorised and superintended the paration of a bill which is to on principles of the proportion of loss to ba sustained by the and insurers of ships all over the in cages of damage and disaster at This question brings to the Congress at where it hoped that the bill may be accepted and delegates from Antwerp and Bremen and Boston United Ham burg and Copenhagen and Eussia and France are also expected to send The address on educatiomisto bo given by the Archbishop of and the canons will lead in opening the The first question will What iftrprovementa can be introduced into the present system of public school education headmaster of Shrews bury will contribute Notes on public education and late of has promised to take part in the discus The second question will what way can the grammar and other endowed schooli be made more available for the education of the middle classes The Canon Hey and the Canon Eobinson open the Fitch will probably tribute a The proposed royal The third question relates principally to rural and will be introduced by the Canon the and the Canon The extension of the halftime system of the Factosy Acts to children in other employments ia also to be can In the Health Department the opening question What are the best means for disposing of the sewage of towns Edwin Chadwick is to report on thia and many answers havebeen sent The important question of Infant mortality i its causes and is taken np by several and the influence of overcrowding and ita preventives is to be introduwBtl by Mr George In the department of Economy and Ash President of the Manchester Chamber of will open the What are the effecta upon trade of existing lawa of maritime warfare The effects of the patent laws and the principle of Government security for the provident invest ment of the working classes will be A great variety of interesting subjects fill np thia among which there appears a paper by On the social condition of the cotton district and one by On the progress of An agricultural section has been appended to this presided over by in which the sale and transport of statute and agricultural cooperation will be A NEGLECTFUL late fow East was charged on Monday with neglect of sanitary ar rangements on his and the following facts were disclosed appeared in one case that in three cottages of two rooms each belonging to Burronghea no less than twentyone and children were one cottage lived a hia and seven for these twentyone persona there waa no privy accommodation and that in its stead were one immediately opposite the cottage and another within a few feet of the cottage Another case if stll woraeu A his a grownup her illegitimate and two grownup all lived in a hut with the thatch broken open to the and absolutely destitute of either drainage or privy Bnrronghes aggravates if it is pos by hia He called a witness to prove that there was no offensive and actually pleaded that the holes were at some distance from the The Bench ordered an abate ment of the nuisance in both and allowed coats agoinsD whereupon that gentleman appealed to the quarter There we too many landlords in the eastern counties against whom similar chargea might be brought but we trust there are few who would show the cynical contempt for the duties of property and for common humanity involved in Bur roughess BAD tho principal of the laboratory of the Inland Eevenue reports that in the last financial year 26 samples of beer and of materials found in the possession of licensed brewers have been and of these 20 were found to be illicit the prohibited ingredients in 14 grains of one of these samples containing in tobacco in two other oocoulua indicns waa present in large and dangerous quan tities two samples contained capsicum and the remaining two protosulphate of Generally the prohibited materials em ployed in the adulteration of beer are not injurious to the object of tho fraudulent brewers or retailers of beer being more to increase tho bulk of their goods than to render the beer stupefying by the addition of noxious he there can bo little doubt that tho practice of adul terating beer with poisonous such as tobacco and cocoulus ia more prevalent than might be inferred front tho small number of detections as tho fraud is difficult to dis cover unless the offender bo caught in the act of commitiinp Considering therefore thia and the abominable character of tho Phillips ia of opinion that it would be only just to the community to mako public tho names of thosa persons convicted of adding cocculus indicus or other deleterious substances to beer brewed for sale and ho fools no hesitation in stating that tho two instances of the use of tho dangerous drug in question occurred in the neighbourhood of in and that many of the detections of tho uso of grains of paradise wero also made in the same Ho states also that tho experience of many years has led him to tho conclusion that the adulteration of boor with as distinsfnished from the mere dilution or increasing of the bulk of tho ia more prevalent in the Midland Counties and the West Riding of Yorkshire than ia any other parts of the
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